Is the Internet erasing national borders? Will the future of the Net be set by Internet engineers, rogue programmers, the United Nations, or powerful countries? Who's really in control of what's happening on the Net? In this provocative new book, Jack Goldsmith and Tim Wu tell the fascinating story of the Internet's challenge to governmental rule in the 1990s, and the ensuing battles with governments around the world. It's a book about the fate of one idea--that the Internet might liberate us forever from government, borders, and even our physical selves. We learn of Google's struggles with the French government and Yahoo's capitulation to the Chinese regime; of how the European Union sets privacy standards on the Net for the entire world; and of eBay's struggles with fraud and how it slowly learned to trust the FBI. In a decade of events the original vision is uprooted, as governments time and time again assert their power to direct the future of the Internet. The destiny of the Internet over the next decades, argue Goldsmith and Wu, will reflect the interests of powerful nations and the conflicts within and between them. While acknowledging the many attractions of the earliest visions of the Internet, the authors describe the new order, and speaking to both its surprising virtues and unavoidable vices. Far from destroying the Internet, the experience of the last decade has lead to a quiet rediscovery of some of the oldest functions and justifications for territorial government. While territorial governments have unavoidable problems, it has proven hard to replace what legitimacy governments have, and harder yet to replace the system of rule of law that controls the unchecked evils of anarchy. While the Net will change some of the ways that territorial states govern, it will not diminish the oldest and most fundamental roles of government and challenges of governance. Well written and filled with fascinating examples, including colorful portraits of many key players in Internet history, this is a work that is bound to stir heated debate in the cyberspace community.
Illusions of a Borderless World
Author: Jack Goldsmith,Tim Wu
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Wesen und Zukunft der Kreativität
Author: Lawrence Lessig
Welche Konsequenzen wird es haben, wenn in Zukunft die überwiegende Mehrheit der Weltbevölkerung online ist? Wenn Informationstechnologien so allgegenwärtig sind wie Elektrizität? Was bedeutet das für die Politik, die Wirtschaft – und für uns selbst? Diese Fragen beantwortet ein außergewöhnliches Autorenduo: Eric Schmidt, der Mann, der Google zu einem Weltunternehmen gemacht hat, und Jared Cohen, ehemaliger Berater von Hillary Clinton und Condoleezza Rice und jetzt Chef von Googles Denkfabrik. In diesem aufregenden Buch führen sie uns die Chancen und Gefahren jener eng vernetzten Welt vor Augen, die die meisten von uns noch erleben werden. Es ist die sehr konkrete Vision einer Zukunft, die bereits begonnen hat. Und ein engagiertes Plädoyer dafür, sie jetzt zu gestalten – weil Technologie der leitenden Hand des Menschen bedarf, um Positives zu bewirken.
Ein Blick in unsere Zukunft
Author: Eric Schmidt,Jared Cohen
Publisher: Rowohlt Verlag GmbH
Category: Political Science
Tim Wu nimmt uns in diesem Buch mit auf eine informative Reise durch das Reich der Kommunikationstechnologien beginnend bei Telefon über Radio, Fernsehen bis hin zum Internet. Dabei analysiert er gründlich die Entwicklung der Kommunikationsmöglichkeiten und deren Auswirkungen in Bezug auf die Möglichkeiten der offenen Kommunikation sowie deren Kontrolle. Er zeigt dabei unter anderem immer wiederkehrende Zyklen auf, wie neue Technologien häufig aus kleinen Unternehmen entstanden sind, später von wenigen großen dominiert wurden, um wiederum neue innovative Unternehmen entstehen zu lassen. Tim Wu zeigt die Hintergründe solcher Entwicklungen auf, die zu dem heutigen Stand geführt haben.
