Understanding Political Violence: A Criminological Approach

Author: Ruggiero, Vincenzo

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education (UK)

ISBN: 0335217516

Category: Social Science

Page: 220

View: 4880

The author distinguishes between political violence from below, for example collective violence, insurgency, armed struggle and terrorism; and political violence from above, which includes indiscriminate repression, institutional and state violence, torture and war.
Posted in Social Science

Criminology Theory and Terrorism

New Applications and Approaches

Author: Joshua D. Freilich,Gary LaFree

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317512014

Category: Social Science

Page: 214

View: 925

Although there has been an increase in research on terrorism across the social and behavioural sciences in the past few decades, until recently most of this work has originated from political science, psychology or economics. Therefore, our focus in this book on criminological conceptual frameworks and empirical studies that engage terrorism and responses to it is unique. We include a distinguished group of researchers that offer their distinctive insights into criminological perspectives on terrorism. The contributors focus on criminological perspectives that have rarely, if ever, been previously applied to the study of terrorism. This includes a range of perspectives from rational choice to social disorganization; from strain to routine activities theory. This volume will advance understanding of terrorism by taking advantage of criminological contributions, and at the same time will serve as a useful update to the criminologists and their students already working in this area. It would also be a helpful introduction to those criminologists and their students who would like to be more engaged in this important area of research. This book was originally published as a special issue of Terrorism and Political Violence.
Posted in Social Science

Crime and Terrorism Risk

Studies in Criminology and Criminal Justice

Author: Leslie W. Kennedy,Professor and Dean in the School of Criminal Justice Leslie W Kennedy,Edmund F. McGarrell

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1135851921

Category: Political Science

Page: 304

View: 8139

Crime and Terrorism Risk is a collection of original essays and articles that presents a broad overview of the issues related to the assessment and management of risk in the new security age. These original articles show how researchers, experts and the public are beginning to think about crime and terrorism issues in terms of a new risk paradigm that emphasizes establishing a balance between threat and resources in developing prevention and response strategies.
Posted in Political Science

Understanding the Age of Transitional Justice

Crimes, Courts, Commissions, and Chronicling

Author: Nanci Adler

Publisher: Rutgers University Press

ISBN: 0813597803

Category: Law

Page: 258

View: 5081

Since the 1980s, an array of legal and non-legal practices—labeled Transitional Justice—has been developed to support post-repressive, post-authoritarian, and post-conflict societies in dealing with their traumatic past. In Understanding the Age of Transitional Justice, the contributors analyze the processes, products, and efficacy of a number of transitional justice mechanisms and look at how genocide, mass political violence, and historical injustices are being institutionally addressed. They invite readers to speculate on what (else) the transcripts produced by these institutions tell us about the past and the present, calling attention to the influence of implicit history conveyed in the narratives that have gained an audience through international criminal tribunals, trials, and truth commissions. Nanci Adler has gathered leading specialists to scrutinize the responses to and effects of violent pasts that provide new perspectives for understanding and applying transitional justice mechanisms in an effort to stop the recycling of old repressions into new ones.
Posted in Law

The Routledge Handbook of International Crime and Justice Studies

Author: Bruce Arrigo,Heather Bersot

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136868496

Category: Social Science

Page: 688

View: 5295

The Routledge Handbook of International Crime and Justice Studies presents the enduring debates and emerging challenges in crime and justice studies from an international and multi-disciplinary perspective. Guided by the pivotal, although vastly under-examined, role that consumerism, politics, technology, and culture assume in shaping these debates and in organizing these challenges, individual chapters probe the global landscape of crime and justice with astonishing clarity and remarkable depth. A distinguished collection of experts examine the interdisciplinary field of international crime and justice. Their contributions are divided into thematic sections, including: theory, culture, and society industries of crime and justice: systems of policing, law, corrections and punishment the criminal enterprise global technologies media, crime, and culture green criminology political violence public health criminology the political economy of crime and justice. All the chapters include full pedagogy and instructional resources for easy referencing or classroom use. This Handbook will be useful for students, scholars and practitioners of law, medicine, history, economics, sociology, politics, philosophy, education, public health, and social policy.
Posted in Social Science

Family Violence and Criminal Justice

A Life-Course Approach

Author: Brian J. Payne,Randy R. Gainey

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1437755488

Category: Social Science

Page: 460

View: 1280

The historical context of family violence is explored, as well as the various forms of violence, their prevalence in specific stages of life, and responses to it made by the criminal justice system and other agencies. The linkage among child abuse, partner violence and elder abuse is scrutinized, and the usefulness of the life-course approach is couched in terms of its potential effect on policy implications; research methods that recognize the importance of life stages, trajectories, and transitions; and crime causation theories that can be enhanced by it. Tables, figures, charts, discussion questions and helpful boxes with supplemental information titled "Tool Box," "From the Field," and "Research Shows" enhance the text.
Posted in Social Science

