Vision and Brain

How the Brain Sees : New Approaches to Computer Vision

Author: Stephen Grossberg,Leif Finkel,David John Field

Publisher: Elsevier Science Limited

ISBN: 9780080445519

Category: Computers

Page: 897

View: 3922

This interdisciplinary book surveys recent experimental and theoretical discoveries concerning how a brain sees and how insights about biological vision can be used to develop more effective algorithms for image processing in technology. - Interdisciplinary studies of biological vision - Using brain concepts in image processing technology - New approaches to machine vision
Posted in Computers

Vision and Brain

How We Perceive the World

Author: Dr James V Stone

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262517736

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 243

View: 1189

In this accessible and engaging introduction to modern vision science, James Stone uses visual illusions to explore how the brain sees the world. Understanding vision, Stone argues, is not simply a question of knowing which neurons respond to particular visual features, but also requires a computational theory of vision. Stone draws together results from David Marr's computational framework, Barlow's efficient coding hypothesis, Bayesian inference, Shannon's information theory, and signal processing to construct a coherent account of vision that explains not only how the brain is fooled by particular visual illusions, but also why any biological or computer vision system should also be fooled by these illusions. This short text includes chapters on the eye and its evolution, how and why visual neurons from different species encode the retinal image in the same way, how information theory explains color aftereffects, how different visual cues provide depth information, how the imperfect visual information received by the eye and brain can be rescued by Bayesian inference, how different brain regions process visual information, and the bizarre perceptual consequences that result from damage to these brain regions. The tutorial style emphasizes key conceptual insights, rather than mathematical details, making the book accessible to the nonscientist and suitable for undergraduate or postgraduate study.
Posted in Health & Fitness

Brain, Vision, and Artificial Intelligence

First International Symposium, BVAI 2005, Naples, Italy, October 19-21, 2005, Proceedings

Author: Massimo De Gregorio,Vito Di Maio,Maria Frucci,Carlo Musio

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540292829

Category: Computers

Page: 556

View: 9589

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the First International Symposium on Brain, Vision and Artificial Intelligence, BVAI 2005, held in Naples, Italy in October 2005. The 48 revised papers presented together with 6 invited lectures were carefully reviewed and selected from more than 80 submissions for inclusion in the book. The papers are addressed to the following main topics and sub-topics: brain basics - neuroanatomy and physiology, development, plasticity and learning, synaptic, neuronic and neural network modelling; natural vision - visual neurosciences, mechanisms and model systems, visual perception, visual cognition; artificial vision - shape perception, shape analysis and recognition, shape understanding; artificial inteligence - hybrid intelligent systems, agents, and cognitive models.
Posted in Computers

Advances in Brain, Vision, and Artificial Intelligence

Second International Symposium, BVAI 2007, Naples, Italy, October 10-12, 2007, Proceedings

Author: Francesco Mele,Giuliana Ramella,Silvia Santillo,Francesco Ventriglia

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3540755551

Category: Computers

Page: 618

View: 2912

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Brain, Vision and Artificial Intelligence, BVAI 2007. Coverage includes: basic models in visual sciences, cortical mechanism of vision, color processing in natural vision, action oriented vision, visual recognition and attentive modulation, biometric recognition, image segmentation and recognition, disparity calculation and noise analysis, meaning-interaction-emotion, and robot navigation.
Posted in Computers

Vision, Brain, and Behavior in Birds

Author: Harris Philip Zeigler,Hans-Joachim Bischof

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262240369

Category: Medical

Page: 415

View: 5139

The visual capacities of birds rival even those of primates, and their visual system probably reflects the operation of a ground plan common to all vertebrates. This book provides the first comprehensive and current review of considerable progress made over the past decade in analyzing neural and behavioral mechanisms mediating visually guided behavior in birds. The book's five major sections deal with the visual world of birds, the organization of avian visual systems, the development and plasticity of visual structure and function, visuomotor control mechanisms, and cognitive processes. The introduction to each section discusses the nature and significance of the problem areas, providing a context for the chapters to follow, which review the current status of research on a specific problem. The contributors are an international assemblage of researchers, representing a wide variety of disciplines, ranging from ornithology to neurophysiology and including ethology, experimental psychology, anatomy, and developmental neurobiology. For the ethologist, avian behavior is the source of a wide variety of species-typical "fixed action patterns"; for the experimental psychologist, birds are the subject of choice for studies of conditioning, learning, and cognitive processes; for the neurobiologist they provide model systems for studying developmental processes, sensory mechanisms, orientation, and motor control. For these reasons, research on the avian brain and behavior occupies an increasingly important place in contemporary behavioral biology.
Posted in Medical

