When Experiments Travel

Clinical Trials and the Global Search for Human Subjects

Author: Adriana Petryna

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400830824

Category: Social Science

Page: 272

View: 3770

The phenomenal growth of global pharmaceutical sales and the quest for innovation are driving an unprecedented search for human test subjects, particularly in middle- and low-income countries. Our hope for medical progress increasingly depends on the willingness of the world's poor to participate in clinical drug trials. While these experiments often provide those in need with vital and previously unattainable medical resources, the outsourcing and offshoring of trials also create new problems. In this groundbreaking book, anthropologist Adriana Petryna takes us deep into the clinical trials industry as it brings together players separated by vast economic and cultural differences. Moving between corporate and scientific offices in the United States and research and public health sites in Poland and Brazil, When Experiments Travel documents the complex ways that commercial medical science, with all its benefits and risks, is being integrated into local health systems and emerging drug markets. Providing a unique perspective on globalized clinical trials, When Experiments Travel raises central questions: Are such trials exploitative or are they social goods? How are experiments controlled and how is drug safety ensured? And do these experiments help or harm public health in the countries where they are conducted? Empirically rich and theoretically innovative, the book shows that neither the language of coercion nor that of rational choice fully captures the range of situations and value systems at work in medical experiments today. When Experiments Travel challenges conventional understandings of the ethics and politics of transnational science and changes the way we think about global medicine and the new infrastructures of our lives.
Posted in Social Science

Wissenschaft und Demokratie

Author: Michael Hagner

Publisher: Suhrkamp Verlag

ISBN: 3518795201

Category: Philosophy

Page: 284

View: 1258

Der Aufstieg der Wissenschaft und die Verbreitung der Demokratie wirken wie zwei leicht phasenverschobene Erfolgsgeschichten, die mit dem Ende des Kalten Krieges ihren Höhepunkt erreicht haben. Es gilt als ausgemacht, dass humane Wissenschaft nur unter den Bedingungen der Demokratie gedeihen kann; umgekehrt soll Wissenschaft die Demokratie qua Expertise unterstützen. Allerdings stehen wir heute vor neuen Herausforderungen: Wie sollen Demokratien angesichts des Klimawandels reagieren? Ist Bioethik ein Garant für demokratische Partizipation oder nur Alibi der Biomedizin? Welche Konsequenzen hat die Ökonomisierung der Forschung im akademischen Kapitalismus? Solchen Fragen stellen sich in diesem Band Andrew Abbott, Roger Cooter, Petra Gehring, Michael Gordin, Michael Hagner, Bruno Latour, Philip Kitcher, Nikolas Rose und Marianne Sommer.
Posted in Philosophy

Bacteriological Techniques

Author: Karl Wittich,John W. H. Eyre

Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand

ISBN: 3955070212

Category:

Page: 280

View: 3834

Handbook for the study of bacteria, including detailed manuals about methods of sterilisation, the use and function of microscopes, staining methods, about how to cultivate, isolate and identify bacteria, etc. etc. Originally published in 1913.
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Life Exposed

Biological Citizens after Chernobyl

Author: Adriana Petryna

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400845092

Category: Social Science

Page: 304

View: 2567

On April 26, 1986, Unit Four of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor exploded in then Soviet Ukraine. More than 3.5 million people in Ukraine alone, not to mention many citizens of surrounding countries, are still suffering the effects. Life Exposed is the first book to comprehensively examine the vexed political, scientific, and social circumstances that followed the disaster. Tracing the story from an initial lack of disclosure to post-Soviet democratizing attempts to compensate sufferers, Adriana Petryna uses anthropological tools to take us into a world whose social realities are far more immediate and stark than those described by policymakers and scientists. She asks: What happens to politics when state officials fail to inform their fellow citizens of real threats to life? What are the moral and political consequences of remedies available in the wake of technological disasters? Through extensive research in state institutions, clinics, laboratories, and with affected families and workers of the so-called Zone, Petryna illustrates how the event and its aftermath have not only shaped the course of an independent nation but have made health a negotiated realm of entitlement. She tracks the emergence of a "biological citizenship" in which assaults on health become the coinage through which sufferers stake claims for biomedical resources, social equity, and human rights. Life Exposed provides an anthropological framework for understanding the politics of emergent democracies, the nature of citizenship claims, and everyday forms of survival as they are interwoven with the profound changes that accompanied the collapse of the Soviet Union.
Posted in Social Science

