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Search Results for: ultra-cold-fermi-gases

## Ultra-cold Fermi Gases

The field of cold atomic gases faced a revolution in 1995 when Bose-Einstein condensation was achieved. Since then, there has been an impressive progress, both experimental and theoretical. The quest for ultra-cold Fermi gases started shortly after the 1995 discovery, and quantum degeneracy in a gas of fermionic atoms was obtained in 1999. The Pauli exclusion principle plays a crucial role in many aspects of ultra-cold Fermi gases, including inhibited interactions with applications to precision measurements, and strong correlations. The path towards strong interactions and pairing of fermions opened up with the discovery in 2003 that molecules formed by fermions near a Feshbach resonance were surprisingly stable against inelastic decay, but featured strong elastic interactions. This remarkable combination was explained by the Pauli exclusion principle and the fact that only inelastic collisions require three fermions to come close to each other. The unexpected stability of strongly interacting fermions and fermion pairs triggered most of the research which was presented at this summer school. It is remarkable foresight (or good luck) that the first steps to organize this summer school were already taken before this discovery. It speaks for the dynamics of the field how dramatically it can change course when new insight is obtained. The contributions in this volume provide a detailed coverage of the experimental techniques for the creation and study of Fermi quantum gases, as well as the theoretical foundation for understanding the properties of these novel systems.
## BCS-BEC crossover in an ultracold Fermi gas

We first examine the properties of 6Li and 40K gases. We find that in the unitary region the properties of the system do not depend on the atom species: outside the unitary region, the properties of the system do depend on the scattering properties of the different atom species.
## The BCS-BEC Crossover and the Unitary Fermi Gas

Recent experimental and theoretical progress has elucidated the tunable crossover, in ultracold Fermi gases, from BCS-type superconductors to BEC-type superfluids. The BCS-BEC Crossover and the Unitary Fermi Gas is a collaborative effort by leading international experts to provide an up-to-date introduction and a comprehensive overview of current research in this fast-moving field. It is now understood that the unitary regime that lies right in the middle of the crossover has remarkable universal properties, arising from scale invariance, and has connections with fields as diverse as nuclear physics and string theory. This volume will serve as a first point of reference for active researchers in the field, and will benefit the many non-specialists and graduate students who require a self-contained, approachable exposition of the subject matter.
## Ultracold Bosonic and Fermionic Gases

The rapidly developing topic of ultracold atoms has many actual and potential applications for condensed-matter science, and the contributions to this book emphasize these connections. Ultracold Bose and Fermi quantum gases are introduced at a level appropriate for first-year graduate students and non-specialists such as more mature general physicists. The reader will find answers to questions like: how are experiments conducted and how are the results interpreted? What are the advantages and limitations of ultracold atoms in studying many-body physics? How do experiments on ultracold atoms facilitate novel scientific opportunities relevant to the condensed-matted community? This volume seeks to be comprehensible rather than comprehensive; it aims at the level of a colloquium, accessible to outside readers, containing only minimal equations and limited references. In large part, it relies on many beautiful experiments from the past fifteen years and their very fruitful interplay with basic theoretical ideas. In this particular context, phenomena most relevant to condensed-matter science have been emphasized. Introduces ultracold Bose and Fermi quantum gases at a level appropriate for non-specialists Discusses landmark experiments and their fruitful interplay with basic theoretical ideas Comprehensible rather than comprehensive, containing only minimal equations
## Ultracold Bosonic and Fermionic Gases

The rapidly developing topic of ultracold atoms has many actual and potential applications for condensed-matter science, and the contributions to this book emphasize these connections. Ultracold Bose and Fermi quantum gases are introduced at a level appropriate for first-year graduate students and non-specialists such as more mature general physicists. The reader will find answers to questions like: how are experiments conducted and how are the results interpreted? What are the advantages and limitations of ultracold atoms in studying many-body physics? How do experiments on ultracold atoms facilitate novel scientific opportunities relevant to the condensed-matted community? This volume seeks to be comprehensible rather than comprehensive; it aims at the level of a colloquium, accessible to outside readers, containing only minimal equations and limited references. In large part, it relies on many beautiful experiments from the past fifteen years and their very fruitful interplay with basic theoretical ideas. In this particular context, phenomena most relevant to condensed-matter science have been emphasized. Introduces ultracold Bose and Fermi quantum gases at a level appropriate for non-specialists Discusses landmark experiments and their fruitful interplay with basic theoretical ideas Comprehensible rather than comprehensive, containing only minimal equations
## Many-Body Physics with Ultracold Gases

This book provides authoritative tutorials on the most recent achievements in the field of quantum gases at the interface between atomic physics and quantum optics, condensed matter physics, nuclear and high-energy physics, non-linear physics, and quantum information.
## Ultracold Quantum Fields

On June 19th 1999, the European Ministers of Education signed the Bologna Dec laration, with which they agreed that the European university education should be uniformized throughout Europe and based on the two cycle bachelor master’s sys tem. The Institute for Theoretical Physics at Utrecht University quickly responded to this new challenge and created an international master’s programme in Theoret ical Physics which started running in the summer of 2000. At present, the master’s programme is a so called prestige master at Utrecht University, and it aims at train ing motivated students to become sophisticated researchers in theoretical physics. The programme is built on the philosophy that modern theoretical physics is guided by universal principles that can be applied to any sub?eld of physics. As a result, the basis of the master’s programme consists of the obligatory courses Statistical Field Theory and Quantum Field Theory. These focus in particular on the general concepts of quantum ?eld theory, rather than on the wide variety of possible applica tions. These applications are left to optional courses that build upon the ?rm concep tual basis given in the obligatory courses. The subjects of these optional courses in clude, for instance, Strongly Correlated Electrons, Spintronics, Bose Einstein Con densation, The Standard Model, Cosmology, and String Theory.
## Quantum Matter at Ultralow Temperatures

