Time-of-Flight and Structured Light Depth Cameras

Technology and Applications

Author: Pietro Zanuttigh,Giulio Marin,Carlo Dal Mutto,Fabio Dominio,Ludovico Minto,Guido Maria Cortelazzo

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319309730

Category: Computers

Page: 355

View: 5594

This book provides a comprehensive overview of the key technologies and applications related to new cameras that have brought 3D data acquisition to the mass market. It covers both the theoretical principles behind the acquisition devices and the practical implementation aspects of the computer vision algorithms needed for the various applications. Real data examples are used in order to show the performances of the various algorithms. The performance and limitations of the depth camera technology are explored, along with an extensive review of the most effective methods for addressing challenges in common applications. Applications covered in specific detail include scene segmentation, 3D scene reconstruction, human pose estimation and tracking and gesture recognition. This book offers students, practitioners and researchers the tools necessary to explore the potential uses of depth data in light of the expanding number of devices available for sale. It explores the impact of these devices on the rapidly growing field of depth-based computer vision.
Posted in Computers

Time-of-Flight Cameras

Principles, Methods and Applications

Author: Miles Hansard,Seungkyu Lee,Ouk Choi,Radu Patrice Horaud

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1447146581

Category: Computers

Page: 96

View: 9475

Time-of-flight (TOF) cameras provide a depth value at each pixel, from which the 3D structure of the scene can be estimated. This new type of active sensor makes it possible to go beyond traditional 2D image processing, directly to depth-based and 3D scene processing. Many computer vision and graphics applications can benefit from TOF data, including 3D reconstruction, activity and gesture recognition, motion capture and face detection. It is already possible to use multiple TOF cameras, in order to increase the scene coverage, and to combine the depth data with images from several colour cameras. Mixed TOF and colour systems can be used for computational photography, including full 3D scene modelling, as well as for illumination and depth-of-field manipulations. This work is a technical introduction to TOF sensors, from architectural and design issues, to selected image processing and computer vision methods.
Posted in Computers

Time-of-Flight and Depth Imaging. Sensors, Algorithms and Applications

Dagstuhl Seminar 2012 and GCPR Workshop on Imaging New Modalities

Author: Marcin Grzegorzek,Christian Theobalt,Reinhard Koch,Andreas Kolb

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3642449646

Category: Computers

Page: 319

View: 9709

Cameras for 3D depth imaging, using either time-of-flight (ToF) or structured light sensors, have received a lot of attention recently and have been improved considerably over the last few years. The present techniques make full-range 3D data available at video frame rates, and thus pave the way for a much broader application of 3D vision systems. A series of workshops have closely followed the developments within ToF imaging over the years. Today, depth imaging workshops can be found at every major computer vision conference. The papers presented in this volume stem from a seminar on Time-of-Flight Imaging held at Schloss Dagstuhl in October 2012. They cover all aspects of ToF depth imaging, from sensors and basic foundations, to algorithms for low level processing, to important applications that exploit depth imaging. In addition, this book contains the proceedings of a workshop on Imaging New Modalities, which was held at the German Conference on Pattern Recognition in Saarbrücken, Germany, in September 2013. A state-of-the-art report on the Kinect sensor and its applications is followed by two reports on local and global ToF motion compensation and a novel depth capture system using a plenoptic multi-lens multi-focus camera sensor.
Posted in Computers

TOF Range-Imaging Cameras

Author: Fabio Remondino,David Stoppa

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642275230

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 240

View: 7879

Today the cost of solid-state two-dimensional imagers has dramatically dropped, introducing low cost systems on the market suitable for a variety of applications, including both industrial and consumer products. However, these systems can capture only a two-dimensional projection (2D), or intensity map, of the scene under observation, losing a variable of paramount importance, i.e., the arrival time of the impinging photons. Time-Of-Flight (TOF) Range-Imaging (TOF) is an emerging sensor technology able to deliver, at the same time, depth and intensity maps of the scene under observation. Featuring different sensor resolutions, RIM cameras serve a wide community with a lot of applications like monitoring, architecture, life sciences, robotics, etc. This book will bring together experts from the sensor and metrology side in order to collect the state-of-art researchers in these fields working with RIM cameras. All the aspects in the acquisition and processing chain will be addressed, from recent updates concerning the photo-detectors, to the analysis of the calibration techniques, giving also a perspective onto new applications domains.
Posted in Technology & Engineering