The Palgrave Handbook of Global Counterterrorism Policy

Author: Scott Nicholas Romaniuk,Francis Grice,Daniela Irrera,Stewart Webb

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137557699

Category: Political Science

Page: 1098

View: 4254

The Palgrave Handbook of Global Counterterrorism Policy examines a comprehensive range of counterterrorism policies, strategies, and practices across dozens of states and actors around the world. It covers the topics of terrorism and counterterrorism both thematically and by region, allowing for discussions about the underpinning dynamics of these fields, consideration of how terrorism and counterterrorism are evolving in the modern period, and in-depth analyses of individual states and non-state actors, and their approaches to countering terrorism and terrorist threats. It draws upon a multidisciplinary range of established scholars and upcoming new researchers from across multiple fields including political science and international relations, sociology, and history, examining both theory and practice in their respective chapters. This volume is an essential resource for scholars and practitioners alike.
Posted in Political Science

Gender, Crime and Criminal Justice

Author: Kate Fitz-Gibbon,Sandra Walklate

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317221400

Category: Social Science

Page: 222

View: 5410

This book examines the relationship between gender and crime and explores both the gendered nature of crime alongside the gendered nature of criminal victimisation. Covering theory, policy and practice, this new edition has been fully revised to reflect the wider changes, development and influence of gendered thinking in these areas. It brings together a range of key issues, including: Theories and concepts in feminist criminology, Gender and victimisation, Sexual and domestic violence, Male dominance in the criminal justice system, Gendered perspectives in law and criminal justice policy. New to the third edition is increased coverage of gender and crime in international perspective, particularly within the global south, and emerging concepts of risk and security. This is essential reading for advanced courses on gender and crime, women and crime, and feminist criminology.
Posted in Social Science

Careers in Criminal Justice

Author: Coy H. Johnston

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 1544316127

Category: Social Science

Page: 248

View: 6944

Careers in Criminal Justice, Second Edition prepares you to plan, pursue, and realize your career goals—from conception through the hiring process. Coy H. Johnston’s contemporary approach emphasizes self-reflection and pragmatism in the pursuit of self-fulfillment and professionalism. With coverage of over forty careers in policing, courts, corrections, and victim services, you receive a comprehensive overview of the most popular and growing careers in the field. Self-assessment tools enhance your self-awareness and steer you toward realistic and suitable careers in criminal justice. This easy-to-read guide is organized to prepare and encourage growth throughout your career. New to the Second Edition: A new chapter titled “Volunteering and Internship” (Chapter 9) guides you through the important process of early involvement in the field to create a more enticing resume. Three new “Guest Speaker” profiles offer you new perspectives and practical advice on a variety of careers and geographical areas. New career assessment tools are included to help you evaluate your compatibility with various careers in the criminal justice field. Expanded information about critical areas such as private prisons, careers in the judiciary, and resume building ensures that you are receiving a balanced introduction to criminal justice careers.
Posted in Social Science

Psycho-Criminological Perspective of Criminal Justice in Asia

Research and Practices in Hong Kong, Singapore, and Beyond

Author: Heng Choon (Oliver) Chan,Samuel M.Y. Ho

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1317190254

Category: Psychology

Page: 298

View: 2042

This book offers both theoretical and practical examinations of the psycho-criminology of criminal justice in Asia, with particular emphasis on the Hong Kong and Singapore contexts. It is designed to present the current state of the field, which addresses key topics in three major sub-areas – policing and legal system, offender rehabilitation and treatment, and research and future directions. Written by academics with extensive research experience in their respective topics and senior ranking practitioners in their fields, topics include psychologists’ involvement in different aspects of forensic investigation, police emotional reactions to major incidents, the application of psychological approaches in developing offender rehabilitation and treatment modules to address different offender’s criminogenic needs, and legal issues related to the insanity defence, fitness to plead, the jury system, and the procedural justice and legitimacy. An important reference for post-graduate courses, this book will be of special interest to criminologists and psychologists working in forensic settings, mental health professionals, policy-makers, police personnel, prison officials, and legal executives. Chapters include: 1.???? Youth gang offenders in Singapore?? 2.???? Offender rehabilitation: the Hong Kong Correctional Services Department?????? 3.???? Juries as decision makers in East Asian judicial systems: Hong Kong, the Mainland China, South Korea, and Japan 4.???? The psychology of violent extremism: what we know and what else we need to do?????
Posted in Psychology