The Enrico Fermi summer school on Quantum Matter at Ultralow Temperatures held on 7-15 July 2014 at Varenna, Italy, featured important frontiers in the field of ultracold atoms. For the last 25 years, this field has undergone dramatic developments, which were chronicled by several Varenna summer schools, in 1991 on Laser Manipulation of Atoms, in 1998 on Bose-Einstein Condensation in Atomic Gases, and in 2006 on Ultra-cold Fermi Gases. The theme of the 2014 school demonstrates that the field has now branched out into many different directions, where the tools and precision of atomic physics are used to realise new quantum systems, or in other words, to quantum-engineer interesting Hamiltonians. The topics of the school identify major new directions: Quantum gases with long range interactions, either due to strong magnetic dipole forces, due to Rydberg excitations, or, for polar molecules, due to electric dipole interactions; quantum gases in lower dimensions; quantum gases with disorder; atoms in optical lattices, now with single-site optical resolution; systems with non-trivial topological properties, e.g. with spin-orbit coupling or in artificial gauge fields; quantum impurity problems (Bose and Fermi polarons); quantum magnetism. Fermi gases with strong interactions, spinor Bose-Einstein condensates and coupled multi-component Bose gases or Bose-Fermi mixtures continue to be active areas. The current status of several of these areas is systematically summarized in this volume.
## Bose-Einstein Condensation in Dilute Gases

In 1925 Einstein predicted that at low temperatures particles in a gas could all reside in the same quantum state. This gaseous state, a Bose–Einstein condensate, was produced in the laboratory for the first time in 1995 and investigating such condensates has become one of the most active areas in contemporary physics. The study of Bose–Einstein condensates in dilute gases encompasses a number of different subfields of physics, including atomic, condensed matter, and nuclear physics. The authors of this graduate-level textbook explain this exciting new subject in terms of basic physical principles, without assuming detailed knowledge of any of these subfields. Chapters cover the statistical physics of trapped gases, atomic properties, cooling and trapping atoms, interatomic interactions, structure of trapped condensates, collective modes, rotating condensates, superfluidity, interference phenomena, and trapped Fermi gases. Problem sets are also included in each chapter.
## Recent Progress in Many-body Theories

Quantum many-body theory has greatly expanded its scope and depth over the past few years, treating more deeply long-standing issues like phase transitions and strongly-correlated systems, and simultaneously expanding into new areas such as cold atom physics and quantum information. This collection of contributions highlights recent advances in all these areas by leaders in their respective fields. Also included are some historic perspectives by L P Gor'kov and S T Belyaev, Feenberg Medal Recipients at this conference, and Nobel Laureate P W Anderson gives his unique outlook on the future of physics.The volume covers the key topics in many-body theory, tied together through advances in theoretical tools and computational techniques, and a unifying theme of fundamental approaches to quantum many-body physics.
## Synthetic Spin-orbit Coupling In Cold Atoms

## Bose-Einstein Condensation in Atomic Gases

Although first proposed by Einstein in 1924, Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in a gas was not achieved until 1995 when, using a combination of laser cooling and trapping, and magnetic trapping and evaporation, it was first observed in rubidium and then in lithium and sodium, cooled down to extremely low temperatures. This book brought together many leaders in both theory and experiment on Bose-Einstein condensation in gases. Their lectures provided a detailed coverage of the experimental techniques for the creation and study of BEC, as well as the theoretical foundation for understanding the properties of this novel system. This volume provides the first systematic review of the field and the many developments that have taken place in the past three years.
## Modern trends in Superconductivity and Superfluidity

This book concisely presents the latest trends in the physics of superconductivity and superfluidity and magnetism in novel systems, as well as the problem of BCS-BEC crossover in ultracold quantum gases and high-Tc superconductors. It further illuminates the intensive exchange of ideas between these closely related fields of condensed matter physics over the last 30 years of their dynamic development. The content is based on the author’s original findings obtained at the Kapitza Institute, as well as advanced lecture courses he held at the Moscow Engineering Physical Institute, Amsterdam University, Loughborough University and LPTMS Orsay between 1994 and 2011. In addition to the findings of his group, the author discusses the most recent concepts in these fields, obtained both in Russia and in the West. The book consists of 16 chapters which are divided into four parts. The first part describes recent developments in superfluid hydrodynamics of quantum fluids and solids, including the fashionable subject of possible supersolidity in quantum crystals of 4He, while the second describes BCS-BEC crossover in quantum Fermi-Bose gases and mixtures, as well as in the underdoped states of cuprates. The third part is devoted to non-phonon mechanisms of superconductivity in unconventional (anomalous) superconductors, including some important aspects of the theory of high-Tc superconductivity. |The last part considers the anomalous normal state of novel superconductive materials and materials with colossal magnetoresistance (CMR). The book offers a valuable guide for senior-level undergraduate students and graduate students, postdoctoral and other researchers specializing in solid-state and low-temperature physics.
## Quantum Gases

This volume provides a broad overview of the principal theoretical techniques applied to non-equilibrium and finite temperature quantum gases. Covering Bose-Einstein condensates, degenerate Fermi gases, and the more recently realised exciton-polariton condensates, it fills a gap by linking between different methods with origins in condensed matter physics, quantum field theory, quantum optics, atomic physics, and statistical mechanics.
## Interactions in Ultracold Gases

Arising from a workshop, this book surveys the physics of ultracold atoms and molecules taking into consideration the latest research on ultracold phenomena, such as Bose Einstein condensation and quantum computing. Several reputed authors provide an introduction to the field, covering recent experimental results on atom and molecule cooling as well as the theoretical treatment.

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