High-Speed 3D Imaging with Digital Fringe Projection Techniques

Author: Song Zhang

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1482234343

Category: Computers

Page: 198

View: 5872

Digital fringe projection (DFP) techniques are used for non-contact shape measurement of 3D images. In the rapidly expanding field of 3D high-speed imaging, the demand for DFP continues to grow due to the technology’s fast speed, flexibility, low cost, and high accuracy. High-Speed 3D Imaging with Digital Fringe Projection Techniques discusses the generation of digital fringe with digital video projection devices, covering a variety of core technical aspects. The book begins by establishing the theoretical foundations of fringe pattern analysis, reviewing various 3D imaging techniques while highlighting the advantages of DFP. The author then: Describes the differences between digital light processing (DLP), liquid crystal display (LCD), and liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) Explains how to unwrap phase maps temporally and spatially Shows how to generate fringe patterns with video projectors Demonstrates how to convert phase to coordinates through system calibrations Provides a detailed example of a built-from-scratch 3D imaging system Incorporating valuable insights gained during the author’s 15+ years of 3D imaging research, High-Speed 3D Imaging with Digital Fringe Projection Techniques illuminates the pathway to advancement in high-speed 3D optical imaging using DFP.
Posted in Computers

Diffractive Optics

Design, Fabrication, and Test

Author: Donald C. O'Shea

Publisher: SPIE Press

ISBN: 9780819451712

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 241

View: 6347

This book provides the reader with the broad range of materials that were discussed in a series of short courses presented at Georgia Tech on the design, fabrication, and testing of diffractive optical elements (DOEs). Although there are not long derivations or detailed methods for specific engineering calculations, the reader should be familiar and comfortable with basic computational techniques. This text is not a 'cookbook' for producing DOEs, but it should provide readers with sufficient information to assess whether this technology would benefit their work, and to understand the requirements for using the concepts and techniques presented by the authors.
Posted in Technology & Engineering

Computer Vision and Machine Learning with RGB-D Sensors

Author: Ling Shao,Jungong Han,Pushmeet Kohli,Zhengyou Zhang

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319086510

Category: Computers

Page: 316

View: 414

This book presents an interdisciplinary selection of cutting-edge research on RGB-D based computer vision. Features: discusses the calibration of color and depth cameras, the reduction of noise on depth maps and methods for capturing human performance in 3D; reviews a selection of applications which use RGB-D information to reconstruct human figures, evaluate energy consumption and obtain accurate action classification; presents an approach for 3D object retrieval and for the reconstruction of gas flow from multiple Kinect cameras; describes an RGB-D computer vision system designed to assist the visually impaired and another for smart-environment sensing to assist elderly and disabled people; examines the effective features that characterize static hand poses and introduces a unified framework to enforce both temporal and spatial constraints for hand parsing; proposes a new classifier architecture for real-time hand pose recognition and a novel hand segmentation and gesture recognition system.
Posted in Computers