Aufstieg und Niedergang der Informationsimperien
Author: Tim Wu
Publisher: MITP-Verlags GmbH & Co. KG
Das 'Dark Net' ist eine Unterwelt. Es besteht aus den geheimsten und verschwiegensten Ecken des verschlüsselten Webs. Ab und zu gerät ein Teil dieser Unterwelt in die Schlagzeilen, beispielsweise wenn eine Plattform für Online-Drogenhandel zerschlagen wird. Abgesehen davon wissen wir jedoch so gut wie nichts darüber. Bis heute. Basierend auf umfangreichen Recherchen, exklusiven Interviews und schockierendem, authentischem Material zeigt Jamie Bartlett, wie sich völlige Anonymität auf Menschen auswirken kann, und porträtiert faszinierende, abstoßende oder auch gefährliche Subkulturen, darunter Trolle und Pädophile, Dealer und Hacker, Extremisten, Bitcoin-Programmierer und Bürgerwehren.
Unterwegs in den dunklen Kanälen der digitalen Unterwelt
Author: Jamie Bartlett
Publisher: Plassen Verlag
Category: Political Science
Erstmals packen die Hacker aus. Ende des Jahres 2010 nahmen weltweit Tausende an den digitalen Angriffen der Hackergruppe Anonymous auf die Webseiten von VISA, MasterCard und PayPal teil, um gegen die Sperrung der Konten von Wiki-Leaks zu protestieren. Splittergruppen von Anonymous infiltrierten die Netzwerke der totalitären Regime von Libyen und Tunesien. Eine Gruppe namens LulzSec schaffte es sogar, das FBI, die CIA und Sony zu attackieren, bevor sie sich wieder auflöste. Das Anonymous-Kollektiv wurde bekannt durch die charakteristische Guy-Fawkes-Maske, mit der sich die Aktivisten tarnen. Es steht für Spaß-Guerilla und politische Netzaktivisten ohne erkennbare Struktur, die mit Hacking-Attacken gegen die Scientology-Sekte und Internetzensur protestierten. Internetsicherheitsdienste und bald auch die gesamte Welt merkten schnell, dass Anonymous eine Bewegung war, die man sehr ernst nehmen sollte. Doch wer verbirgt sich eigentlich hinter den Masken? Inside Anonymous erzählt erstmalig die Geschichte dreier Mitglieder des harten Kerns: ihren Werdegang und ihre ganz persönliche Motivation, die sie zu überzeugten Hackern machte. Basierend auf vielen exklusiven Interviews bietet das Buch einen einzigartigen und spannenden Einblick in die Köpfe, die hinter der virtuellen Community stehen.
Aus dem Innenleben des globalen Cyber-Aufstands
Author: Parmy Olson
Publisher: Redline Wirtschaft
Category: Political Science
In a world of increasing dependence on information technology, the prevention of cyberattacks on a nation's important computer and communications systems and networks is a problem that looms large. Given the demonstrated limitations of passive cybersecurity defense measures, it is natural to consider the possibility that deterrence might play a useful role in preventing cyberattacks against the United States and its vital interests. At the request of the Office of the Director of National Intelligence, the National Research Council undertook a two-phase project aimed to foster a broad, multidisciplinary examination of strategies for deterring cyberattacks on the United States and of the possible utility of these strategies for the U.S. government. The first phase produced a letter report providing basic information needed to understand the nature of the problem and to articulate important questions that can drive research regarding ways of more effectively preventing, discouraging, and inhibiting hostile activity against important U.S. information systems and networks. The second phase of the project entailed selecting appropriate experts to write papers on questions raised in the letter report. A number of experts, identified by the committee, were commissioned to write these papers under contract with the National Academy of Sciences. Commissioned papers were discussed at a public workshop held June 10-11, 2010, in Washington, D.C., and authors revised their papers after the workshop. Although the authors were selected and the papers reviewed and discussed by the committee, the individually authored papers do not reflect consensus views of the committee, and the reader should view these papers as offering points of departure that can stimulate further work on the topics discussed. The papers presented in this volume are published essentially as received from the authors, with some proofreading corrections made as limited time allowed.