Brain and the Gaze

On the Active Boundaries of Vision

Author: Jan Lauwereyns

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262304619

Category: Psychology

Page: 312

View: 7917

How do we gain access to things as they are? Although we routinely take our self-made pictures to be veridical representations of reality, in actuality we choose (albeit unwittingly) or construct what we see. By movements of the eyes, the direction of our gaze, we create meaning. In Brain and the Gaze, Jan Lauwereyns offers a novel reformulation of perception and its neural underpinnings, focusing on the active nature of perception. In his investigation of active perception and its brain mechanisms, Lauwereyns offers the gaze as the principal paradigm for perception. In a radically integrative account, grounded in neuroscience but drawing on insights from philosophy and psychology, he discusses the dynamic and constrained nature of perception; the complex information processing at the level of the retina; the active nature of vision; the intensive nature of representations; the gaze of others as visual stimulus; and the intentionality of vision and consciousness. An engaging point of entry to the cognitive neuroscience of perception, written for neuroscientists but illuminated by insights from thinkers ranging from William James to Slavoj Žižek, Brain and the Gaze will give new impetus to research and theory in the field.
Posted in Psychology

Vision and the Brain

Understanding Cerebral Visual Impairment in Children

Author: Amanda Hall Lueck,Gordon Dutton

Publisher: AFB Press

ISBN: 9780891286394

Category: Pediatric neuroophthalmology

Page: 720

View: 854

Cerebral visual impairment (also known as cortical visual impairment, or CVI) has become the most common cause of visual impairment in children in the United States and the developed world. Vision and the Brain is a unique and comprehensive sourcebook geared especially to professionals in the field of visual impairment, educators, and families who need to know more about the causes and types of CVI and the best practices for working with affected children. Expert contributors from many countries represent education, occupational therapy, orientation and mobility, ophthalmology, optometry, neuropsychology, psychology, and vision science, and include parents of children with CVI. The book provides an in-depth guide to current knowledge about brain-related vision loss in an accessible form to enable readers to recognize, understand, and assess the behavioral manifestations of damage to the visual brain and develop effective interventions based on identification of the spectrum of individual needs. Chapters are designed to help those working with children with CVI ascertain the nature and degree of visual impairment in each child, so that they can "see" and appreciate the world through the child's eyes and ensure that every child is served appropriately.
Posted in Pediatric neuroophthalmology

Brain Mechanisms and Spatial Vision

Author: D.J. Ingle,Marc Jeannerod,David Lee

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400950713

Category: Psychology

Page: 480

View: 6644

This volume contains chapters derived from a N. A. T. O. Advanced Study Institute held in June 1983. As the director of this A. S. I. it was my hope that some of the e1ectrophysiologists could express the potentialities of their work for perceptual theory, and that some perceptionists could speculate on the underlying "units" of perception in a way that would engage the imagination of physio logists. The reader will have to be the judge of whether this was achieved, or whether such a psychophysiological inter1ingua is still overly idealistic. It is clear that after the revolution prec~pitated by Hube1 and Weisel in understanding of visual cortical neurons we still have only a foggy idea of the behavioral output of any particular species of cortical detector. It was therefore particularly unfortunate that two persons who have made great strides in correlating interesting facets of cat cortical physio logy with human psychophysics (Max Cynader and Martin Regan of Dalhousie University) were unable to attend this meeting. Never theless, a number of new and challenging ideas regarding both spatial perception and cortical mechanisms are represented in this volume, and it is hoped that the reader will remember not only the individual demonstrations but the critical questions posed by the apposition of the two different collections of experimental facts. David Ingle April 1984 VII TABLE OF CONTENTS PREFACE V D. N. Lee and D. S. Young Visual Timing of Interceptive Action 1 J. J.
Posted in Psychology

Eye, Brain, and Vision

Author: David H. Hubel

Publisher: W. H. Freeman

ISBN: 9780716760092

Category: Medical

Page: 242

View: 6937

Shows how science is constructing a wiring diagram of the visual path, shows about the structure of receptors in the retina, through the peanut-size clusters of cells known as the lateral geniculate bodies, to the striate cortex-- the first of many higher areas devoted to vision and the part of the brain that is now best understood. Introduces the remarkable geometric patterns that result from the surprising tendency of cells with related functions to be organized in sheets, columns, blobs, and stripes.
Posted in Medical

Brain, Vision, Memory

Tales in the History of Neuroscience

Author: Charles G. Gross

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262571357

Category: Medical

Page: 255

View: 1230

In these engaging tales describing the growth of knowledgeabout the brain -- from the early Egyptians and Greeks to the Dark Agesand the Renaissance to the present time -- Gross attempts to answer thequestion of how the discipline of neuroscience evolved into its modernincarnation through the twists and turns of history.
Posted in Medical

Vision in the Brain

Author: P.G. Simos

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9789026518140

Category: Science

Page: 220

View: 1487

An illustrated guide to the fields of neuroscience. It begins by establishing a basic background of knowledge about brain anatomy and organization, with a particular emphasis on neurons and how they communicate. Later chapters discuss the organization of the visual system in detail.
Posted in Science

Coping with Concussion and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

A Guide to Living with the Challenges Associated with Post Concussion Syndrome a nd Brain Trauma

