Transitional Justice in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union

Reckoning with the communist past

Author: Lavinia Stan

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 113597098X

Category: Law

Page: 328

View: 3821

During the last two decades, the countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union have attempted to address the numerous human rights abuses that characterized the decades of communist rule. This book examines the main processes of transitional justice that permitted societies in those countries to come to terms with their recent past. It explores lustration, the banning of communist officials and secret political police officers and informers from post-communist politic, ordinary citizens’ access to the remaining archives compiled on them by the communist secret police, as well as trials and court proceedings launched against former communist officials and secret agents for their human rights trespasses. Individual chapters explore the progress of transitional justice in Germany, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Slovenia and the successor states of the former Soviet Union. The chapters explain why different countries have employed different models to come to terms with their communist past; assess each country’s relative successes and failures; and probe the efficacy of country-specific legislation to attain the transitional justice goals for which it was developed. The book draws together the country cases into a comprehensive comparative analysis of the determinants of post-communist transitional justice, that will be relevant not only to scholars of post-communist transition, but also to anyone interested in transitional justice in other contexts.
Posted in Law

Transitional Justice in Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union

Reckoning with the Communist Past

Author: Assistant Professor of Political Science Lavinia Stan,Lavinia Stan

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135970998

Category: Law

Page: 328

View: 5955

During the last two decades, the countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union have attempted to address the numerous human rights abuses that characterized the decades of communist rule. This book examines the main processes of transitional justice that permitted societies in those countries to come to terms with their recent past. It explores lustration, the banning of communist officials and secret political police officers and informers from post-communist politic, ordinary citizens’ access to the remaining archives compiled on them by the communist secret police, as well as trials and court proceedings launched against former communist officials and secret agents for their human rights trespasses. Individual chapters explore the progress of transitional justice in Germany, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Slovenia and the successor states of the former Soviet Union. The chapters explain why different countries have employed different models to come to terms with their communist past; assess each country’s relative successes and failures; and probe the efficacy of country-specific legislation to attain the transitional justice goals for which it was developed. The book draws together the country cases into a comprehensive comparative analysis of the determinants of post-communist transitional justice, that will be relevant not only to scholars of post-communist transition, but also to anyone interested in transitional justice in other contexts.
Posted in Law

Transitional Justice in Post-Communist Romania

The Politics of Memory

Author: Lavinia Stan

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107020530

Category: Law

Page: 288

View: 5549

This is the first volume to overview the complex Romanian transitional justice effort, detail the political negotiations that have led to the adoption and implementation of relevant legislation, and assess these processes in terms of their timing, sequencing, and impact on democratization.
Posted in Law

The European Union and its Eastern Neighbours

Towards a More Ambitious Partnership?

Author: Elena Korosteleva

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136471782

Category: Political Science

Page: 208

View: 1260

This book explores the EU’s relations with its eastern neighbours. Based on extensive original research – including surveys, focus-groups, a study of school essays and in-depth interviews with key people in Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Russia and in Brussels – it assesses why the EU’s initiatives have received limited legitimacy in the neighbourhood. The European Neighbourhood Policy of 2004, and the subsequent Eastern Partnership of 2009 heralded a new form of relations with the EU’s neighbours – partnership based on joint ownership and shared values – which would complement if not entirely replace the EU’s traditional governance framework used for enlargement. These initiatives have, however, received a mixed response from the EU’s eastern neighbours. The book shows how the key elements of partnership have been forged mainly by the EU, rather than jointly, and examines the idea and application of external governance, and how this has been over-prescriptive and confusing.
Posted in Political Science

The Transition to Democracy in Hungary

Árpád Göncz and the Post-Communist Hungarian Presidency

Author: Dae Soon Kim

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 113504550X

Category: Social Science

Page: 296

View: 7530

Unlike in other countries of Eastern Europe where the opposition to communism came in the form of single mass movements led by charismatic leaders such as Václav Havel and Lech Wałęsa, in Hungary the opposition was very fragmented, brought together and made effective only by the authoritative, significant but relatively unknown Árpád Göncz, who subsequently became Hungary’s first post-communist president. This book charts the political career of Árpád Göncz, outlining the outstanding contribution he made to Hungary’s transition to democracy. Drawing on a wide range of sources, including archives and interviews with Göncz himself and others, it shows how Göncz, unlike Havel who was a playwright and whose political role was largely symbolic, was a campaigning politician all his life, consistently advocating social democratic, but not communist, values. Imprisoned from 1956 for his participation in the 1956 uprising, Göncz was a highly-effective political operator in the transition period around 1989, and as president wielded real power effectively. As politics in Hungary are again marred by deep division and fragmentation, Göncz’s success in bringing rival groups together is even more pronounced.
Posted in Social Science

The Making and Breaking of Soviet Lithuania

Memory and Modernity in the Wake of War

Author: Violeta Davoli?t?

