The Violence of Incarceration

Author: Phil Scraton,Jude McCulloch

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135894337

Category: Social Science

Page: 282

View: 5255

Conceived in the immediate aftermath of the humiliations and killings of prisoners in Afghanistan and Iraq, of the suicides and hunger strikes at Guantanamo Bay and of the disappearances of detainees through extraordinary rendition, this book explores the connections between these shameful events and the inhumanity and degradation of domestic prisons within the 'allied' states, including the USA, Canada, Australia, the UK and Ireland. The central theme is that the revelations of extreme brutality perpetrated by allied soldiers represent the inevitable end-product of domestic incarceration predicated on the use of extreme violence including lethal force. Exposing as fiction the claim to the political moral high ground made by western liberal democracies is critical because such claims animate and legitimate global actions such as the 'war on terror' and the indefinite detention of tens of thousands of people by the United States which accompanies it. The myth of moral virtue works to hide, silence, minimize and deny the brutal continuing history of violence and incarceration both within western countries and undertaken on behalf of western states beyond their national borders.
Posted in Social Science

The Culture of Prison Violence

Author: James Michael Byrne,Faye S. Taxman,Donald Charles Hummer

Publisher: Allyn & Bacon

ISBN: N.A

Category: Law

Page: 219

View: 2863

The nature and extent of prison violence / James M. Byrne, Don Hummer -- Does what happens in prison stay in prison? : examining the reciprocal relationship between community and prison culture / Jacob I. Stowell, James M. Byrne -- Examining the impact of institutional culture (and culture change) on prison violence and disorder : an evidence-based review / James Byrne, Don Hummer, Faye Taxman -- Legitimacy and imprisonment revisited : some notes on the problem of order ten years after / Richard Sparks -- Why prison culture matters / Alison Liebling -- Performance, domesticity, and disorder : the communicative quality of prison violence / Elaine Crawley, Peter Crawley -- The impact of prison culture on the treatment and control of mentally ill offenders / Arthur J. Lurigio, Jessica Snowden -- A culture of violence in England's prison system : an assessment of causes and solutions / Kimmitt Edgar, Prison Reform Trust -- Prison violence, prison culture, and offender change : new directions for theory, research, and policy / James M. Byrne
Posted in Law

The Violence of Democracy

Political Life in Postwar El Salvador

Author: Ainhoa Montoya

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 331976330X

Category: Political Science

Page: 303

View: 3826

This book offers novel insights about the ability of a democracy to accommodate violence. In El Salvador, the end of war has brought about a violent peace, one in which various forms of violence have become incorporated into Salvadorans’ imaginaries and enactments of democracy. Based on ethnographic research, The Violence of Democracy argues that war legacies and the country’s neoliberalization have enabled an intricate entanglement of violence and political life in postwar El Salvador. This volume explores various manifestations of this entanglement: the clandestine connections between violent entrepreneurs and political actors; the blurring of the licit and illicit through the consolidation of economies of violence; and the reenactment of latent wartime conflicts and political cleavages during postwar electoral seasons. The author also discusses the potential for grassroots memory work and a political party shift to foster hopeful visions of the future and, ultimately, to transform the country’s violent democracy.
Posted in Political Science