Applied Digital Optics

From Micro-optics to Nanophotonics

Author: Bernard C. Kress,Patrick Meyrueis

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780470022641

Category: Science

Page: 638

View: 4925

Miniaturization and mass replications have begun to lead the optical industry in the transition from traditional analog to novel digital optics. As digital optics enter the realm of mainstream technology through the worldwide sale of consumer electronic devices, this timely book aims to present the topic of digital optics in a unified way. Ranging from micro-optics to nanophotonics, and design to fabrication through to integration in final products, it reviews the various physical implementations of digital optics in either micro-refractives, waveguide (planar lightwave chips), diffractive and hybrid optics or sub-wavelength structures (resonant gratings, surface plasmons, photonic crystals and metamaterials). Finally, it presents a comprehensive list of industrial and commercial applications that are taking advantage of the unique properties of digital optics. Applied Digital Optics is aimed primarily at optical engineers and product development and technical marketing managers; it is also of interest to graduate-level photonics students and micro-optic foundries. Helps optical engineers review and choose the appropriate software tools to design, model and generate fabrication files. Gives product managers access to an exhaustive list of applications available in today’s market for integrating such digital optics, as well as where the next potential application of digital optics might be. Provides a broad view for technical marketing managers in all aspects of digital optics, and how such optics can be classified. Explains the numerical implementation of optical design and modelling techniques. Enables micro-optics foundries to integrate the latest fabrication and replication techniques, and accordingly fine tune their own fabrication processes.
Posted in Science

Time-of-Flight Cameras and Microsoft KinectTM

Author: Carlo Dal Mutto,Pietro Zanuttigh,Guido M Cortelazzo

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461438071

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 108

View: 860

Time-of-Flight Cameras and Microsoft KinectTM closely examines the technology and general characteristics of time-of-flight range cameras, and outlines the best methods for maximizing the data captured by these devices. This book also analyzes the calibration issues that some end-users may face when using these type of cameras for research, and suggests methods for improving the real-time 3D reconstruction of dynamic and static scenes. Time-of-Flight Cameras and Microsoft KinectTM is intended for researchers and advanced-level students as a reference guide for time-of-flight cameras. Practitioners working in a related field will also find the book valuable.
Posted in Technology & Engineering

Interactive Displays

Natural Human-Interface Technologies

Author: Achintya K. Bhowmik

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 111870620X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 400

View: 3782

How we interface and interact with computing, communications and entertainment devices is going through revolutionary changes, with natural user inputs based on touch, voice, and vision replacing or augmenting the use of traditional interfaces based on the keyboard, mouse, joysticks, etc. As a result, displays are morphing from one-way interface devices that merely show visual content to two-way interaction devices that provide more engaging and immersive experiences. This book provides an in-depth coverage of the technologies, applications, and trends in the rapidly emerging field of interactive displays enabled by natural human-interfaces. Key features: Provides a definitive reference reading on all the touch technologies used in interactive displays, including their advantages, limitations, and future trends. Covers the fundamentals and applications of speech input, processing and recognition techniques enabling voice-based interactions. Offers a detailed review of the emerging vision-based sensing technologies, and user interactions using gestures of hands, body, face, and eye gazes. Discusses multi-modal natural user interface schemes which intuitively combine touch, voice, and vision for life-like interactions. Examines the requirements and technology status towards realizing “true” 3D immersive and interactive displays.
Posted in Technology & Engineering

Emerging Technologies for 3D Video

Creation, Coding, Transmission and Rendering

Author: Frederic Dufaux,Béatrice Pesquet-Popescu,Marco Cagnazzo

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118583574

Category: Science

Page: 520

View: 6018

With the expectation of greatly enhanced user experience, 3D video is widely perceived as the next major advancement in video technology. In order to fulfil the expectation of enhanced user experience, 3D video calls for new technologies addressing efficient content creation, representation/coding, transmission and display. Emerging Technologies for 3D Video will deal with all aspects involved in 3D video systems and services, including content acquisition and creation, data representation and coding, transmission, view synthesis, rendering, display technologies, human perception of depth and quality assessment. Key features: Offers an overview of key existing technologies for 3D video Provides a discussion of advanced research topics and future technologies Reviews relevant standardization efforts Addresses applications and implementation issues Includes contributions from leading researchers The book is a comprehensive guide to 3D video systems and services suitable for all those involved in this field, including engineers, practitioners, researchers as well as professors, graduate and undergraduate students, and managers making technological decisions about 3D video.
Posted in Science

