Vision and Brain

How We Perceive the World

Author: Dr James V Stone

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262517736

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 243

View: 7122

In this accessible and engaging introduction to modern vision science, James Stone uses visual illusions to explore how the brain sees the world. Understanding vision, Stone argues, is not simply a question of knowing which neurons respond to particular visual features, but also requires a computational theory of vision. Stone draws together results from David Marr's computational framework, Barlow's efficient coding hypothesis, Bayesian inference, Shannon's information theory, and signal processing to construct a coherent account of vision that explains not only how the brain is fooled by particular visual illusions, but also why any biological or computer vision system should also be fooled by these illusions. This short text includes chapters on the eye and its evolution, how and why visual neurons from different species encode the retinal image in the same way, how information theory explains color aftereffects, how different visual cues provide depth information, how the imperfect visual information received by the eye and brain can be rescued by Bayesian inference, how different brain regions process visual information, and the bizarre perceptual consequences that result from damage to these brain regions. The tutorial style emphasizes key conceptual insights, rather than mathematical details, making the book accessible to the nonscientist and suitable for undergraduate or postgraduate study.
Posted in Health & Fitness

Vision and Brain

How the Brain Sees : New Approaches to Computer Vision

Author: Stephen Grossberg,Leif Finkel,David John Field

Publisher: Elsevier Science Limited

ISBN: 9780080445519

Category: Computers

Page: 897

View: 8140

This interdisciplinary book surveys recent experimental and theoretical discoveries concerning how a brain sees and how insights about biological vision can be used to develop more effective algorithms for image processing in technology. - Interdisciplinary studies of biological vision - Using brain concepts in image processing technology - New approaches to machine vision
Posted in Computers

Brain, Vision, and Artificial Intelligence

First International Symposium, BVAI 2005, Naples, Italy, October 19-21, 2005, Proceedings

Author: Massimo De Gregorio

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540292829

Category: Computers

Page: 556

View: 9880

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the First International Symposium on Brain, Vision and Artificial Intelligence, BVAI 2005, held in Naples, Italy in October 2005. The 48 revised papers presented together with 6 invited lectures were carefully reviewed and selected from more than 80 submissions for inclusion in the book. The papers are addressed to the following main topics and sub-topics: brain basics - neuroanatomy and physiology, development, plasticity and learning, synaptic, neuronic and neural network modelling; natural vision - visual neurosciences, mechanisms and model systems, visual perception, visual cognition; artificial vision - shape perception, shape analysis and recognition, shape understanding; artificial inteligence - hybrid intelligent systems, agents, and cognitive models.
Posted in Computers

Advances in Brain, Vision, and Artificial Intelligence

Second International Symposium, BVAI 2007, Naples, Italy, October 10-12, 2007, Proceedings

Author: Francesco Mele,Giuliana Ramella,Silvia Santillo,Francesco Ventriglia

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3540755551

Category: Computers

Page: 618

View: 7902

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Brain, Vision and Artificial Intelligence, BVAI 2007. Coverage includes: basic models in visual sciences, cortical mechanism of vision, color processing in natural vision, action oriented vision, visual recognition and attentive modulation, biometric recognition, image segmentation and recognition, disparity calculation and noise analysis, meaning-interaction-emotion, and robot navigation.
Posted in Computers

Vision, Brain, and Behavior in Birds

Author: Harris Philip Zeigler,Hans-Joachim Bischof

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262240369

Category: Medical

Page: 415

View: 5740

The visual capacities of birds rival even those of primates, and their visual system probably reflects the operation of a ground plan common to all vertebrates. This book provides the first comprehensive and current review of considerable progress made over the past decade in analyzing neural and behavioral mechanisms mediating visually guided behavior in birds. The book's five major sections deal with the visual world of birds, the organization of avian visual systems, the development and plasticity of visual structure and function, visuomotor control mechanisms, and cognitive processes. The introduction to each section discusses the nature and significance of the problem areas, providing a context for the chapters to follow, which review the current status of research on a specific problem. The contributors are an international assemblage of researchers, representing a wide variety of disciplines, ranging from ornithology to neurophysiology and including ethology, experimental psychology, anatomy, and developmental neurobiology. For the ethologist, avian behavior is the source of a wide variety of species-typical "fixed action patterns"; for the experimental psychologist, birds are the subject of choice for studies of conditioning, learning, and cognitive processes; for the neurobiologist they provide model systems for studying developmental processes, sensory mechanisms, orientation, and motor control. For these reasons, research on the avian brain and behavior occupies an increasingly important place in contemporary behavioral biology.
Posted in Medical