Informing Strategies and Developing Options for U.S. Policy
Author: Committee on Deterring Cyberattacks: Informing Strategies and Developing Options,Computer Science and Telecommunications Board,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Policy and Global Affairs,National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
Chaos and order clash in this riveting exploration of crime and punishment on the Internet. With a new afterword that brings the book's stories up to date, including law enforcement's dramatic seizure of the online black market Silk Road. Once considered a borderless and chaotic virtual landscape, the Internet is now home to the forces of international law and order. It’s not just computer hackers and cyber crooks who lurk in the dark corners of the Web—the cops are there, too. In The Internet Police, Ars Technica editor Nate Anderson takes readers on a behind-the-screens tour of landmark cybercrime cases, revealing how criminals continue to find digital and legal loopholes even as police hurry to cinch them closed. From the Cleveland man whose “natural male enhancement” pill inadvertently protected the privacy of your e-mail to the Russian spam king who ended up in a Milwaukee jail to the Australian arrest that ultimately led to the breakup of the largest child pornography ring in the United States, Anderson draws on interviews, court documents, and law-enforcement reports to reconstruct accounts of how online policing actually works. Questions of online crime are as complex and interconnected as the Internet itself. With each episode in The Internet Police, Anderson shows the dark side of online spaces—but also how dystopian a fully “ordered” alternative would be.
Author: Nate Anderson
Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company
It has been clear for many years that the ways in which archaeology is practised have been a direct product of a particular set of social, cultural, and historical circumstances - archaeology is always carried out in the present. More recently, however, many have begun to consider how archaeological techniques might be used to reflect more directly on the contemporary world itself: how we might undertake archaeologies of, as well as in the present. This Handbook is the first comprehensive survey of an exciting and rapidly expanding sub-field and provides an authoritative overview of the newly emerging focus on the archaeology of the present and recent past. In addition to detailed archaeological case studies, it includes essays by scholars working on the relationships of different disciplines to the archaeology of the contemporary world, including anthropology, psychology, philosophy, historical geography, science and technology studies, communications and media, ethnoarchaeology, forensic archaeology, sociology, film, performance, and contemporary art. This volume seeks to explore the boundaries of an emerging sub-discipline, to develop a tool-kit of concepts and methods which are applicable to this new field, and to suggest important future trajectories for research. It makes a significant intervention by drawing together scholars working on a broad range of themes, approaches, methods, and case studies from diverse contexts in different parts of the world, which have not previously been considered collectively.
Author: Paul Graves-Brown,Rodney Harrison,Angela Piccini
Publisher: OUP Oxford
Category: Social Science
die erstaunliche Geschichte des Telegraphen und der Online-Pioniere des 19. Jahrhunderts
Author: Tom Standage
Featuring specially commissioned chapters from experts in the field of media and communications law, this book provides an authoritative survey of media law from a comparative perspective. The handbook does not simply offer a synopsis of the state of affairs in media law jurisprudence, rather it provides a better understanding of the forces that generate media rules, norms, and standards against the background of major transformations in the way information is mediated as a result of democratization, economic development, cultural change, globalization and technological innovation. The book addresses a range of issues including: Media Law and Evolving Concepts of Democracy Network neutrality and traffic management Public Service Broadcasting in Europe Interception of Communication and Surveillance in Russia State secrets, leaks and the media A variety of rule-making institutions are considered, including administrative, and judicial entities within and outside government, but also entities such as associations and corporations that generate binding rules. The book assesses the emerging role of supranational economic and political groupings as well as non-Western models, such as China and India, where cultural attitudes toward media freedoms are often very different. Monroe E. Price is Director of the Center for Global Communication Studies at the Annenberg School for the University of Pennsylvania and Joseph and Sadie Danciger Professor of Law and Director of the Howard M. Squadron Program in Law, Media and Society at the Cardozo School of Law. Stefaan Verhulst is Chief of Research at the Markle Foundation. Previously he was the co-founder and co-director, with Professor Monroe Price, of the Programme in Comparative Media Law and Policy (PCMLP) at Oxford University, as well as senior research fellow at the Centre for Socio Legal Studies. Libby Morgan is the Associate Director of the Center for Global Communication Studies at the Annenberg School for the University of Pennsylvania.