Author: Diane Roberts Stoler Ed.D.,Barbara Albers Hill

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 1101631619

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 400

View: 8794

A comprehensive guide for improving memory, focus, and quality of life in the aftermath of a concussion. Often presenting itself after a head trauma, concussion— or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI)— can cause chronic migraines, depression, memory, and sleep problems that can last for years, referred to as post concussion syndrome (PCS). Neuropsychologist and concussion survivor Dr. Diane Roberts Stoler is the authority on all aspects of the recovery process. Coping with Concussion and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury is a lifeline for patients, parents, and other caregivers.
Posted in Health & Fitness

Eye and Brain

The Psychology of Seeing

Author: Richard L. Gregory

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400866863

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 643

Since the publication of the first edition in 1966, Eye and Brain has established itself worldwide as an essential introduction to the basic phenomena of visual perception. Richard Gregory offers clear explanations of how we see brightness, movement, color, and objects, and he explores the phenomena of visual illusions to establish principles about how perception normally works and why it sometimes fails. Illusion continues to be a major theme in the book, which provides a comprehensive classification system. There are also sections on what babies see and how they learn to see, on motion perception, the relationship between vision and consciousness, and on the impact of new brain imaging techniques.
Posted in Science

Vision

A Computational Investigation into the Human Representation and Processing of Visual Information

Author: David Marr,Shimon Ullman,Tomaso A. Poggio

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262288982

Category: Psychology

Page: 432

View: 2067

David Marr's posthumously published Vision (1982) influenced a generation of brain and cognitive scientists, inspiring many to enter the field. In Vision, Marr describes a general framework for understanding visual perception and touches on broader questions about how the brain and its functions can be studied and understood. Researchers from a range of brain and cognitive sciences have long valued Marr's creativity, intellectual power, and ability to integrate insights and data from neuroscience, psychology, and computation. This MIT Press edition makes Marr's influential work available to a new generation of students and scientists. In Marr's framework, the process of vision constructs a set of representations, starting from a description of the input image and culminating with a description of three-dimensional objects in the surrounding environment. A central theme, and one that has had far-reaching influence in both neuroscience and cognitive science, is the notion of different levels of analysis -- in Marr's framework, the computational level, the algorithmic level, and the hardware implementation level. Now, thirty years later, the main problems that occupied Marr remain fundamental open problems in the study of perception. Vision provides inspiration for the continuing efforts to integrate knowledge from cognition and computation to understand vision and the brain.
Posted in Psychology

Eye Yoga

How You See is how You Think : Simple Eye Exercises to Improve Your Vision and Eye-brain Connection

Author: Jane Rigney Battenberg,Martha M. Rigney

Publisher: Hillcrest Publishing Group

ISBN: 1934938750

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 318

View: 6703

Simple eye exercises can reawaken your deep brain capacities.
Posted in Health & Fitness

Mind, Brain, & Education

Neuroscience Implications for the Classroom

Author: David A. Sousa

Publisher: Solution Tree Press

ISBN: 1935542214

Category: Education

Page: 240

View: 7860

Understanding how the brain learns helps teachers do their jobs more effectively. Primary researchers share the latest findings on the learning process and address their implications for educational theory and practice. Explore applications, examples, and suggestions for further thought and research; numerous charts and diagrams; strategies for all subject areas; and new ways of thinking about intelligence, academic ability, and learning disability.
Posted in Education

What can simple brains teach us about how vision works

Author: Davide Zoccolan,David D. Cox,Andrea Benucci, R. Clay Reid

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 288919678X

Category:

Page: N.A

View: 1997

Vision is the process of extracting behaviorally-relevant information from patterns of light that fall on retina as the eyes sample the outside world. Traditionally, nonhuman primates (macaque monkeys, in particular) have been viewed by many as the animal model-of-choice for investigating the neuronal substrates of visual processing, not only because their visual systems closely mirror our own, but also because it is often assumed that “simpler” brains lack advanced visual processing machinery. However, this narrow view of visual neuroscience ignores the fact that vision is widely distributed throughout the animal kingdom, enabling a wide repertoire of complex behaviors in species from insects to birds, fish, and mammals. Recent years have seen a resurgence of interest in alternative animal models for vision research, especially rodents. This resurgence is partly due to the availability of increasingly powerful experimental approaches (e.g., optogenetics and two-photon imaging) that are challenging to apply to their full potential in primates. Meanwhile, even more phylogenetically distant species such as birds, fish, and insects have long been workhorse animal models for gaining insight into the core computations underlying visual processing. In many cases, these animal models are valuable precisely because their visual systems are simpler than the primate visual system. Simpler systems are often easier to understand, and studying a diversity of neuronal systems that achieve similar functions can focus attention on those computational principles that are universal and essential. This Research Topic provides a survey of the state of the art in the use of animal models of visual functions that are alternative to macaques. It includes original research, methods articles, reviews, and opinions that exploit a variety of animal models (including rodents, birds, fishes and insects, as well as small New World monkey, the marmoset) to investigate visual function. The experimental approaches covered by these studies range from psychophysics and electrophysiology to histology and genetics, testifying to the richness and depth of visual neuroscience in non-macaque species.
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