Transboundary Marine Spatial Planning and International Law

Author: Daud Hassan,Tuomas Kuokkanen,Niko Soininen

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317810589

Category: Law

Page: 248

View: 3222

Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) is an integrated and comprehensive approach to ocean governance and is used to establish a rational use of marine space and reconcile conflicting interests of its users. MSP allows both a high level of environmental protection and a wide range of human activities and emphasizes coordinated networks of national, regional and global institutions. This book focuses on the framework of international law behind MSP and especially on the transboundary aspects of MSP. It first sets out a general framework for transboundary MSP and then moves on to compare and assess differences and similarities between different regions. Specific detailed case studies include the EU with the focus on the Baltic Sea and North Sea, the Bay of Bengal and Great Barrier Reef in Australia. The authors examine the national and regional significance of MSP from an integrated and sustainable ocean governance point of view. They also show how transboundary MSP can create opportunities and positive initiatives for cross-border cooperation and contribute to the effective protection of the regional marine environment.
Posted in Law

Offshore Energy and Marine Spatial Planning

Author: Katherine L. Yates,Corey J. A. Bradshaw

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317356411

Category: Nature

Page: 300

View: 2456

Offshore energy generation is a rapidly growing sector, competing for space in an already busy seascape. This book brings together the ecological, economic, and social implications of the spatial conflict this growth entails. Covering all energy-generation types (wind, wave, tidal, oil, and gas), it explores the direct and indirect impacts the growth of offshore energy generation has on both the marine environment and the existing uses of marine space. Chapters cover the main issues associated with offshore energy, such as the displacement of existing activities and the negative impacts it can have on marine species and ecosystems, including marine mammals, birds, and fish. While the growth in offshore energy generation is driven by increasing energy demand, it also presents new opportunities for collaboration and co-location with other sectors, for example, the co-location of wild-capture fisheries and wind farms. The book integrates all of the main issues and opportunities regarding offshore energy development, and demonstrates the importance of holistic marine spatial planning for optimising the location of energy-generation sites. It demonstrates the importance of stakeholder engagement in these planning processes and the role of integrated governance, including case studies from the USA, United Kingdom, northern Europe, and the Mediterranean. It also discusses trade-off analysis and decision theory, and provides a range of tools and best practices to inform future planning processes.
Posted in Nature

Transboundary Environmental Governance

Inland, Coastal and Marine Perspectives

Author: Simon Marsden

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317008057

Category: Law

Page: 400

View: 2819

Effective protection of the marine and terrestrial environment increasingly requires cooperation between neighbouring States, international organizations, government entities and communities within States. This book analyses key aspects of transboundary environmental law and policy and their implementation in Asia, Australasia and Australian offshore territories, and surrounding areas beyond national jurisdiction including Antarctica. It discusses the potential for implementing key transboundary environmental mechanisms such as the 1991 Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context (Espoo Convention) and its 1997 Protocol on Strategic Environmental Assessment (Kiev Protocol) in Australia and Asia drawing on experience from other regions and the potential application of these agreements to all UN member states. The book makes an innovative contribution to research in the area of transboundary environmental governance particularly as it applies to Asia, Australasia and international areas, supplementing similar research which has predominantly focused on Europe and North America.
Posted in Law

Marine Policy

An Introduction to Governance and International Law of the Oceans

Author: Mark Zacharias

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136212469

Category: Nature

Page: 336

View: 1924

This textbook provides the reader with a foundation in policy development and analysis and describes how policy, including legal mechanisms, is applied to marine environments around the world. It offers a systematic treatment of all aspects of marine policy, including environmental protection, fisheries, transportation, energy, mining and climate change. It starts with a biophysical overview of the structure and function of the marine environment with a particular emphasis on the challenges and opportunities of managing the marine environment. An overview of the creation and function of international law is then provided with a focus on international marine law. It explores the geographic and jurisdictional dimensions of marine policy, as well the current and anticipated challenges facing marine systems, including climate change-related impacts and resource over-exploitation. The book should appeal to senior undergraduate and graduate students and form a core part of the curriculum for marine affairs, science and policy courses. It will also provide supplementary reading for students taking a course in the law of the oceans, but is not aimed at legal specialists.
Posted in Nature