Author: Monroe E. Price,Stefaan G. Verhulst,Libby Morgan
Category: BUSINESS & ECONOMICS
data. Furthermore, the European Union established clear basic principles for the collection, storage and use of personal data by governments, businesses and other organizations or individuals in Directive 95/46/EC and Directive 2002/58/EC on Privacy and Electronic communications. Nonetheless, the twenty-?rst century citizen – utilizing the full potential of what ICT-technology has to offer – seems to develop a digital persona that becomes increasingly part of his individual social identity. From this perspective, control over personal information is control over an aspect of the identity one projects in the world. The right to privacy is the freedom from unreasonable constraints on one’s own identity. Transactiondata–bothtraf?candlocationdata–deserveourparticularattention. As we make phone calls, send e-mails or SMS messages, data trails are generated within public networks that we use for these communications. While traf?c data are necessary for the provision of communication services, they are also very sensitive data. They can give a complete picture of a person’s contacts, habits, interests, act- ities and whereabouts. Location data, especially if very precise, can be used for the provision of services such as route guidance, location of stolen or missing property, tourist information, etc. In case of emergency, they can be helpful in dispatching assistance and rescue teams to the location of a person in distress. However, p- cessing location data in mobile communication networks also creates the possibility of permanent surveillance.
Author: Serge Gutwirth,Yves Poullet,Paul de Hert,Cécile de Terwangne,Sjaak Nouwt
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Increasingly, the power of a large, complex, wired nation like the United States rests on its ability to disrupt would-be cyber attacks and to be resilient against a successful attack or recurring campaign. Addressing the concerns of both theorists and those on the national security front lines, Chris C. Demchak presents a unified strategy for survival in an interconnected, ever-messier, more surprising cybered world and examines the institutional adaptations required of our defense, intelligence, energy, and other critical sectors for national security. Demchak introduces a strategy of “security resilience” against surprise attacks for a cybered world that is divided between modern, digitally vulnerable city-states and more dysfunctional global regions. Its key concepts build on theories of international relations, complexity in social-technical systems, and organizational-institutional adaptation. Demchak tests the strategy for reasonableness in history's few examples of states disrupting rather than conquering and being resilient to attacks, including ancient Athens and Sparta, several British colonial wars, and two American limited wars. She applies the strategy to modern political, social, and technical challenges and presents three kinds of institutional adaptation that predicate the success of the security resilience strategy in response. Finally, Demchak discusses implications for the future including new forms of cyber aggression like the Stuxnet worm, the rise of the cyber-command concept, and the competition between the U.S. and China as global cyber leaders. Wars of Disruption and Resilience offers a blueprint for a national cyber-power strategy that is long in time horizon, flexible in target and scale, and practical enough to maintain the security of a digitized nation facing violent cybered conflict.
Cybered Conflict, Power, and National Security
Author: Chris C. Demchak
Publisher: University of Georgia Press
Category: Political Science
We live in an interconnected world in which expressive and religious cultures increasingly commingle and collide. In a globalized and digitized era, we need to better understand the relationship between the First Amendment to the United States Constitution and international borders. This book focuses on the exercise and protection of cross-border and beyond-border expressive and religious liberties, and on the First Amendment's relationship to the world beyond US shores. It reveals a cosmopolitan First Amendment that protects cross-border conversation, facilitates the global spread of democratic principles, recognizes expressive and religious liberties regardless of location, is influential across the world, and encourages respectful engagement with the liberty regimes of other nations. The Cosmopolitan First Amendment is the product of historical, social, political, technological and legal developments. It examines the First Amendment's relationship to foreign travel, immigration, cross-border communication and association, religious activities that traverse international borders, conflicts among foreign and US speech and religious liberty models, and the conduct of international affairs and diplomacy.