Brain and the Gaze

On the Active Boundaries of Vision

Author: Jan Lauwereyns

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262017911

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 290

View: 9574

A radically integrative account of visual perception, grounded in neuroscience but drawing on insights from philosophy and psychology. How do we gain access to things as they are? Although we routinely take our self-made pictures to be veridical representations of reality, in actuality we choose (albeit unwittingly) or construct what we see. By movements of the eyes, the direction of our gaze, we create meaning. In Brain and the Gaze, Jan Lauwereyns offers a novel reformulation of perception and its neural underpinnings, focusing on the active nature of perception. In his investigation of active perception and its brain mechanisms, Lauwereyns offers the gaze as the principal paradigm for perception. In a radically integrative account, grounded in neuroscience but drawing on insights from philosophy and psychology, he discusses the dynamic and constrained nature of perception; the complex information processing at the level of the retina; the active nature of vision; the intensive nature of representations; the gaze of others as visual stimulus; and the intentionality of vision and consciousness. An engaging point of entry to the cognitive neuroscience of perception, written for neuroscientists but illuminated by insights from thinkers ranging from William James to Slavoj Zizek, Brain and the Gaze will give new impetus to research and theory in the field.
Posted in Health & Fitness

Vision and the Brain

Understanding Cerebral Visual Impairment in Children

Author: Amanda Hall Lueck,Gordon Dutton

Publisher: AFB Press

ISBN: 9780891286394

Category: Pediatric neuroophthalmology

Page: 720

View: 9603

Cerebral visual impairment (also known as cortical visual impairment, or CVI) has become the most common cause of visual impairment in children in the United States and the developed world. Vision and the Brain is a unique and comprehensive sourcebook geared especially to professionals in the field of visual impairment, educators, and families who need to know more about the causes and types of CVI and the best practices for working with affected children. Expert contributors from many countries represent education, occupational therapy, orientation and mobility, ophthalmology, optometry, neuropsychology, psychology, and vision science, and include parents of children with CVI. The book provides an in-depth guide to current knowledge about brain-related vision loss in an accessible form to enable readers to recognize, understand, and assess the behavioral manifestations of damage to the visual brain and develop effective interventions based on identification of the spectrum of individual needs. Chapters are designed to help those working with children with CVI ascertain the nature and degree of visual impairment in each child, so that they can "see" and appreciate the world through the child's eyes and ensure that every child is served appropriately.
Posted in Pediatric neuroophthalmology

Vision and Mind

Selected Readings in the Philosophy of Perception

Author: Alva Noë,Evan Thompson

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262640473

Category: Philosophy

Page: 627

View: 652

A collection of works, many of them classics, on the orthodox view of visual perception.
Posted in Philosophy

Brain Mechanisms and Spatial Vision

Author: D.J. Ingle,Marc Jeannerod,David Lee

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400950713

Category: Psychology

Page: 480

View: 3091

This volume contains chapters derived from a N. A. T. O. Advanced Study Institute held in June 1983. As the director of this A. S. I. it was my hope that some of the e1ectrophysiologists could express the potentialities of their work for perceptual theory, and that some perceptionists could speculate on the underlying "units" of perception in a way that would engage the imagination of physio logists. The reader will have to be the judge of whether this was achieved, or whether such a psychophysiological inter1ingua is still overly idealistic. It is clear that after the revolution prec~pitated by Hube1 and Weisel in understanding of visual cortical neurons we still have only a foggy idea of the behavioral output of any particular species of cortical detector. It was therefore particularly unfortunate that two persons who have made great strides in correlating interesting facets of cat cortical physio logy with human psychophysics (Max Cynader and Martin Regan of Dalhousie University) were unable to attend this meeting. Never theless, a number of new and challenging ideas regarding both spatial perception and cortical mechanisms are represented in this volume, and it is hoped that the reader will remember not only the individual demonstrations but the critical questions posed by the apposition of the two different collections of experimental facts. David Ingle April 1984 VII TABLE OF CONTENTS PREFACE V D. N. Lee and D. S. Young Visual Timing of Interceptive Action 1 J. J.
Posted in Psychology

The Adaptive Brain II

Vision, Speech, Language, and Motor Control

Author: Stephen Grossberg

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483292703

Category: Medical

Page: 532

View: 3389

The Adaptive Brain, II: Vision, Speech, Language, and Motor Control focuses on a unified theoretical analysis and predictions of important psychological and neurological data that illustrate the development of a true theory of mind and brain. The publication first elaborates on the quantized geometry of visual space and neural dynamics of form perception. Discussions focus on reflectance rivalry and spatial frequency detection, figure-ground separation by filling-in barriers, and disinhibitory propagation of functional scaling from boundaries to interiors. The text then takes a look at neural dynamics of perceptual grouping and brightness perception. Topics include simulation of a parametric binocular brightness study, smoothly varying luminance contours versus steps of luminance change, macrocircuit of processing stages, paradoxical percepts as probes of adaptive processes, and analysis of the Beck theory of textural segmentation. The book examines the neural dynamics of speech and language coding and word recognition and recall, including automatic activation and limited-capacity attention, a macrocircuit for the self-organization of recognition and recall, role of intra-list restructuring arid contextual associations, and temporal order information across item representations. The manuscript is a vital source of data for scientists and researchers interested in the development of a true theory of mind and brain.
Posted in Medical