Explaining Criminals and Crime

Essays in Contemporary Criminological Theory

Author: Raymond Paternoster,Ronet Bachman

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781891487323

Category: Social Science

Page: 346

View: 851

A collection of original essays addressing theories of criminal behavior that is written at a level appropriate for undergraduate students. This book offers section introductions that provide a historical background for each theory, key issues that the theory addresses, and a discussion of any controversies generated by the theory.
Posted in Social Science

American Criminal Justice Policy

An Evaluation Approach to Increasing Accountability and Effectiveness

Author: Daniel P. Mears

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521762464

Category: Social Science

Page: 321

View: 9064

Examines the most prominent criminal justice policies, finding that they fall short of achieving the effectiveness that policymakers have advocated.
Posted in Social Science

The Anatomy of Violence

The Biological Roots of Crime

Author: Adrian Raine

Publisher: Vintage

ISBN: 0307475611

Category: Psychology

Page: 478

View: 3019

A criminologist who specializes in the neurological and biosocial bases of antisocial and violent behavior explains how impairments to areas of the brain that control fear, decision-making, and empathy can increase the likelihood of criminal activity.
Posted in Psychology

Criminology

An Interdisciplinary Approach

Author: Anthony Walsh,Lee Ellis

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1412938406

Category: Social Science

Page: 495

View: 4398

This unique text offers an interdisciplinary perspective on crime and criminality by integrating the latest theories, concepts, and research from sociology, psychology, and biology. Offering a more complete look at the world of criminology than any other existing text, authors Anthony Walsh and Lee Ellis first present criminological theory and concepts in their traditional form and then show how integrating theory and concepts from the more basic sciences can complement, expand, strengthen, and add coherence to them.
Posted in Social Science

Race, Ethnicity, and Crime

Author: Dianne Williams

Publisher: Algora Publishing

ISBN: 0875869157

Category: Social Science

Page: 239

View: 5496

Melting pot or tossed salad? the U.S. criminal justice system may prove to be fueling intolerance rather than enabling society to accommodate racial and ethnic differences. This fresh new textbook to balance theory and the real world, addressing topics relating to race, ethnicity, criminality and criminalization, looking at the criminal justice system, the media, and the death penalty. In addition to information on crime and incarceration rates, White-collar crime, and the "typical criminal," the discussion of minorities and public perceptions is set within a broader context including the issues of terrorism and human trafficking, where race and ethnicity are also vital to public perceptions. the manual is designed for junior colleges and four year colleges, including those offering distance-learning courses. It is a thought-provoking combination of facts and questions. the pedagogical focus is on collaborative, problem-based learning, with foundational support for the development of critical thinking and analytical skills.
Posted in Social Science

Crime and Risk

Author: Pat O'Malley

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 0857026984

Category: Social Science

Page: 120

View: 4055

Over recent years, the governance of crime - from policing and crime prevention to sentencing and prison organization - has moved away from a focus on reforming offenders toward preventing crime and managing behaviour using predictive and distributional (such as risk) techniques. Crime and Risk presents an engaging discussion of risk strategies and risk-taking in the domain of crime and criminal justice. It outlines the broad theoretical issues and political approaches involved, relating risk in contemporary crime governance to risk in criminal activity. Taking a broad and discursive approach, it covers: Risk-taking and contemporary culture The excitement associated with risk-taking and the impact of criminal activity The application of risk-oriented developments in crime prevention and control The use of genetic and related biotechnologies to assess and react to perceived threats The conceptualization of risk in relation to race and gender The influence of excitement upon criminal activity Evidence and accountability. ? Compact Criminology is an exciting series that invigorates and challenges the international field of criminology. Books in the series are short, authoritative, innovative assessments of emerging issues in criminology and criminal justice – offering critical, accessible introductions to important topics. They take a global rather than a narrowly national approach. Eminently readable and first-rate in quality, each book is written by a leading specialist. Compact Criminology provides a new type of tool for teaching, learning and research, one that is flexible and light on its feet. The series addresses fundamental needs in the growing and increasingly differentiated field of criminology.
Posted in Social Science