Crimes of Punishment

America's Culture of Violence

Author: Theodore L. Dorpat

Publisher: Algora Publishing

ISBN: 0875865658

Category: Psychology

Page: 290

View: 2717

This groundbreaking book by an award-winning psychoanalyst and forensic psychiatrist presents a comprehensive exploration of a timely but often taboo topic: the failure of punishment to deter crime and violence, an issue that affects us both individually and as a culture. Written at the culmination of the author s fifty-year career as a psychoanalyst, forensic psychologist and scholar, this wide-ranging work identifies the origins of violence and investigates the surprising consequences of punishment from a multitude of perspectives. In his treatment of the topic, Dr. Dorpat utilizes scientific research; ethical reasoning, and his vast clinical experience and insight. He also suggests the benefits of new and emerging humane alternatives to the revenge/punishment model currently entrenched in our society, such as restorative justice. In contrast to most contemporary measures, these new approaches while still imprisoning dangerous individuals effectively stress reparation and forms of sanctioning other than incarceration. When restitution replaces revenge, everyone benefits. Crimes of Punishment examines four key, interrelated social methods of punishment. These are (1) the corporal punishment of children, (2) the incarceration of adults in prisons, (3) capital punishment the death penalty, and (4) emotional (verbal) abuse. As he elucidates and analyzes each of these forms of punishment, Dr. Dorpat clearly and logically makes the case that punishment is not only ineffectual but that it also engenders more of what it ostensibly aims to stop: violence and misbehavior. Both children and adults who are subjected to punishment tend to become more violent individuals. In covering the full scope of our contemporary justice system Dr. Dorpat brings to the forefront those who are often overlooked or dismissed: the victims of crime. His concluding chapters present and clarify the psychological wounds and needs of these individuals, and demonstrate how restorative justice is effective in attending to victims in an ethical and healing manner. In a humane and ethically evolved society restitution replaces punishment. Market Comparison-- Crimes of Punishment is unique in that it covers not just one but four different types of punishment (the corporal punishment of children, the incarceration of adults, the death penalty, and verbal emotional] abuse). Two earlier books written by psychiatrists expose the terrible conditions in America s prisons. They are The Crime of Punishment (New York: Viking, 1968) by Karl Menninger, and Prison Madness by Terry Kupers (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1999). This book differs in two important ways from the books written by Menninger and Kupers. First, The Crimes of Punishment covers other kinds of punishment, while those authors deal only with the punishment of incarceration. Secondly, the reforms they recommend are merely piecemeal modifications of the present criminal justice systems, whereas Dr. Dorpat argues for a radical change that includes the abolition of today s punitive prison (Retributive Justice) system and the establishment of a new and different system, namely Restorative justice, a system that has been developed over the past decade in Australia and New Zealand. The Crimes of Punishment differs from Menninger s book in covering the many changes that have occurred in prisons since 1968. In several short chapters on restorative justice, the book also explores this exciting new approach and serves as an informed introduction to a new, important, and effective moral approach to the treatment of criminals.
Posted in Psychology

The violence of the new Rwandan regime 1994-1995

Author: Laurence Binet

Publisher: Médecins Sans Frontières

ISBN: N.A

Category:

Page: 144

View: 917

The ‘Violence of the new Rwandan regime’ case study is describing the difficulties and dilemmas that Médecins Sans Frontières faced in 1994 and 1995 when confronted with the abuses and crimes of the new regime that had taken over in Rwanda in July 1994: Was it acceptable for MSF, having denounced the génocidaires’control over the Rwandan refugees in Zaire and Tanzania, to encourage the return of these refugees to Rwanda, given the insecurity that potentially awaited them? Did MSF have a responsibility to alert them to what was occurring in Rwanda? Could MSF – after having issued a call for an international armed intervention to put an end to the genocide – now criticise the regime that had effectively done so, thereby risking accusations of favouring the génocidaires and supporting the revisionists? Should MSF keep silent in order to continue caring for detainees who might otherwise die in the appalling prison conditions?
Posted in

The New Jim Crow

Masseninhaftierung und Rassismus in den USA

Author: Michelle Alexander

Publisher: Antje Kunstmann

ISBN: 3956141598

Category: Political Science

Page: 352

View: 8411

Die Wahl von Barack Obama im November 2008 markierte einen historischen Wendepunkt in den USA: Der erste schwarze Präsident schien für eine postrassistische Gesellschaft und den Triumph der Bürgerrechtsbewegung zu stehen. Doch die Realität in den USA ist eine andere. Obwohl die Rassentrennung, die in den sogenannten Jim-Crow-Gesetzen festgeschrieben war, im Zuge der Bürgerrechtsbewegung abgeschafft wurde, sitzt heute ein unfassbar hoher Anteil der schwarzen Bevölkerung im Gefängnis oder ist lebenslang als kriminell gebrandmarkt. Ein Status, der die Leute zu Bürgern zweiter Klasse macht, indem er sie ihrer grundsätzlichsten Rechte beraubt – ganz ähnlich den explizit rassistischen Diskriminierungen der Jim-Crow-Ära. In ihrem Buch, das in Amerika eine breite Debatte ausgelöst hat, argumentiert Michelle Alexander, dass die USA ihr rassistisches System nach der Bürgerrechtsbewegung nicht abgeschafft, sondern lediglich umgestaltet haben. Da unter dem perfiden Deckmantel des »War on Drugs« überproportional junge männliche Schwarze und ihre Communities kriminalisiert werden, funktioniert das drakonische Strafjustizsystem der USA heute wie das System rassistischer Kontrolle von gestern: ein neues Jim Crow.
Posted in Political Science