Routledge Handbook of Ocean Resources and Management

Author: Hance D. Smith,Juan Luis Suárez de Vivero,Tundi S. Agardy

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136294821

Category: Science

Page: 612

View: 4842

This comprehensive handbook provides a global overview of ocean resources and management by focusing on critical issues relating to human development and the marine environment, their interrelationships as expressed through the uses of the sea as a resource, and the regional expression of these themes. The underlying approach is geographical, with prominence given to the biosphere, political arrangements and regional patterns – all considered to be especially crucial to the human understanding required for the use and management of the world's oceans. Part one addresses key themes in our knowledge of relationships between people and the sea on a global scale, including economic and political issues, and understanding and managing marine environments. Part two provides a systematic review of the uses of the sea, grouped into food, ocean space, materials and energy, and the sea as an environmental resource. Part three on the geography of the sea considers management strategies especially related to the state system, and regional management developments in both core economic regions and the developing periphery. The primary themes within each chapter are governance (including institutional and legal bases); policy – sets of ideas governing management; and management, both technical and general.
Posted in Science

Marine and Coastal Resource Management

Principles and Practice

Author: David R. Green,Jeffrey L. Payne

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136460330

Category: Science

Page: 328

View: 8286

In this new and highly original textbook for a range of interdisciplinary courses and degree programmes focusing on marine and coastal resource management, readers are offered an introduction to the subject matter, a broad perspective and understanding, case study applications, and a reference source. Each chapter is written by an international authority and expert in the respective field, providing perspectives from physical and human geography, marine biology and fisheries, planning and surveying, law, technology, environmental change, engineering, and tourism. In addition to an overview of the theory and practice of its subject area, many chapters include detailed case studies to illustrate the applications, including relationships to decision-making requirements at local, regional, and national levels. Each chapter also includes a list of references for further reading, with a selection of key journal papers and URLs. Overall, this volume provides a key textbook for undergraduate and postgraduate courses and for the coastal or marine practitioner, as well as a long-term reference for students.
Posted in Science

Marine Transboundary Conservation and Protected Areas

Author: Peter Mackelworth

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317530462

Category: Nature

Page: 314

View: 5503

The marine environment does not naturally respect arbitrary international boundaries. The establishment and management of transboundary marine protected areas therefore presents major governance challenges. This book analyses a series of marine transboundary conservation initiatives embedded in varying contextual situations to examine the underlying reasons for their success or failure. Utilising an adapted ‘pathways of influence’ framework, it provides insights into the development of marine transboundary conservation initiatives looking at the effectiveness of international rules, international norms and discourse, market forces and direct access to policy making. Examples come from a wide range of jurisdictions, including territorial seas, continental shelves, exclusive economic zones and areas beyond national jurisdiction. Case studies include initiatives in the Coral Triangle, West Africa, Central America, the Wadden Sea, the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. In addition the authors assess the potential for developing wider international cooperation as a result of relationships forged though involvement within these marine transboundary conservation initiatives.
Posted in Nature

The Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam and the Nile Basin

Implications for Transboundary Water Cooperation

Author: Zeray Yihdego,Alistair Rieu-Clarke,Ana Elisa Cascão

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351661558

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 224

View: 2073

The Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) will not only be Africa’s largest dam, but it is also essential for future cooperation and development in the Nile River Basin and East African region. This book, after setting out basin-level legal and policy successes and failures of managing and sharing Nile waters, articulates the opportunities and challenges surrounding the GERD through multiple disciplinary lenses. It sets out its possibilities as a basis for a new era of cooperation, its regional and global implications, the benefits of cooperation and coordination in dam filling, and the need for participatory and transparent decision making. By applying law, political science and hydrology to sharing water resources in general and to large-scale dam building, filling and operating in particular, it offers concrete qualitative and quantitative options that are essential to promote cooperation and coordination in utilising and preserving Nile waters. The book incorporates the economic dimension and draws on recent developments including: the signing of a legally binding contract by Egypt, Ethiopia and Sudan to carry out an impact assessment study; the possibility that the GERD might be partially operational very soon, the completion of transmission lines from GERD to Addis Ababa; and the announcement of Sudan to commence construction of transmission lines from GERD to its main cities. The implications of these are assessed and lessons learned for transboundary water cooperation and conflict management.
Posted in Technology & Engineering

The International Law of Transboundary Groundwater Resources

Author: Gabriel Eckstein

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317551303

Category: Law

Page: 174

View: 4257

This book provides a comprehensive review of the state of international law as it applies to transboundary groundwater resources and aquifers. The main focus is on recent developments and the emerging international law for transboundary aquifers as reflected in the practice of states and the work of the UN International Law Commission, UN Economic Commission for Europe, and International Law Association. The author takes an interdisciplinary approach to the subject matter and provides the scientific hydro-geological underpinning for the application of law and policy to transboundary groundwater resources. He also addresses the growing global dependence on this hidden resource, as well as both the historical and scientific context for development of the law. The book provides case examples throughout to illustrate the various concepts and developments. These include more detailed examinations of the few existing transboundary aquifer agreements in operation, such as for aquifers between France and Switzerland and Jordan and Saudi Arabia, as well as aquifers in North Africa and in South America.
Posted in Law

Water Policy, Imagination and Innovation

Interdisciplinary Approaches

Author: Robyn Bartel,Louise Noble,Jacqueline Williams,Stephen Harris

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351747495

Category: Social Science

Page: 270

View: 2889

This book explores creative interdisciplinary and potentially transformative solutions to the current stalemate in contemporary water policy design. A more open policy conversation about water than exists at present is proposed – one that provides a space for the role of the imagination and is inclusive – of the arts and humanities, relevant stakeholders, including landholders and Indigenous peoples, as well as science, law and economics. Written for a wide audience, including practitioners and professional readers, as well as scholars and students, the book demonstrates the value of multiple disciplines, voices, perspectives, knowledges and different ways of relating to water. It provides a fresh and timely response to the urgent need for water policy that works to achieve sustainability, and may be better able to resolve complex environmental, social and cultural water issues. Utilising a broad range of evidentiary sources and case studies from Australia, New Zealand, Canada and elsewhere, the authors of this edited collection demonstrate how new ways of thinking and imagining water are not only possible but already practised, and growing in saliency and impact. The current dominance of narrower ways of conceptualising our relationship with water is critiqued, including market valuation and water privatisation, and more innovative alternatives are described, including those that recognise the importance of place-based stories and narratives, adopt traditional ecological knowledge and relational water appreciations, and apply cutting-edge behavioural and ecological systems science. The book highlights how innovative approaches drawing on a wide range of views may counter prevailing policy myopia, enable reflexive governance and transform water policy towards addressing water security questions and the broader challenges posed by the Anthropocene and the UN Sustainable Development Goals.
Posted in Social Science

Transboundary Water Management

Principles and Practice

Author: Anton Earle

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136531092

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 280

View: 4315

The management of water resources across boundaries, whether sub-national or international, is one of the most difficult challenges facing water managers today. The upstream exploitation or diversion of groundwater or rivers can have devastating consequences for those living downstream, and transboundary rivers can provide a source of conflict between nations or states, particularly where water resources are scarce. Similarly, water based-pollution can spread across borders and create disputes and a need for sound governance. This book is the first to bring together in a concise and accessible way all of the main topics to be considered when managing transboundary waters. It will raise the awareness of practitioners of the various issues needed to be taken into account when making water management decisions and provide a practically-based overview for advanced students. The authors show clearly how vital it is to cooperate effectively over the management of shared waters to unlock their contribution to regional sustainable development. The book is largely based on a long-running and tested international training programme, run by the Stockholm International Water Institute and Ramboll Natura, and supported by the Swedish International Development Co-operation Agency (Sida), where the respective authors have presented modules on the programmes. It addresses issues not only of conflict, but also of managing power asymmetries, benefit-sharing, stakeholder participation, international water law, environmental water requirements and regional development. It will be particularly useful for those with a background in hydrology or engineering who wish to broaden their management skills.
Posted in Technology & Engineering