Reimagining (Bio)Medicalization, Pharmaceuticals and Genetics

Old Critiques and New Engagements

Author: Susan E. Bell,Anne E. Figert

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317643623

Category: Social Science

Page: 286

View: 9827

In recent years medicalization, the process of making something medical, has gained considerable ground and a position in everyday discourse. In this multidisciplinary collection of original essays, the authors expertly consider how issues around medicalization have developed, ways in which it is changing, and the potential shapes it will take in the future. They develop a unique argument that medicalization, biomedicalization, pharmaceuticalization and geneticization are related and co-evolving processes, present throughout the globe. This is an ideal addition to anthropology, sociology and STS courses about medicine and health.
Posted in Social Science

Mechanism and Causality in Biology and Economics

Author: Hsiang-Ke Chao,Szu-Ting Chen,Roberta L. Millstein

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400724543

Category: Philosophy

Page: 256

View: 4999

This volume addresses fundamental issues in the philosophy of science in the context of two most intriguing fields: biology and economics. Written by authorities and experts in the philosophy of biology and economics, Mechanism and Causality in Biology and Economics provides a structured study of the concepts of mechanism and causality in these disciplines and draws careful juxtapositions between philosophical apparatus and scientific practice. By exploring the issues that are most salient to the contemporary philosophies of biology and economics and by presenting comparative analyses, the book serves as a platform not only for gaining mutual understanding between scientists and philosophers of the life sciences and those of the social sciences, but also for sharing interdisciplinary research that combines both philosophical concepts in both fields. The book begins by defining the concepts of mechanism and causality in biology and economics, respectively. The second and third parts investigate philosophical perspectives of various causal and mechanistic issues in scientific practice in the two fields. These two sections include chapters on causal issues in the theory of evolution; experiments and scientific discovery; representation of causal relations and mechanism by models in economics. The concluding section presents interdisciplinary studies of various topics concerning extrapolation of life sciences and social sciences, including chapters on the philosophical investigation of conjoining biological and economic analyses with, respectively, demography, medicine and sociology.
Posted in Philosophy

Making Global Health Care Innovation Work

Standardization and Localization

Author: N. Engel,I. Van Hoyweghen,A. Krumeich,Ine Van Hoyweghen

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137456035

Category: Social Science

Page: 221

View: 9577

Global Health involves, among many things the intensified travelling of people, resources, technologies, knowledge, standards, and ideas. This book describes what happens when innovations are transferred to new settings: What work is needed to make them work, but also how they change the setting into which they are introduced.
Posted in Social Science

Biomedicine in an Unstable Place

Infrastructure and Personhood in a Papua New Guinean Hospital

Author: Alice Street

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 0822376660

Category: Social Science

Page: 304

View: 9124

Biomedicine in an Unstable Place is the story of people's struggle to make biomedicine work in a public hospital in Papua New Guinea. It is a story encompassing the history of hospital infrastructures as sites of colonial and postcolonial governance, the simultaneous production of Papua New Guinea as a site of global medical research and public health, and people's encounters with urban institutions and biomedical technologies. In Papua New Guinea, a century of state building has weakened already inadequate colonial infrastructures, and people experience the hospital as a space of institutional, medical, and ontological instability. In the hospital's clinics, biomedical practitioners struggle amid severe resource shortages to make the diseased body visible and knowable to the clinical gaze. That struggle is entangled with attempts by doctors, nurses, and patients to make themselves visible to external others—to kin, clinical experts, global scientists, politicians, and international development workers—as socially recognizable and valuable persons. Here hospital infrastructures emerge as relational technologies that are fundamentally fragile but also offer crucial opportunities for making people visible and knowable in new, unpredictable, and powerful ways.
Posted in Social Science

A Companion to Moral Anthropology

Author: Didier Fassin

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118290585

Category: Social Science

Page: 664

View: 5370

A Companion to Moral Anthropology is the first collective consideration of the anthropological dimensions of morals, morality, and ethics. Original essays by international experts explore the various currents, approaches, and issues in this important new discipline, examining topics such as the ethnography of moralities, the study of moral subjectivities, and the exploration of moral economies. Investigates the central legacies of moral anthropology, the formation of moral facts and values, the context of local moralities, and the frontiers between moralities, politics, humanitarianism Features contributions from pioneers in the field of moral anthropology, as well as international experts in related fields such as moral philosophy, moral psychology, evolutionary biology and neuroethics
Posted in Social Science

