Vision and Brain

How We Perceive the World

Author: Dr James V Stone

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262517736

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 243

View: 4021

In this accessible and engaging introduction to modern vision science, James Stone uses visual illusions to explore how the brain sees the world. Understanding vision, Stone argues, is not simply a question of knowing which neurons respond to particular visual features, but also requires a computational theory of vision. Stone draws together results from David Marr's computational framework, Barlow's efficient coding hypothesis, Bayesian inference, Shannon's information theory, and signal processing to construct a coherent account of vision that explains not only how the brain is fooled by particular visual illusions, but also why any biological or computer vision system should also be fooled by these illusions. This short text includes chapters on the eye and its evolution, how and why visual neurons from different species encode the retinal image in the same way, how information theory explains color aftereffects, how different visual cues provide depth information, how the imperfect visual information received by the eye and brain can be rescued by Bayesian inference, how different brain regions process visual information, and the bizarre perceptual consequences that result from damage to these brain regions. The tutorial style emphasizes key conceptual insights, rather than mathematical details, making the book accessible to the nonscientist and suitable for undergraduate or postgraduate study.
Posted in Health & Fitness

Vision and Brain

How the Brain Sees : New Approaches to Computer Vision

Author: Stephen Grossberg,Leif Finkel,David John Field

Publisher: Elsevier Science Limited

ISBN: 9780080445519

Category: Computers

Page: 897

View: 3935

This interdisciplinary book surveys recent experimental and theoretical discoveries concerning how a brain sees and how insights about biological vision can be used to develop more effective algorithms for image processing in technology. - Interdisciplinary studies of biological vision - Using brain concepts in image processing technology - New approaches to machine vision
Posted in Computers

Vision and the Brain

Understanding Cerebral Visual Impairment in Children

Author: Amanda Hall Lueck,Gordon Dutton

Publisher: AFB Press

ISBN: 9780891286394

Category: Pediatric neuroophthalmology

Page: 720

View: 9506

Cerebral visual impairment (also known as cortical visual impairment, or CVI) has become the most common cause of visual impairment in children in the United States and the developed world. Vision and the Brain is a unique and comprehensive sourcebook geared especially to professionals in the field of visual impairment, educators, and families who need to know more about the causes and types of CVI and the best practices for working with affected children. Expert contributors from many countries represent education, occupational therapy, orientation and mobility, ophthalmology, optometry, neuropsychology, psychology, and vision science, and include parents of children with CVI. The book provides an in-depth guide to current knowledge about brain-related vision loss in an accessible form to enable readers to recognize, understand, and assess the behavioral manifestations of damage to the visual brain and develop effective interventions based on identification of the spectrum of individual needs. Chapters are designed to help those working with children with CVI ascertain the nature and degree of visual impairment in each child, so that they can "see" and appreciate the world through the child's eyes and ensure that every child is served appropriately.
Posted in Pediatric neuroophthalmology

Eye and Brain

The Psychology of Seeing

Author: Richard L. Gregory

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400866863

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 6957

Since the publication of the first edition in 1966, Eye and Brain has established itself worldwide as an essential introduction to the basic phenomena of visual perception. Richard Gregory offers clear explanations of how we see brightness, movement, color, and objects, and he explores the phenomena of visual illusions to establish principles about how perception normally works and why it sometimes fails. Illusion continues to be a major theme in the book, which provides a comprehensive classification system. There are also sections on what babies see and how they learn to see, on motion perception, the relationship between vision and consciousness, and on the impact of new brain imaging techniques.
Posted in Science

Brain, Vision, Memory

Tales in the History of Neuroscience

Author: Charles G. Gross

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262571357

Category: Medical

Page: 255

View: 698

In these engaging tales describing the growth of knowledgeabout the brain -- from the early Egyptians and Greeks to the Dark Agesand the Renaissance to the present time -- Gross attempts to answer thequestion of how the discipline of neuroscience evolved into its modernincarnation through the twists and turns of history.
Posted in Medical

Cortical Visual Impairment

An Approach to Assessment and Intervention

Author: Christine Roman-Lantzy

Publisher: American Foundation for the Blind

ISBN: 0891288295

Category: Education

Page: 211

View: 1700

The current leading cause of visual impairment among children is not a disease or condition of the eyes, but cortical visual impairment (CVI)-also known as cerebral visual impairment-in which visual dysfunction is caused by damage or injury to the brain. The definition, nature, and treatment of CVI are the focus of great concern and widespread debate, and this complex condition poses challenges to professionals and families seeking to support the growth and development of visually impaired children. On the basis of more than 30 years' experience in working with hundreds of children of all ages with CVI, Christine Roman-Lantzy has developed a set of unique assessment tools and systematic, targeted principles whose use has helped children learn to use their vision more effectively. This one-of-a-kind resource provides readers with both a conceptual framework with which to understand working with CVI and concrete strategies to apply directly in their work.
Posted in Education