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134693583

Category: Social Science

Page: 212

View: 610

Appearing on the world stage in 1918, Lithuania suffered numerous invasions, border changes and large scale population displacements.The successive occupations of Stalin in 1940 and Hitler in 1941, mass deportations to the Gulag and the elimination of the Jewish community in the Holocaust gave the horrors of World War II a special ferocity. Moreover, the fighting continued after 1945 with the anti-Soviet insurrection, crushed through mass deportations and forced collectivization in 1948-1951. At no point, however, did the process of national consolidation take a pause, making Lithuania an improbably representative case study of successful nation-building in this troubled region. As postwar reconstruction gained pace, ethnic Lithuanians from the countryside – the only community to remain after the war in significant numbers – were mobilized to work in the cities. They streamed into factory and university alike, creating a modern urban society, with new elites who had a surprising degree of freedom to promote national culture. This book describes how the national cultural elites constructed a Soviet Lithuanian identity against a backdrop of forced modernization in the fifties and sixties, and how they subsequently took it apart by evoking the memory of traumatic displacement in the seventies and eighties, later emerging as prominent leaders of the popular movement against Soviet rule.
Posted in Social Science

Post-Communist Transitional Justice

Lessons from Twenty-Five Years of Experience

Author: Lavinia Stan,Nadya Nedelsky

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316272664

Category: Law

Page: N.A

View: 7444

Taking stock of the twenty-fifth anniversary of the collapse of the communist regimes of Central and Eastern Europe, this volume explores how these societies have grappled with the serious human rights violations of past regimes. It focuses on the most important factors that have shaped the nature, speed, and sequence of transitional justice programs in the period spanning the revolutions that brought about the collapse of the communist dictatorships and the consolidation of new democratic regimes. Contributors explain why leaders made certain choices, discuss the challenges they faced, and explore the role of under-studied actors and grassroots strategies. Written by recognized experts with an unparalleled grasp of the region's communist and post-communist reality, this volume addresses far-reaching reckoning, redress, and retribution policy choices. It is an engaging, carefully crafted volume, which covers a wide variety of cases and discusses key transitional justice theories using both qualitative and quantitative research methods.
Posted in Law

Soviet Economic Management Under Khrushchev

The Sovnarkhoz Reform

Author: Nataliya Kibita

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135047227

Category: Social Science

Page: 224

View: 2578

The Sovnarkhoz Reform of 1957 was designed by Khrushchev to improve efficiency in the Soviet economic system by decentralising economic decision making from all-Union branch ministries in Moscow to the governments of the individual republics and regional economic councils. Based on extensive original research, including unpublished archival material, this book examines the reform, discussing the motivations for it, which included Khrushchev's attempt to strengthen his own power base. The book explores how the process of reform was implemented, especially its impact on the republics, and analyses why the reform, which was reversed in 1959, failed. Overall, the book reveals a great deal about the workings, and the shortcomings, of the Soviet economic system at its height.
Posted in Social Science

Post-Communist Poland – Contested Pasts and Future Identities

Author: Ewa Ochman

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135916004

Category: Social Science

Page: 224

View: 7841

This book explores the reinterpretations of Poland’s past which have been undertaken by Polish national and local elites since the fall of communism. It focuses on remembrance practices and traces the de-commemorating of communism to examine the ways in which collective remembering and forgetting shapes present power constellations in Poland and impacts on foreign and domestic policy. The book outlines the detail of the new hegemonic national myths which are being established but also investigates fragmentation and diversification of commemorative practices at the local level that has the most potential to challenge the dominant vision of national Polish identity, historically centred on martyrdom, heroism and independence, as less relevant to Poland’s new aspirations for the future.
Posted in Social Science

Justice, Memory and Redress in Romania

New Insights

Author: Lavinia Stan,Lucian Turcescu

Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing

ISBN: 1443862592

Category: Social Science

Page: 360

View: 5361

Are there any lessons Romania can teach transitional justice scholars and practitioners? This book argues that important insights emerge when analyzing a country with a moderate record of coming to terms with its communist past. Taking a broad definition of transitional justice as their starting point, contributors provide fresh assessments of the history commission, court trials, public identifications of former communist perpetrators, commemorations, and unofficial artistic projects that seek to address and redress the legacies of communist human rights violations. Theoretical and practical questions regarding the continuity of state agencies, the sequencing of initiatives, their advantages and limitations, the reasons why some reckoning programs are enacted and others are not, and these measures’ efficacy in promoting truth and justice are answered throughout the volume. Contributors include seasoned scholars from Romania, Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom, and current and former leaders of key Romanian transitional justice institutions.
Posted in Social Science