The Zambezi River Basin

Water and sustainable development

Author: Jonathan Lautze,Zebediah Phiri,Vladimir Smakhtin,Davison Saruchera

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1315282038

Category: Nature

Page: 256

View: 6515

The Zambezi river is the fourth longest in Africa, crossing or bordering Zambia, Angola, Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe and Mozambique. The river basin is widely recognised as one of the most important basins in southern Africa and is the focus of contested development, including water for hydropower and for agriculture and the environment. This book provides a thorough review of water and sustainable development in the Zambezi, in order to identify critical issues and propose constructive ways forward. The book first reviews the availability and use of water resources in the basin, outlines the basin’s economic potential and highlights key concerns related to climate vulnerability and risk. Focus is then devoted to hydropower and the water-energy-food (WEF) nexus, sustainable agricultural water management, and threats and opportunities related to provision of ecosystem services. The impact of urbanisation and water quality is also examined, as well as ways to enhance transboundary water cooperation. Last, the book assesses the level of water security in the basin, and provides suggestions for achieving Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6. Throughout, emphasis is placed on entry points for basin-level management to foster improved paths forward.
Posted in Nature

Governing the Coastal Commons

Communities, Resilience and Transformation

Author: Derek Armitage,Anthony Charles,Fikret Berkes

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1317421280

Category: Nature

Page: 272

View: 1910

Coastal communities depend on the marine environment for their livelihoods, but the common property nature of marine resources poses major challenges for the governance of such resources. Through detailed cases and consideration of broader global trends, this volume examines how coastal communities are adapting to environmental change, and the attributes of governance that foster deliberate transformations and help to build resilience of social and ecological systems. Governance here reflects how communities, societies and organisations (e.g. fisher cooperatives, government agencies) choose to organise themselves to make decisions about important issues, such as the use and protection of coastal commons (e.g. fishery resources). The book shows how a governance approach generates insights into the specific forms and arrangements that enable coastal communities to steer away from unsustainable pathways. It also provides an analytical lens to consider important questions of power, knowledge and legitimacy in linked social-ecological systems. Chapters highlight examples in which communities are engaging in deliberative transformations to build resilience and enhance their well-being. These transformations and efforts to build resilience are emerging through multi-level collaboration, shared learning, innovative policies and institutional arrangements (such as new property rights regimes and co-management), methodologies that engage with indigenous cultural practices, and entrepreneurial activities, including income and livelihood diversification. Case studies are included from a range of countries including Canada, Japan, Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, South Africa, Thailand, the South Pacific and Europe. The authors integrate theory with practical examples to improve coastal marine policy and governance, and draw upon emerging concepts from social-ecological resilience and transformations, adaptive governance and the scholarship on the commons.
Posted in Nature