New and Old Wars

Organised Violence in a Global Era

Author: Mary Kaldor

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0745663036

Category: Political Science

Page: 224

View: 8215

Mary Kaldor's New and Old Wars has fundamentally changed the way both scholars and policy-makers understand contemporary war and conflict. In the context of globalization, this path-breaking book has shown that what we think of as war - that is to say, war between states in which the aim is to inflict maximum violence - is becoming an anachronism. In its place is a new type of organized violence or 'new wars', which could be described as a mixture of war, organized crime and massive violations of human rights. The actors are both global and local, public and private. The wars are fought for particularistic political goals using tactics of terror and destabilization that are theoretically outlawed by the rules of modern warfare. Kaldor's analysis offers a basis for a cosmopolitan political response to these wars, in which the monopoly of legitimate organized violence is reconstructed on a transnational basis and international peacekeeping is reconceptualized as cosmopolitan law enforcement. This approach also has implications for the reconstruction of civil society, political institutions, and economic and social relations. This third edition has been fully revised and updated. Kaldor has added an afterword answering the critics of the New Wars argument and, in a new chapter, Kaldor shows how old war thinking in Afghanistan and Iraq greatly exacerbated what turned out to be, in many ways, archetypal new wars - characterised by identity politics, a criminalised war economy and civilians as the main victims. Like its predecessors, the third edition of New and Old Wars will be essential reading for students of international relations, politics and conflict studies as well as to all those interested in the changing nature and prospect of warfare.
Posted in Political Science

The Crime of All Crimes

Toward a Criminology of Genocide

Author: Nicole Rafter

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 1479805963

Category: Social Science

Page: 320

View: 6270

Cambodia. Rwanda. Armenia. Nazi Germany. History remembers these places as the sites of unspeakable crimes against humanity, and indisputably, of genocide. Yet, throughout the twentieth century, the world has seen many instances of violence committed by states against certain groups within their borders—from the colonial ethnic cleansing the Germans committed against the Herero tribe in Africa, to the Katyn Forest Massacre, in which the Soviets shot over 20,000 Poles, to anti-communist mass murders in 1960s Indonesia. Are mass crimes against humanity like these still genocide? And how can an understanding of crime and criminals shed new light on how genocide—the “crime of all crimes”—transpires? In The Crime of All Crimes, criminologist Nicole Rafter takes an innovative approach to the study of genocide by comparing eight diverse genocides--large-scale and small; well-known and obscure—through the lens of criminal behavior. Rafter explores different models of genocidal activity, reflecting on the popular use of the Holocaust as a model for genocide and ways in which other genocides conform to different patterns. For instance, Rafter questions the assumption that only ethnic groups are targeted for genocidal “cleansing," and she also urges that actions such as genocidal rape be considered alongside traditional instances of genocidal violence. Further, by examining the causes of genocide on different levels, Rafter is able to construct profiles of typical victims and perpetrators and discuss means of preventing genocide, in addition to delving into the social psychology of genocidal behavior and the ways in which genocides are brought to an end. A sweeping and innovative investigation into the most tragic of events in the modern world, The Crime of All Crimes will fundamentally change how we think about genocide in the present day.
Posted in Social Science

Epidemiological Criminology

Theory to Practice

Author: Eve Waltermaurer,Timothy A. Akers

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136184910

Category: Social Science

Page: 280

View: 7252

Epidemiological criminology is an emerging paradigm which explores the public health outcomes associated with engagement in crime and criminal justice. This book engages with this new theory and practice-based discipline drawing on knowledge from criminology, criminal justice, public health, epidemiology, public policy, and law to illustrate how the merging of epidemiology into the field of criminology allows for the work of both disciplines to be more interdisciplinary, evidence-based, enriched and expansive. This book brings together an innovative group of exemplary researchers and practitioners to discuss applications and provide examples of epidemiological criminology. It is divided into three sections; the first explores the integration of epidemiology and criminology through theory and methods, the second section focuses on special populations in epidemiological criminology research and the role of race, ethnicity, age, gender and space as it plays out in health outcomes among offenders and victims of crime, and the final section explores the role policy and practice plays in worsening and improving the health outcomes among those engaged in the criminal justice system. Epidemiological Criminology is the first text to bring together, in one source, the existing interdisciplinary work of academics and professionals that merge the fields of criminology and criminal justice to public health and epidemiology. It will be of interest to academics and students in the fields of criminology, epidemiology, and public health, as well as clinical psychologists, law and government policy analysts and those working within the criminal justice system.
Posted in Social Science

Transnational Crime and Criminal Justice

Author: Marinella Marmo,Nerida Chazal

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1473966167

Category: Social Science

Page: 240

View: 3084

Providing you with a wide-ranging introduction to key international issues in crime and its control, this book covers all essential theories, and clearly explains their relevance to the world today. Going beyond just looking at organized crime, the book covers a range of topics including: Human rights Terrorism Trafficking Cybercrime Environmental crime International Law Plenty of case studies and examples are included throughout, including the Bali 9, Rana Plaza and the shooting of Charles De Menezes , and tips on further reading make it easy to know where to go to engage with more debates in the field. Making sure you’re up to date with current issues, this book will be essential reading for students in Criminology and Criminal Justice, as well as those in Law and International Relations.
Posted in Social Science