Author: Timothy Zick
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Some would argue that scarcely a day passes without a new assault on our privacy. In the wake of the whistle-blower Edward Snowden's revelations about the extent of surveillance conducted by the security services in the United States, Britain, and elsewhere, concerns about individual privacy have significantly increased. The Internet generates risks, unimagined even twenty years ago, to the security and integrity of information in all its forms. The manner in which information is collected, stored, exchanged, and used has changed forever; and with it, the character of the threats to individual privacy. The scale of accessible private data generated by the phenomenal growth of blogs, social media, and other contrivances of our information age pose disturbing threats to our privacy. And the hunger for gossip continues to fuel sensationalist media that frequently degrade the notion of a private domain to which we reasonably lay claim. In the new edition of this Very Short Introduction, Raymond Wacks looks at all aspects of privacy to include numerous recent changes, and considers how this fundamental value might be reconciled with competing interests such as security and freedom of expression. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
Author: Raymond Wacks
Publisher: OUP Oxford
Category: Political Science
In diesem dritten Band seiner kritischen Studien zur Internetkultur hinterfragt Geert Lovink den jüngsten »Web 2.0«-Hype um Blogs, Wikis oder Netzgemeinschaften. Anstatt den »Bürger-Journalismus« zu idealisieren, untersucht der Autor den »nihilistischen Impuls« der Blogs, etablierte Bedeutungsstrukturen auszuhöhlen und - voller Stolz auf ihren Insider-Charakter - das Verlinken, Indexieren und Ranking zum Hauptantrieb zu erheben. Darüber hinaus behandelt das Buch die stille Globalisierung des Internets, in der nicht mehr der Westen, sondern Länder wie Indien, China und Brasilien sich zu einflussreichen Akteuren entwickeln. Ein weiterer Schwerpunkt ist die Revision des Theoriebestands: Geert Lovink aktualisiert überholte Konzepte wie die der Globalen Internet-Zeit, der Taktischen Medien oder der Krise der Medienkunst und widmet sich dem schwierigen Verhältnis zwischen Architektur und Netz. Das Buch schließt mit spekulativen Bemerkungen zu Modellen wie Organisierte Netzwerke, Freie Kooperation und Verteilte Ästhetik.
Elemente einer kritischen Internetkultur (übersetzt aus dem Englischen von Andreas Kallfelz)
Author: Geert Lovink
Publisher: transcript Verlag
Category: Social Science
Do copyright laws directly cause people to create works they otherwise wouldn't create? Do those laws directly put substantial amounts of money into authors' pockets? Does culture depend on copyright? Are copyright laws a key driver of competitiveness and of the knowledge economy? These are the key questions William Patry addresses in How to Fix Copyright. We all share the goals of increasing creative works, ensuring authors can make a decent living, furthering culture and competitiveness and ensuring that knowledge is widely shared, but what role does copyright law actually play in making these things come true in the real world? Simply believing in lofty goals isn't enough. If we want our goals to come true, we must go beyond believing in them; we must ensure they come true, through empirical testing and adjustment. Patry argues that laws must be consistent with prevailing markets and technologies because technologies play a large (although not exclusive) role in creating consumer demand; markets then satisfy that demand. Patry discusses how copyright laws arose out of eighteenth-century markets and technology, the most important characteristic of which was artificial scarcity. Artificial scarcity was created by the existence of a small number gatekeepers, by relatively high barriers to entry, and by analog limitations on copying. Markets and technologies change, in a symbiotic way, Patry asserts. New technologies create new demand, requiring new business models. The new markets created by the Internet and digital tools are the greatest ever: Barriers to entry are low, costs of production and distribution are low, the reach is global, and large sums of money can be made off of a multitude of small transactions. Along with these new technologies and markets comes the democratization of creation; digital abundance is replacing analog artificial scarcity. The task of policymakers is to remake our copyright laws to fit our times: our copyright laws, based on the eighteenth century concept of physical copies, gatekeepers, and artificial scarcity, must be replaced with laws based on access not ownership of physical goods, creation by the masses and not by the few, and global rather than regional markets. Patry's view is that of a traditionalist who believes in the goals of copyright but insists that laws must match the times rather than fight against the present and the future.
Author: William Patry
Publisher: Oxford University Press