Image and Brain

The Resolution of the Imagery Debate

Author: Stephen Michael Kosslyn

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262611244

Category: Psychology

Page: 516

View: 852

"Image and Brain attempts what is rarely seen in cognitive neuroscience: The Big Picture. To be sure, it is Kosslyn's Big Picture, but that is probably the best there is." -- Irving Biederman, William M. Keck Professor of Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Southern California. This long-awaited work by prominent Harvard psychologist Stephen Kosslyn integrates a twenty-year research program on the nature of high-level vision and mental imagery. Image and Brain marshals insights and empirical results from computer vision, neuroscience, and cognitive science to develop a general theory of visual mental imagery, its relation to visual perception, and its implementation in the human brain. It offers a definitive resolution to the long-standing debate about the nature of the internal representation of visual mental imagery. Kosslyn reviews evidence that perception and representation are inextricably linked, and goes on to show how "quasi-pictorial" events in the brain are generated, interpreted, and used in cognition. The theory is tested with brain- scanning techniques that provide stronger evidence than has been possible in the past. Known for his work in high-level vision, one of the most empirically successful areas of experimental psychology, Kosslyn uses a highly interdisciplinary approach. He reviews and integrates an extensive amount of literature in a coherent presentation, and reports a wide range of new findings using a host of techniques. A Bradford Book
Posted in Psychology

Vision and Mind

Selected Readings in the Philosophy of Perception

Author: Alva Noë

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262640473

Category: Philosophy

Page: 627

View: 3331

A collection of works, many of them classics, on the orthodox view of visual perception.
Posted in Philosophy

Inner Vision

An Exploration of Art and the Brain

Author: Semir Zeki

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780198505198

Category: Philosophy

Page: 224

View: 6310

Beautifully illustrated and vividly written, "Inner Vision" explores how different areas of the brain shape responses to visual arts. 84 color illustrations. 8 halftones. 30 line illustrations.
Posted in Philosophy

Eye Yoga

How You See is how You Think : Simple Eye Exercises to Improve Your Vision and Eye-brain Connection

Author: Jane Rigney Battenberg,Martha M. Rigney

Publisher: Hillcrest Publishing Group

ISBN: 1934938750

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 318

View: 5309

Simple eye exercises can reawaken your deep brain capacities.
Posted in Health & Fitness

Brain Facts

Author: Louis Vera-Portocarrero

Publisher: Infobase Publishing

ISBN: 0791089568

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 106

View: 1301

Presents an overview of how the brain works, including where in the brain its major functions reside and how different parts of the brain interact to produce the human experience.
Posted in Juvenile Nonfiction

The Mind's Eye

Author: Oliver Sacks

Publisher: Vintage

ISBN: 0307594556

Category: Psychology

Page: 256

View: 2268

In The Mind’s Eye, Oliver Sacks tells the stories of people who are able to navigate the world and communicate with others despite losing what many of us consider indispensable senses and abilities: the power of speech, the capacity to recognize faces, the sense of three-dimensional space, the ability to read, the sense of sight. For all of these people, the challenge is to adapt to a radically new way of being in the world. There is Lilian, a concert pianist who becomes unable to read music and is eventually unable even to recognize everyday objects, and Sue, a neurobiologist who has never seen in three dimensions, until she suddenly acquires stereoscopic vision in her fifties. There is Pat, who reinvents herself as a loving grandmother and active member of her community, despite the fact that she has aphasia and cannot utter a sentence, and Howard, a prolific novelist who must find a way to continue his life as a writer even after a stroke destroys his ability to read. And there is Dr. Sacks himself, who tells the story of his own eye cancer and the bizarre and disconcerting effects of losing vision to one side. Sacks explores some very strange paradoxes—people who can see perfectly well but cannot recognize their own children, and blind people who become hyper-visual or who navigate by “tongue vision.” He also considers more fundamental questions: How do we see? How do we think? How important is internal imagery—or vision, for that matter? Why is it that, although writing is only five thousand years old, humans have a universal, seemingly innate, potential for reading? The Mind’s Eye is a testament to the complexity of vision and the brain and to the power of creativity and adaptation. And it provides a whole new perspective on the power of language and communication, as we try to imagine what it is to see with another person’s eyes, or another person’s mind. From the Hardcover edition.
Posted in Psychology

Vision and the Visual System

Author: Peter H. Schiller,Edward J. Tehovnik

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0199936536

Category: Vision

Page: 390

View: 5040

Vision and the Visual System offers students, teachers, and researchers a rigorous, yet accessible account of how the brain analyzes the visual scene. Schiller and Tehovnik describe key aspects of visual perception while explaining the relationship between eye movements and the neural structures in the brain, which play a central role in how we process visual information. The book discusses various brain areas involved in processing information, focusing on the evolutionary origins and mechanics behind the several parallel pathways that compose the visual system. Later chapters explain how the nervous system processes the perception of color, motion, depth, and patterns. A variety of illusions are on display in Chapter 14, where the authors provide detailed explanations that deconstruct how the visual system operates to create them. The volume concludes with a discussion of recent attempts to build visual prosthetic devices for blind individuals, of which there are more than 40 million in the world. Vision and the Visual System is based on Professor Schiller's more than 40 years of experience teaching vision courses at MIT, and is tailored especially for college undergraduates and graduate students interested in visual perception and the operations of the visual system.
Posted in Vision