Direct-detection LADAR Systems

Author: Richard D. Richmond,Stephen C. Cain

Publisher: Society of Photo Optical

ISBN: 9780819480729

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 139

View: 3601

This text is designed to introduce engineers-in-training to the basic concepts and operation of 3D imaging LADAR systems. The book covers laser range equations; sources of noise in LADAR signals; LADAR waveforms; the effects of wavefront propagation on LADAR beams through optical systems and atmospheric turbulence; algorithms for detecting, ranging, and tracking targets; and comprehensive system simulation. Computer code for accomplishing the many examples appearing throughout the text is provided. Exercises appear at the end of each chapter, allowing students to apply concepts studied throughout the text to fundamental problems encountered by LADAR engineers. Also included is a CD-ROM with the MATLAB code from the examples.
Posted in Technology & Engineering

Consumer Depth Cameras for Computer Vision

Research Topics and Applications

Author: Andrea Fossati,Juergen Gall,Helmut Grabner,Xiaofeng Ren,Kurt Konolige

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1447146395

Category: Computers

Page: 210

View: 852

The potential of consumer depth cameras extends well beyond entertainment and gaming, to real-world commercial applications. This authoritative text reviews the scope and impact of this rapidly growing field, describing the most promising Kinect-based research activities, discussing significant current challenges, and showcasing exciting applications. Features: presents contributions from an international selection of preeminent authorities in their fields, from both academic and corporate research; addresses the classic problem of multi-view geometry of how to correlate images from different viewpoints to simultaneously estimate camera poses and world points; examines human pose estimation using video-rate depth images for gaming, motion capture, 3D human body scans, and hand pose recognition for sign language parsing; provides a review of approaches to various recognition problems, including category and instance learning of objects, and human activity recognition; with a Foreword by Dr. Jamie Shotton.
Posted in Computers

Design and Fabrication of Diffractive Optical Elements with MATLAB

Author: Shanti Bhattacharya,Anand Vijayakumar

Publisher: SPIE-International Society for Optical Engineering

ISBN: 9781510607057

Category: Diffraction

Page: 276

View: 5148

"Given the many different applications and uses of diffractive optics, the importance of this field cannot be underestimated. This book supplements the available literature on diffractive optic elements (DOEs) by equipping readers with the skills to begin designing, simulating, and fabricating diffractive optics. The design of DOEs is presented with simple equations and step-by-step procedures for simulation--from the simplest 1D grating to the more complex multifunctional DOEs--and analyzing their diffraction patterns using MATLAB. The fundamentals of fabrication techniques such as photolithography, electron beam lithography, and focused ion beam lithography with basic instructions for the beginner are presented. Basic error analysis and error-correction techniques for a few cases are also discussed. The contents of all the chapters are supported throughout by practical exercises and clearly commented MATLAB® codes (the codes are also on an accompanying CD), making this book useful even to a novice programmer"--
Posted in Diffraction

3D Biometrics

Systems and Applications

Author: David Zhang,Guangming Lu

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461474000

Category: Computers

Page: 290

View: 8988

Automatic personal authentication using biometric information is becoming more essential in applications of public security, access control, forensics, banking, etc. Many kinds of biometric authentication techniques have been developed based on different biometric characteristics. However, most of the physical biometric recognition techniques are based on two dimensional (2D) images, despite the fact that human characteristics are three dimensional (3D) surfaces. Recently, 3D techniques have been applied to biometric applications such as 3D face, 3D palmprint, 3D fingerprint, and 3D ear recognition. This book introduces four typical 3D imaging methods, and presents some case studies in the field of 3D biometrics. This book also includes many efficient 3D feature extraction, matching, and fusion algorithms. These 3D imaging methods and their applications are given as follows: - Single view imaging with line structured-light: 3D ear identification - Single view imaging with multi-line structured-light: 3D palmprint authentication - Single view imaging using only 3D camera: 3D hand verification - Multi-view imaging: 3D fingerprint recognition 3D Biometrics: Systems and Applications is a comprehensive introduction to both theoretical issues and practical implementation in 3D biometric authentication. It will serve as a textbook or as a useful reference for graduate students and researchers in the fields of computer science, electrical engineering, systems science, and information technology. Researchers and practitioners in industry and R&D laboratories working on security system design, biometrics, immigration, law enforcement, control, and pattern recognition will also find much of interest in this book.
Posted in Computers