China's International Transboundary Rivers

Politics, Security and Diplomacy of Shared Water Resources

Author: Lei Xie,Jia Shaofeng

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134973861

Category: Political Science

Page: 222

View: 3988

China has forty major transboundary watercourses with neighbouring countries, and has frequently been accused of harming its downstream neighbours through its domestic water management policies, such as the construction of dams for hydropower. This book provides an understanding of water security in Asia by investigating how shared water resources affect China’s relationships with neighbouring countries in South, East, Southeast and Central Asia. Since China is an upstream state on most of its shared transboundary rivers, the country’s international water policy is at the core of Asia’s water security. These water disputes have had strong implications for China’s interstate relations, and also influenced its international water policy alongside domestic concerns over water resource management. This book investigates China’s policy responses to domestic water crises and examines China’s international water policy as well as its strategy in dealing with international cooperation. The authors describe the key elements of water diplomacy in Asia which demonstrate varying degrees of effectiveness of environmental agreements. It shows how China has established various institutional arrangements with neighbouring countries, primarily in the form of bilateral agreements over hydrological data exchange. Detailed case studies are included of the Mekong, Brahmaputra, Ili and Amur rivers.
Posted in Political Science

Marine Transboundary Conservation and Protected Areas

Author: Peter Mackelworth

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317530454

Category: Nature

Page: 326

View: 6664

The marine environment does not naturally respect arbitrary international boundaries. The establishment and management of transboundary marine protected areas therefore presents major governance challenges. This book analyses a series of marine transboundary conservation initiatives embedded in varying contextual situations to examine the underlying reasons for their success or failure. Utilising an adapted ‘pathways of influence’ framework, it provides insights into the development of marine transboundary conservation initiatives looking at the effectiveness of international rules, international norms and discourse, market forces and direct access to policy making. Examples come from a wide range of jurisdictions, including territorial seas, continental shelves, exclusive economic zones and areas beyond national jurisdiction. Case studies include initiatives in the Coral Triangle, West Africa, Central America, the Wadden Sea, the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. In addition the authors assess the potential for developing wider international cooperation as a result of relationships forged though involvement within these marine transboundary conservation initiatives.
Posted in Nature

Governing Marine Protected Areas

Resilience through Diversity

Author: Peter J.S. Jones

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136455221

Category: Science

Page: 256

View: 1742

In this innovative volume, the author addresses some important challenges related to the effective and equitable governance of marine protected areas (MPAs). These challenges are explored through a study of 20 MPA case studies from around the world. A novel governance analysis framework is employed to address some key questions: How can top-down and bottom-up approaches to MPA governance be combined? What does this mean, in reality, in different contexts? How can we develop and implement governance approaches that are both effective in achieving conservation objectives and equitable in fairly sharing associated costs and benefits? The author explores the many issues that these questions raise, as well as exploring options for addressing them. A key theme is that MPA governance needs to combine people, state and market approaches, rather than being based on one approach and its related ideals. Building on a critique of the governance analysis framework developed for common-pool resources, the author puts forward a more holistic and less prescriptive framework for deconstructing and analyzing the governance of MPAs. This inter-disciplinary analysis is aimed at supporting the development of MPA governance approaches that build social-ecological resilience through both institutional and biological diversity. It will also make a significant contribution to wider debates on natural resource governance, as it poses some critical questions for contemporary approaches to related research and offers an alternative theoretical and empirical approach.
Posted in Science

Governing Transboundary Waters

Canada, the United States, and Indigenous Communities

Author: Emma S. Norman

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135040206

Category: Nature

Page: 220

View: 495

Winner of the Political Geography Specialty Group's 2015 Julian Minghi Distinguished Book Award! With almost the entire world’s water basins crossing political borders of some kind, understanding how to cooperate with one’s neighbor is of global relevance. For Indigenous communities, whose traditional homelands may predate and challenge the current borders, and whose relationship to water sources are linked to the protection of traditional lifeways (or ‘ways of life’), transboundary water governance is deeply political. This book explores the nuances of transboundary water governance through an in-depth examination of the Canada-US border, with an emphasis on the leadership of Indigenous actors (First Nations and Native Americans). The inclusion of this "third sovereign" in the discussion of Canada-U.S. relations provides an important avenue to challenge borders as fixed, both in terms of natural resource governance and citizenship, and highlights the role of non-state actors in charting new territory in water governance. The volume widens the conversation to provide a rich analysis of the cultural politics of transboundary water governance. In this context, the book explores the issue of what makes a good up-stream neighbor and analyzes the rescaling of transboundary water governance. Through narrative, the book explores how these governance mechanisms are linked to wider issues of environmental justice, decolonization, and self-determination. To highlight the changing patterns of water governance, it focuses on six case studies that grapple with transboundary water issues at different scales and with different constructions of border politics, from the Pacific coastline to the Great Lakes.
Posted in Nature