Angst

Antisemitismus nach Auschwitz in Polen

Author: Jan T. Gross

Publisher: Suhrkamp Verlag

ISBN: 3518782002

Category: History

Page: 360

View: 2087

Bei Pogromen gegen Juden wurden in Polen nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg mehr als 1500 Menschen getötet. Woher kam dieser Haß? Wieso nahm der Antisemitismus derart aggressive Formen an? Jan T. Gross zeigt, wie sich der traditionelle katholische Antisemitismus durch die deutsche Besatzung radikalisierte und nach der Befreiung durch die Rote Armee fortbestand, vor allem im Glauben an einen »jüdischen Bolschewismus«. Der Autor schildert die Auseinandersetzungen innerhalb der polnischen Gesellschaft um das Verhältnis zu den Juden, er zeigt detailliert, wie es 1945 und 1946 zu den großen Pogromen von Rzeszów, Krakau und Kielce kam. Diese waren keine Erscheinungen am Rande der Gesellschaft, sondern sie fanden mit Unterstützung der Bevölkerung statt. Gross sieht im polnischen Antisemitismus ein Zeichen der »Angst«: die Angst vor den Rückkehrern und nicht zuletzt die Angst, den Besitz der jüdischen Nachbarn wieder zu verlieren, den man sich unter den Deutschen angeeignet hatte.
Posted in History

Transitional Justice

How Emerging Democracies Reckon with Former Regimes

Author: Neil J. Kritz

Publisher: US Institute of Peace Press

ISBN: 9781878379436

Category: Law

Page: 834

View: 5230

Assembles a rich variety of legal, political, and philosophical perspectives on how societies can deal with the legacy of repression.
Posted in Law

States of Denial

Knowing about Atrocities and Suffering

Author: Stanley Cohen

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0745656781

Category: Social Science

Page: 360

View: 7431

Blocking out, turning a blind eye, shutting off, not wanting to know, wearing blinkers, seeing what we want to see ... these are all expressions of 'denial'. Alcoholics who refuse to recognize their condition, people who brush aside suspicions of their partner's infidelity, the wife who doesn't notice that her husband is abusing their daughter - are supposedly 'in denial'. Governments deny their responsibility for atrocities, and plan them to achieve 'maximum deniability'. Truth Commissions try to overcome the suppression and denial of past horrors. Bystander nations deny their responsibility to intervene. Do these phenomena have anything in common? When we deny, are we aware of what we are doing or is this an unconscious defence mechanism to protect us from unwelcome truths? Can there be cultures of denial? How do organizations like Amnesty and Oxfam try to overcome the public's apparent indifference to distant suffering and cruelty? Is denial always so bad - or do we need positive illusions to retain our sanity? States of Denial is the first comprehensive study of both the personal and political ways in which uncomfortable realities are avoided and evaded. It ranges from clinical studies of depression, to media images of suffering, to explanations of the 'passive bystander' and 'compassion fatigue'. The book shows how organized atrocities - the Holocaust and other genocides, torture, and political massacres - are denied by perpetrators and by bystanders, those who stand by and do nothing.
Posted in Social Science