Law, Violence, and the Possibility of Justice

Author: Austin Sarat

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691048451

Category: Law

Page: 181

View: 1346

In deeply original essays, the authors build on the seminal work of Robert Cover--one of the few legal scholars ever to consider the question of law and violence. In striving to situate his insights within current political, social, economic, and cultural contexts, they contemplate diverse and interrelated subjects surrounding the theme of law and violence. Among these are the purpose of law as punishment, the increasing number of executions in the United States, prison violence, racial disparity in sentencing, and the meaning of torture. The result is a remarkable volume that stimulates us to reconsider connections that we too often leave unexplored.
Posted in Law

Prison Violence

Causes, Consequences and Solutions

Author: Kristine Levan

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 131707579X

Category: Social Science

Page: 168

View: 4721

Drawing on a range of research and media sources to provide an international perspective on the topic of prison violence, this book focuses on the impact of such violence on the individual both while he or she is incarcerated and upon his or her release from prison, as well as on society as a whole. With a special emphasis on comparisons of violence among incarcerated populations in the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom, Prison Violence: Causes, Consequences and Solutions explores the various systems that exist to combat the problem, whilst also considering public perceptions of offenders and punishment, as influenced by media and coverage of high-profile cases. Providing a comprehensive analysis of prison violence on national and international levels, this book examines the extent of the problem, theoretical understandings of the issue and concrete solutions designed to prevent and handle such violence. As such, it will be of interest to policy makers as well as scholars of sociology, criminology and penology.
Posted in Social Science

Letters From Prison, Voices of Women Murderers

Author: Jennifer Furio

Publisher: Algora Publishing

ISBN: 1892941325

Category: Electronic books

Page: 248

View: 4586

Written by incarcerated women, these incredibly personal, surprisingly honest letters shed light on their lives, their crimes - and the mitigating circumstances. Author Jennifer Furio, a prison reform activist, subtly reveals the biases if the criminal ju
Posted in Electronic books

Cages of steel

the politics of imprisonment in the United States

Author: Ward Churchill

Publisher: Maisonneuve Pr

ISBN: N.A

Category: Law

Page: 434

View: 301

Posted in Law

The Prison and the Gallows

The Politics of Mass Incarceration in America

Author: Marie Gottschalk

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139455214

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 6819

The United States has built a carceral state that is unprecedented among Western countries and in US history. Nearly one in 50 people, excluding children and the elderly, is incarcerated today, a rate unsurpassed anywhere else in the world. What are some of the main political forces that explain this unprecedented reliance on mass imprisonment? Throughout American history, crime and punishment have been central features of American political development. This 2006 book examines the development of four key movements that mediated the construction of the carceral state in important ways: the victims' movement, the women's movement, the prisoners' rights movement, and opponents of the death penalty. This book argues that punitive penal policies were forged by particular social movements and interest groups within the constraints of larger institutional structures and historical developments that distinguish the United States from other Western countries.
Posted in Political Science

The Incarceration of Women

Punishing Bodies, Breaking Spirits

Author: L. Moore,P. Scraton

Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan

ISBN: 9781349366613

Category: Social Science

Page: 256

View: 3484

This unique book provides a rare insight into the debilitating impact of regimes that fail to respond to the complex and gender specific needs of women behind bars. Exploring the marginalization, mental health and experiences of women in prison, it specifically focuses on the legacy of women's imprisonment in Northern Ireland.
Posted in Social Science

Don't Shoot

One Man, a Street Fellowship, and the End of Violence in Inner-City America

Author: David M. Kennedy

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing USA

ISBN: 1608194132

Category: Social Science

Page: 320

View: 2825

Gang- and drug-related inner-city violence, with its attendant epidemic of incarceration, is the defining crime problem in our country. In some neighborhoods in America, one out of every two hundred young black men is shot to death every year, and few initiatives of government and law enforcement have made much difference. But when David Kennedy, a self-taught and then-unknown criminologist, engineered the "Boston Miracle" in the mid-1990s, he pointed the way toward what few had imagined: a solution. Don't Shoot tells the story of Kennedy's long journey. Riding with beat cops, hanging with gang members, and stoop-sitting with grandmothers, Kennedy found that all parties misunderstood each other, caught in a spiral of racialized anger and distrust. He envisioned an approach in which everyone-gang members, cops, and community members-comes together in what is essentially a huge intervention. Offenders are told that the violence must stop, that even the cops want them to stay alive and out of prison, and that even their families support swift law enforcement if the violence continues. In city after city, the same miracle has followed: violence plummets, drug markets dry up, and the relationship between the police and the community is reset. This is a landmark book, chronicling a paradigm shift in how we address one of America's most shameful social problems. A riveting, page-turning read, it combines the street vérité of The Wire, the social science of Gang Leader for a Day, and the moral urgency and personal journey of Fist Stick Knife Gun. But unlike anybody else, Kennedy shows that there could be an end in sight.
Posted in Social Science