Biodiversity, Conservation and Environmental Management in the Great Lakes Basin

Author: Eric Freedman,Mark Neuzil

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351977040

Category: Nature

Page: 236

View: 2525

The Great Lakes Basin in North America holds more than 20 percent of the world's fresh water. Threats to habitats and biodiversity have economic, political, national security, and cultural implications and ramifications that cross the US-Canadian border. This multidisciplinary book presents the latest research to demonstrate the interconnected nature of the challenges facing the Basin. Chapters by U.S. and Canadian scholars and practitioners represent a wide range of natural science and social science fields, including environmental sciences, geography, political science, natural resources, mass communications, environmental history and communication, public health, and economics. The book covers threats from invasive species, industrial development, climate change, agricultural and chemical runoff, species extinction, habitat restoration, environmental disease, indigenous conservation efforts, citizen engagement, environmental regulation, and pollution.Overall the book provides political, cultural, economic, scientific, and social contexts for recognizing and addressing the environmental challenges faced by the Great Lakes Basin.
Posted in Nature

Forest Governance and Management Across Time

Developing a New Forest Social Contract

Author: Erland Mårald,Camilla Sandstrom,Annika Nordin,and Others

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317445910

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 190

View: 5224

The influence of the past, and of the future on current-time tradeoffs in the forest arena are particularly relevant given the long-term successions in forest landscapes and the hundred years’ rotations in forestry. Historically established path dependencies and conflicts determine our present situation and delimit what is possible to achieve. Similarly, future trends and desires have a large influence on decision making. Nevertheless, decisions about forest governance and management are always made in the present – in the present-time appraisal of the developed situation, future alternatives and in negotiation between different perspectives, interests, and actors. This book explores historic and future outlooks as well as current tradeoffs and methods in forest governance and management. It emphasizes the generality and complexity with empirical data from Sweden and internationally. It first investigates, from a historical perspective, how previous forest policies and discourses have influenced current forest governance and management. Second, it considers methods to explore alternative forest futures and how the results from such investigations may influence the present. Third, it examines current methods of balancing tradeoffs in decision-making among ecosystem services. Based on the findings the authors develop an integrated approach – Reflexive Forestry – to support exchange of knowledge and understandings to enable capacity building and the establishment of common ground. Such societal agreements, or what the authors elaborate as forest social contracts, are sets of relational commitment between involved actors that may generate mutual action and a common directionality to meet contemporary challenges.
Posted in Technology & Engineering

Transboundary Water Management and the Climate Change Debate

Author: Anton Earle,Ana Elisa Cascao,Stina Hansson,Anders Jägerskog,Ashok Swain,Joakim Öjendal

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136228365

Category: Social Science

Page: 188

View: 9564

Climate change has an impact on the ability of transboundary water management institutions to deliver on their respective mandates. The starting point for this book is that actors within transboundary water management institutions develop responses to the climate change debate, as distinct from the physical phenomenon of climate change. Actors respond to this debate broadly in three distinct ways – adapt, resist (as in avoiding the issue) and subvert (as in using the debate to fulfil their own agenda). The book charts approaches which have been taken over the past two decades to promote more effective water management institutions, covering issues of conflict, cooperation, power and law. A new framework for a better understanding of the interaction between transboundary water management institutional resilience and global change is developed through analysis of the way these institutions respond to the climate change debate. This framework is applied to six river case studies from Africa, Asia and the Middle East (Ganges-Brahmaputra, Jordan, Mekong, Niger, Nile, Orange-Senqu) from which learning conclusions and policy recommendations are developed.
Posted in Social Science