Vision and Art (Updated and Expanded Edition)

Author: Margaret S. Livingstone

Publisher: Harry N. Abrams

ISBN: 9781419706929

Category: Art

Page: 240

View: 7547

A Harvard neurobiologist explains how vision works, citing the scientific origins of artistic genius and providing coverage of such topics as optical illusions and the correlation between learning disabilities and artistic skill.
Posted in Art

Splendors and Miseries of the Brain

Love, Creativity, and the Quest for Human Happiness

Author: Semir Zeki

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1444359479

Category: Psychology

Page: 256

View: 5268

Splendors and Miseries of the Brain examines the elegant and efficient machinery of the brain, showing that by studying music, art, literature, and love, we can reach important conclusions about how the brain functions. discusses creativity and the search for perfection in the brain examines the power of the unfinished and why it has such a powerful hold on the imagination discusses Platonic concepts in light of the brain shows that aesthetic theories are best understood in terms of the brain discusses the inherited concept of unity-in-love using evidence derived from the world literature of love addresses the role of the synthetic concept in the brain (the synthesis of many experiences) in relation to art, using examples taken from the work of Michelangelo, Cézanne, Balzac, Dante, and others
Posted in Psychology

Fixing My Gaze

A Scientist's Journey Into Seeing in Three Dimensions

Author: Susan R. Barry

Publisher: Basic Books

ISBN: 078674474X

Category: Science

Page: 272

View: 7150

When neuroscientist Susan Barry was fifty years old, she took an unforgettable trip to Manhattan. As she emerged from the dim light of the subway into the sunshine, she saw a view of the city that she had witnessed many times in the past but now saw in an astonishingly new way. Skyscrapers on street corners appeared to loom out toward her like the bows of giant ships. Tree branches projected upward and outward, enclosing and commanding palpable volumes of space. Leaves created intricate mosaics in 3D. With each glance, she experienced the deliriously novel sense of immersion in a three dimensional world. Barry had been cross-eyed and stereoblind since early infancy. After half a century of perceiving her surroundings as flat and compressed, on that day she was seeing Manhattan in stereo depth for first time in her life. As a neuroscientist, she understood just how extraordinary this transformation was, not only for herself but for the scientific understanding of the human brain. Scientists have long believed that the brain is malleable only during a “critical period” in early childhood. According to this theory, Barry’s brain had organized itself when she was a baby to avoid double vision – and there was no way to rewire it as an adult. But Barry found an optometrist who prescribed a little-known program of vision therapy; after intensive training, Barry was ultimately able to accomplish what other scientists and even she herself had once considered impossible. A revelatory account of the brain’s capacity for change, Fixing My Gaze describes Barry’s remarkable journey and celebrates the joyous pleasure of our senses.
Posted in Science

Reductionism in Art and Brain Science

Bridging the Two Cultures

Author: Eric Kandel

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231542089

Category: Science

Page: 224

View: 9537

Are art and science separated by an unbridgeable divide? Can they find common ground? In this new book, neuroscientist Eric R. Kandel, whose remarkable scientific career and deep interest in art give him a unique perspective, demonstrates how science can inform the way we experience a work of art and seek to understand its meaning. Kandel illustrates how reductionism—the distillation of larger scientific or aesthetic concepts into smaller, more tractable components—has been used by scientists and artists alike to pursue their respective truths. He draws on his Nobel Prize-winning work revealing the neurobiological underpinnings of learning and memory in sea slugs to shed light on the complex workings of the mental processes of higher animals. In Reductionism in Art and Brain Science, Kandel shows how this radically reductionist approach, applied to the most complex puzzle of our time—the brain—has been employed by modern artists who distill their subjective world into color, form, and light. Kandel demonstrates through bottom-up sensory and top-down cognitive functions how science can explore the complexities of human perception and help us to perceive, appreciate, and understand great works of art. At the heart of the book is an elegant elucidation of the contribution of reductionism to the evolution of modern art and its role in a monumental shift in artistic perspective. Reductionism steered the transition from figurative art to the first explorations of abstract art reflected in the works of Turner, Monet, Kandinsky, Schoenberg, and Mondrian. Kandel explains how, in the postwar era, Pollock, de Kooning, Rothko, Louis, Turrell, and Flavin used a reductionist approach to arrive at their abstract expressionism and how Katz, Warhol, Close, and Sandback built upon the advances of the New York School to reimagine figurative and minimal art. Featuring captivating drawings of the brain alongside full-color reproductions of modern art masterpieces, this book draws out the common concerns of science and art and how they illuminate each other.
Posted in Science