Geschichtspolitik im erweiterten Ostseeraum und ihre aktuellen Symptome

Author: Oliver Rathkolb,Imbi Sooman

Publisher: V&R unipress GmbH

ISBN: 3899718038

Category: History

Page: 214

View: 9779

English summary: English summary: This anthology focuses on the comparison of historical memory debates concerning Holocaust, National Socialism, Communism and Stalinism in the larger Baltic sea area since the 1990s. As the enlarged Baltic Sea Region through its entire history was filled with conflict lines and cooperation regions, it offers an ideal field of research for various theories, notions and narratives of the cultural historical memory as well as for patterns of conflict solutions and can be productively compared with structurally similar border regions. History has left deep traces in the relationships between the regions or states of the Baltic Sea Region as well as in the interaction between majorities and minorities in the single states. As history, in having its impact also upon the border-crossing dialogue of this old region, essentially and subconsciously contributes to today's Region-Building of North-Eastern Europe, we regard it important to be consciously aware of its influence. German description: Seit dem Ende des Kalten Krieges ist die Auseinandersetzung mit der Geschichte des 20. Jahrhunderts auch im erweiterten Ostseeraum gepragt von der Beschaftigung mit Geschichtspolitik und Erinnerung (Memory) sowie der Suche nach transnationalen vergleichenden europaischen Zugangen zu bisher nationalgeschichtlich gepragten Perspektiven. Dieser Band analysiert den europaischen Raum im ostlichen Norden am Beispiel der geschichtspolitischen Debatten seit 1991. Im Zentrum stehen zentrale historische Leitbilddebatten in den Transformationsphasen der estnischen, lettischen und litauischen Gesellschaften. Dabei hat die Reflexion uber die kommunistische Diktatur einen hohen Stellenwert; ebenso die Auseinandersetzung mit Zweitem Weltkrieg und Holocaust. Als geschichtspolitische Kontrollgruppe werden Finnland, Schweden und Deutschland eingebunden. German description: Seit dem Ende des Kalten Krieges ist die Auseinandersetzung mit der Geschichte des 20. Jahrhunderts auch im erweiterten Ostseeraum gepragt von der Beschaftigung mit Geschichtspolitik und Erinnerung (Memory) sowie der Suche nach transnationalen vergleichenden europaischen Zugangen zu bisher nationalgeschichtlich gepragten Perspektiven. Dieser Band analysiert den europaischen Raum im ostlichen Norden am Beispiel der geschichtspolitischen Debatten seit 1991. Im Zentrum stehen zentrale historische Leitbilddebatten in den Transformationsphasen der estnischen, lettischen und litauischen Gesellschaften. Dabei hat die Reflexion uber die kommunistische Diktatur einen hohen Stellenwert; ebenso die Auseinandersetzung mit Zweitem Weltkrieg und Holocaust. Als geschichtspolitische Kontrollgruppe werden Finnland, Schweden und Deutschland eingebunden.
Posted in History

Building Trust and Democracy

Transitional Justice in Post-Communist Countries

Author: Cynthia M. Horne

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0192511807

Category: Political Science

Page: 400

View: 9779

This volume explores the effects of transitional justice measures on trust-building and democratization across twelve countries in Central and Eastern Europe and parts of the Former Soviet Union over the period 19892012. The author argues that transitional justice measures have a differentiated impact on political and social trust-building, supporting some aspects of political trust and undermining other aspects of social trust. Moreover, the structure, scope, timing, and implementation of transitional justice measures condition outcomes. More expansive and compulsory institutional change mechanisms register the largest effects, with limited and voluntary change mechanisms having a diminished effect, and more informal and largely symbolic measures having the most attenuated effect. These differentiated and conditional effects are also evident with respect to transition goals like supporting democratic consolidation and reducing corruption, since these goals respond differently to the mixtures of institutional and symbolic reforms found in transitional justice programs. The author develops an original transitional justice typology in order to test hypotheses linking trust-building and transitional justice across twelve cases in the post-communist region. The resulting new datasets allow for a quantitative examination of the relationship between different types of transitional justice programs and a range of possible state building and societal reconciliation goals, including political trust-building, social trust-building, democratization, the strengthening of civil society, the promotion of government effectiveness, and the reduction of corruption. Comparative case studies of four transitional justice programs-Hungary, Romania, Poland, and Bulgariadraw on field work, primary and historical documents, and interview materials to explicate trust-building dynamics, with particular attention to regime complicity challenges, historical memory issues, and communist legacies. Oxford Studies in Democratization is a series for scholars and students of comparative politics and related disciplines. Volumes concentrate on the comparative study of the democratization process that accompanied the decline and termination of the cold war. The geographical focus of the series is primarily Latin America, the Caribbean, Southern and Eastern Europe, and relevant experiences in Africa and Asia. The series editor is Laurence Whitehead, Senior Research Fellow, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
Posted in Political Science

Transitional and Retrospective Justice in the Baltic States

Author: Eva-Clarita Pettai,Vello Pettai

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107049490

Category: History

Page: 390

View: 2135

More than twenty years after the fall of communism, many countries in Central and Eastern Europe are still seeking truth and justice for the repression suffered under communist rule. This search has been particularly notable in the Baltic states, given the three countries' histories as both former Soviet republics and later member-states of the European Union. On the one hand, the legacy of Stalinist oppression was more severe in these countries than elsewhere in Central Europe, but on the other hand much of this past could more easily be externalized onto the former Soviet Union (and by extension Russia) following re-independence. Transitional and Retrospective Justice in the Baltic States develops a novel conceptual framework in order to understand the politics involved with transitional and retrospective justice, and then applies this outline to the Baltic states to analyse more systematic patterns of truth- and justice-seeking in the post-communist world.
Posted in History

Uncivil Societies

Human Rights and Democratic Transitions in Eastern Europe and Latin America

Author: Rachel A. May

Publisher: Lexington Books

ISBN: 9780739120651

Category: Political Science

Page: 316

View: 4530

Rachel A. May and Andrew K. Milton have assembled an array of scholars from different disciplines to examine transitional governments in Eastern Europe and Latin America. Drawing on specific political conditions and organized around topics such as the media, political parties, and political violence, (Un)Civil Societies broadens the discussion about democratization both thematically and geographically.
Posted in Political Science