Scrambling for Africa

AIDS, Expertise, and the Rise of American Global Health Science

Author: Johanna Tayloe Crane

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 0801469058

Category: Social Science

Page: 224

View: 1614

Countries in sub-Saharan Africa were once dismissed by Western experts as being too poor and chaotic to benefit from the antiretroviral drugs that transformed the AIDS epidemic in the United States and Europe. Today, however, the region is courted by some of the most prestigious research universities in the world as they search for “resource-poor” hospitals in which to base their international HIV research and global health programs. In Scrambling for Africa, Johanna Tayloe Crane reveals how, in the space of merely a decade, Africa went from being a continent largely excluded from advancements in HIV medicine to an area of central concern and knowledge production within the increasingly popular field of global health science. Drawing on research conducted in the U.S. and Uganda during the mid-2000s, Crane provides a fascinating ethnographic account of the transnational flow of knowledge, politics, and research money—as well as blood samples, viruses, and drugs. She takes readers to underfunded Ugandan HIV clinics as well as to laboratories and conference rooms in wealthy American cities like San Francisco and Seattle where American and Ugandan experts struggle to forge shared knowledge about the AIDS epidemic. The resulting uncomfortable mix of preventable suffering, humanitarian sentiment, and scientific ambition shows how global health research partnerships may paradoxically benefit from the very inequalities they aspire to redress. A work of outstanding interdisciplinary scholarship, Scrambling for Africa will be of interest to audiences in anthropology, science and technology studies, African studies, and the medical humanities.
Posted in Social Science

The Theater of Operations

National Security Affect from the Cold War to the War on Terror

Author: Joseph Masco

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 0822375990

Category: Social Science

Page: 280

View: 421

How did the most powerful nation on earth come to embrace terror as the organizing principle of its security policy? In The Theater of Operations, Joseph Masco locates the origins of the present-day U.S. counterterrorism apparatus in the Cold War's "balance of terror." He shows how, after the attacks of 9/11, the U.S. global War on Terror mobilized a wide range of affective, conceptual, and institutional resources established during the Cold War to enable a new planetary theater of operations. Tracing how specific aspects of emotional management, existential danger, state secrecy, and threat awareness have evolved as core aspects of the American social contract, Masco draws on archival, media, and ethnographic resources to offer a new portrait of American national security culture. Undemocratic and unrelenting, this counterterror state prioritizes speculative practices over facts, and ignores everyday forms of violence across climate, capital, and health in an unprecedented effort to anticipate and eliminate terror threats—real, imagined, and emergent.
Posted in Social Science

Verraten und verkauft

Briefe von der Front

Author: Michael Moore,Michael Bayer

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783492246774

Category:

Page: 268

View: 9762

Posted in

Immunitas

Schutz und Negation des Lebens

Author: Roberto Esposito

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783935300285

Category: Immunization

Page: 252

View: 4514

Posted in Immunization

LSD-Psychotherapie

Author: Stanislav Grof

Publisher: Klett-Cotta

ISBN: 9783608940176

Category:

Page: 407

View: 1621

Inhaltsübersicht: Vorwort, Dank, 1. Geschichte der LSD-Therapie, 2. Kritische Variablen in der LSD-Therapie, 3. Die psycholytische und die psychedelische Behandlung mit LSD: Zur Integration der Konzepte, 4. Prinzipien der LSD-Psychotherapie, 5. Komplikationen der LSD-Psychotherapie: Ursachen, Verhütung und therapeutische Massnahmen, 6. Verlauf der LSD-Psychotherapie, 7. Indikationen der LSD-Psychotherapie, therapeutische Möglichkeiten und klinische Resultate, 8. Aussertherapeutische Verwendung von LSD, 9. Wirkungsprinzipien der LSD-Therapie, Epilog: Die Zukunft der LSD-Psychotherapie, Bibliographie, Personenregister, Klientenregister, Sachregister.
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When People Come First