Wide Area 2D/3D Imaging

Development, Analysis and Applications

Author: Benjamin Langmann

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3658064579

Category: Computers

Page: 136

View: 6717

Imaging technology is an important research area and it is widely utilized in a growing number of disciplines ranging from gaming, robotics and automation to medicine. In the last decade 3D imaging became popular mainly driven by the introduction of novel 3D cameras and measuring devices. These cameras are usually limited to indoor scenes with relatively low distances. Benjamin Langmann introduces medium and long-range 2D/3D cameras to overcome these limitations. He reports measurement results for these devices and studies their characteristic behavior. In order to facilitate the application of these cameras, common algorithms are adapted to the 2D/3D data and new approaches for standard computer vision tasks are introduced.
Posted in Computers

3D Computer Vision

Efficient Methods and Applications

Author: Christian Wöhler

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1447141504

Category: Computers

Page: 382

View: 3547

This indispensable text introduces the foundations of three-dimensional computer vision and describes recent contributions to the field. Fully revised and updated, this much-anticipated new edition reviews a range of triangulation-based methods, including linear and bundle adjustment based approaches to scene reconstruction and camera calibration, stereo vision, point cloud segmentation, and pose estimation of rigid, articulated, and flexible objects. Also covered are intensity-based techniques that evaluate the pixel grey values in the image to infer three-dimensional scene structure, and point spread function based approaches that exploit the effect of the optical system. The text shows how methods which integrate these concepts are able to increase reconstruction accuracy and robustness, describing applications in industrial quality inspection and metrology, human-robot interaction, and remote sensing.
Posted in Computers

Automated Multi-Camera Surveillance

Algorithms and Practice

Author: Omar Javed,Mubarak Shah

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387788814

Category: Computers

Page: 110

View: 8343

The recent development of intelligent surveillance systems has captured the interest of both academic research labs and industry. Automated Multi-Camera Surveillance addresses monitoring of people and vehicles, and detection of threatening objects and events in a variety of scenarios. In this book, techniques for development of an automated multi-camera surveillance system are discussed and proposed. The state-of-the-art in the automated surveillance systems is reviewed as well. Detailed explanation of sub-components of surveillance systems are provided, and enhancements to each of these components are proposed. The authors identify important challenges that such a system must address, and propose solutions. Development of a specific surveillance system called “KNIGHT” is described, along with the authors’ experience using it. This book enables the reader to understand the mathematical models and algorithms underlying automated surveillance as well as the benefits and limitations of using such methods.
Posted in Computers

Variational Methods in Imaging

Author: Otmar Scherzer,Markus Grasmair,Harald Grossauer,Markus Haltmeier,Frank Lenzen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387692770

Category: Mathematics

Page: 320

View: 4877

This book is devoted to the study of variational methods in imaging. The presentation is mathematically rigorous and covers a detailed treatment of the approach from an inverse problems point of view. Many numerical examples accompany the theory throughout the text. It is geared towards graduate students and researchers in applied mathematics. Researchers in the area of imaging science will also find this book appealing. It can serve as a main text in courses in image processing or as a supplemental text for courses on regularization and inverse problems at the graduate level.
Posted in Mathematics

Handbook of Research on Emerging Technologies for Architectural and Archaeological Heritage

Author: Ippolito, Alfonso

Publisher: IGI Global

ISBN: 1522506764

Category: Architecture

Page: 647

View: 8207

Cultural heritage is a vital, multifaceted component of modern society. To better protect and promote the integrity of a culture, certain technologies have become essential tools. The Handbook of Research on Emerging Technologies for Architectural and Archaeological Heritage is an authoritative reference source for the latest scholarly research on the use of technological assistance for the preservation of architecture and archaeology in a global context. Focusing on various surveying technologies for the study, analysis, and protection of historical buildings, this book is ideally designed for professionals, researchers, upper-level students, and practitioners.
Posted in Architecture