Eye, Brain, and Vision

Author: David H. Hubel

Publisher: W. H. Freeman

ISBN: 9780716760092

Category: Medical

Page: 242

View: 9916

Shows how science is constructing a wiring diagram of the visual path, shows about the structure of receptors in the retina, through the peanut-size clusters of cells known as the lateral geniculate bodies, to the striate cortex-- the first of many higher areas devoted to vision and the part of the brain that is now best understood. Introduces the remarkable geometric patterns that result from the surprising tendency of cells with related functions to be organized in sheets, columns, blobs, and stripes.
Posted in Medical

Vision in the Brain

Author: P.G. Simos

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9789026518140

Category: Science

Page: 220

View: 9127

An illustrated guide to the fields of neuroscience. It begins by establishing a basic background of knowledge about brain anatomy and organization, with a particular emphasis on neurons and how they communicate. Later chapters discuss the organization of the visual system in detail.
Posted in Science

Brain, Vision, Memory

Tales in the History of Neuroscience

Author: Charles G. Gross

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262571357

Category: Medical

Page: 255

View: 5589

In these engaging tales describing the growth of knowledgeabout the brain -- from the early Egyptians and Greeks to the Dark Agesand the Renaissance to the present time -- Gross attempts to answer thequestion of how the discipline of neuroscience evolved into its modernincarnation through the twists and turns of history.
Posted in Medical

Eye Yoga

How You See is how You Think : Simple Eye Exercises to Improve Your Vision and Eye-brain Connection

Author: Jane Rigney Battenberg,Martha M. Rigney

Publisher: Hillcrest Publishing Group

ISBN: 1934938750

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 318

View: 7234

Simple eye exercises can reawaken your deep brain capacities.
Posted in Health & Fitness

Vision, Brain, and Cooperative Computation

Author: Michael A. Arbib,Allen R. Hanson

Publisher: Bradford Books

ISBN: 9780262510493

Category: Psychology

Page: 744

View: 9524

In four parts - visual neurophysiology, visual psychophysics, machine vision and robotics, and connectionism and cooperative computation - the book covers current theories of visual information processing in humans and other animals and current methodologies for designing computer vision systems.
Posted in Psychology

Coping with Concussion and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

A Guide to Living with the Challenges Associated with Post Concussion Syndrome a nd Brain Trauma

Author: Diane Roberts Stoler Ed.D.,Barbara Albers Hill

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 1101631619

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 400

View: 2324

A comprehensive guide for improving memory, focus, and quality of life in the aftermath of a concussion. Often presenting itself after a head trauma, concussion— or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI)— can cause chronic migraines, depression, memory, and sleep problems that can last for years, referred to as post concussion syndrome (PCS). Neuropsychologist and concussion survivor Dr. Diane Roberts Stoler is the authority on all aspects of the recovery process. Coping with Concussion and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury is a lifeline for patients, parents, and other caregivers.
Posted in Health & Fitness

Vision Rehabilitation

Multidisciplinary Care of the Patient Following Brain Injury

Author: Penelope S. Suter,Lisa H. Harvey

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781439836569

Category: Medical

Page: 544

View: 316

Providing the information required to understand, advocate for, and supply post-acute vision rehabilitative care following brain injury, Vision Rehabilitation: Multidisciplinary Care of the Patient Following Brain Injury bridges the gap between theory and practice. It presents clinical information and scientific literature supporting the diagnostic and therapeutic strategies applied in a comprehensive overview of current diagnostic and treatment strategies in adult post-brain injury vision rehabilitation. Includes a foreword by Dr. Sue Barry Because post-brain injury rehabilitation works best in a team setting where the entire person can be treated, this text has been carefully designed as a multidisciplinary resource with an emphasis on models for working with the rehabilitation team. The book covers a myriad of topics such as post-brain injury vision rehabilitation; eye movements; binocular dysfunction; visual field loss; visual-spatial neglect; shifts in visual egocenter affecting balance and coordination; visual-vestibular interactions; central vs. peripheral visual attention; as well as deficits in object perception, visual memory, and visual cognition. The book details models that vision specialists working with the rehabilitation team can use to achieve the best success for the patient in rehabilitation; vision rehabilitation concepts and the science from which they have been developed; examples of therapeutic exercises; practice management information for the post-brain injury vision rehabilitation practice; and information on the legal process in which one frequently becomes involved in this type of work. Edited by eminent clinicians, the book highlights the work of contributors who are well-respected academicians and researchers, bringing together the clinical information that enables everyone involved in a brain injury case to grasp the diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.
Posted in Medical

Mind, Brain, & Education

Neuroscience Implications for the Classroom

Author: David A. Sousa

Publisher: Solution Tree Press

ISBN: 1935542214

Category: Education

Page: 240

View: 620

Understanding how the brain learns helps teachers do their jobs more effectively. Primary researchers share the latest findings on the learning process and address their implications for educational theory and practice. Explore applications, examples, and suggestions for further thought and research; numerous charts and diagrams; strategies for all subject areas; and new ways of thinking about intelligence, academic ability, and learning disability.
Posted in Education