Critical Studies in Global Health

Author: João Biehl,Adriana Petryna

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400846803

Category: Social Science

Page: 456

View: 4224

When People Come First critically assesses the expanding field of global health. It brings together an international and interdisciplinary group of scholars to address the medical, social, political, and economic dimensions of the global health enterprise through vivid case studies and bold conceptual work. The book demonstrates the crucial role of ethnography as an empirical lantern in global health, arguing for a more comprehensive, people-centered approach. Topics include the limits of technological quick fixes in disease control, the moral economy of global health science, the unexpected effects of massive treatment rollouts in resource-poor contexts, and how right-to-health activism coalesces with the increased influence of the pharmaceutical industry on health care. The contributors explore the altered landscapes left behind after programs scale up, break down, or move on. We learn that disease is really never just one thing, technology delivery does not equate with care, and biology and technology interact in ways we cannot always predict. The most effective solutions may well be found in people themselves, who consistently exceed the projections of experts and the medical-scientific, political, and humanitarian frameworks in which they are cast. When People Come First sets a new research agenda in global health and social theory and challenges us to rethink the relationships between care, rights, health, and economic futures.
Posted in Social Science

New Scientist

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 7525

Posted in Science

Die Unsterblichkeit der Henrietta Lacks

Die Geschichte der HeLa-Zellen

Author: Rebecca Skloot

Publisher: Irisiana

ISBN: 3641051754

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 512

View: 3709

Dieses Buch betrifft uns alle Sie waren notwendig, um Fortschritte gegen Krebs und AIDS zu erzielen. Klonen und Genforschung wäre ohne sie nicht möglich gewesen. Kurz: Die größten Erfolge der Medizin der letzten Jahrzehnte basieren auf der Entdeckung der HeLa-Zellen. Hinter dem Kürzel verbirgt sich eine Frau namens Henrietta Lacks. Die Afroamerikanerin aus ärmlichen Verhältnissen starb 1951 jung an Gebärmutterhalskrebs. Zuvor wurden ihr ohne ihr Wissen Zellproben entnommen, die sich überraschenderweise vermehrten. Damit war der entscheidende Durchbruch in der Zellkulturforschung geschafft. Die prämierte Wissenschaftsjournalistin Rebecca Skloot stellt in ihrem brillant verfassten Buch wichtige Jahrzehnte der Medizingeschichte vor und wirft dabei immer wieder ethische Fragen auf. Sie erzählt die tragische Familiengeschichte der Lacks’, die von Rassismus und mangelnden Bildungschancen geprägt ist. Ihr Buch ist eine gekonnte Mischung aus Biografie, Medizingeschichte, Debattenbuch und beachtlichem Enthüllungsjournalismus.
Posted in Biography & Autobiography

Der Regenmacher

Roman

Author: John Grisham

Publisher: Heyne Verlag

ISBN: 3641110203

Category: Fiction

Page: 624

View: 7048

"Grisham weiß einfach, wie es geht. Hochspannung pur!" People Rudy Baylor, ein Jurastudent im letzten Semester, gewinnt seine ersten "Mandanten", ein Ehepaar, dessen Sohn an Leukämie erkrankt ist. Die Krankenversicherung weigert sich, für die wahrscheinlich lebensrettende Therapie zu zahlen. Rudy erkennt bald, daß er es mit einem riesigen Versicherungsskandal zu tun hat. Er nimmt den Kampf gegen eines der mächtigsten, korruptesten und skrupellosesten Unternehmen Amerikas auf...
Posted in Fiction

Vorlesungen über Differential- und Integralrechnung

Zweiter Band: Funktionen Mehrerer Veränderlicher

Author: Richard Courant

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3709158184

Category: Mathematics

Page: 412

View: 2771

Dieser Buchtitel ist Teil des Digitalisierungsprojekts Springer Book Archives mit Publikationen, die seit den Anfängen des Verlags von 1842 erschienen sind. Der Verlag stellt mit diesem Archiv Quellen für die historische wie auch die disziplingeschichtliche Forschung zur Verfügung, die jeweils im historischen Kontext betrachtet werden müssen. Dieser Titel erschien in der Zeit vor 1945 und wird daher in seiner zeittypischen politisch-ideologischen Ausrichtung vom Verlag nicht beworben.
Posted in Mathematics