Punishment for Sale

Private Prisons, Big Business, and the Incarceration Binge

Author: Donna Selman,Paul Leighton

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 9781442201736

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 204

View: 9452

Punishment for Sale is the definitive modern history of private prisons, told through social, economic and political frames. The authors explore the origin of the ideas of modern privatization, the establishment of private prisons, and the efforts to keep expanding in the face of problems and bad publicity. The book provides a balanced telling of the story of private prisons and the resistance they engendered within the context of criminology, and it is intended for supplemental use in undergraduate and graduate courses in criminology, social problems, and race and ethnicity.
Posted in Business & Economics

No Safe Haven

Stories of Women in Prison

Author: Lori B. Girshick

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Social Science

Page: 201

View: 6576

"This work draws on the life stories of forty women inmates at a minimum security prison in North Carolina. It explores their lives before imprisonment, enabling the reader to understand their incarceration within the context of childhood and adolescent experiences, domestic violence, alcohol and drug abuse, low education levels, and poor work histories. Lori B. Girshick relates the prisoners' views of doing time, the criminal justice system, and their own rehabilitation. She also interviews family members, friends, and social service providers to show how support networks function or fail." "Girshick argues convincingly that the treatment of women in society creates circumstances that lead some of them to break the law, and she makes specific recommendations for policies that address the need for social change and for community programs designed to deter crime."--BOOK JACKET.Title Summary field provided by Blackwell North America, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Posted in Social Science

Stop the Violence in Latin America

A Look at Prevention from Cradle to Adulthood

Author: Laura Chioda

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 1464806659

Category: Social Science

Page: 422

View: 3307

The Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) region has the undesirable distinction of being the world's most violent region, with 24.7 homicides per 100,000 inhabitants. The magnitude of the problem is staggering and persistent. Of the top 50 most violent cities in the world, 42 are in LAC. In 2010 alone, 142,302 people in LAC fell victim to homicide, representing 390 homicides per day and 4.06 homicides every 15 minutes. Crime disproportionately affects young men aged 20 to 24, whose homicide rate of 92 per 100,000 nearly quadruples that of the region. The focus of Crime Prevention in Latin America and the Caribben is to identify policy interventions that, whether by design or indirect effect, have been shown to affect antisocial behavior early in life and patterns of criminal offending in youth and adults. Particular attention is devoted to recent studies that rigorously establish a causal link between the interventions in question and outcomes. This publication adopts a lifecycle perspective and argues that as individuals progress through different stages of the lifecycle, not only do different sets of risk factors arise and take more prominence, but their interactions and interdependencies shape human behavior. These interactions and the relative importance of different sets of risk factors identify relevant margins that can effectively be targeted by prevention policies, not only early in life, but throughout the lifecycle. Indeed prevention can never start too early, nor start too late, nor be too comprehensive.
Posted in Social Science

Children behind bars

Why the abuse of child imprisonment must end

Author: Willow, Carolyne

Publisher: Policy Press

ISBN: 1447321553

Category: Social Science

Page: 256

View: 5176

Every day children exiled to prison are exposed to abusive and neglectful treatment, yet their plight is hidden. Based on wide-ranging research and first-person interviews, this passionately argued book presents the shocking truth about the lives and deaths of children in custody. Drawing on human rights legislation and progress in the care and treatment of vulnerable children elsewhere, it outlines the harsh realities of penal child custody including hunger, denial of fresh air, cramped and dirty cells, strip-searching, segregation, the authorised infliction of severe pain, uncivilised conditions for suicidal children and ever-present violence and intimidation. The issues are explored through the lens of protection, not punishment, and the author finds there can be only one conclusion: child prisons must close. Providing a compelling manifesto for urgent and radical change, this book should be read by everyone who cares about child protection and human rights.
Posted in Social Science

Understanding and Preventing Violence, Volume 4

Consequences and Control

Author: Panel on the Understanding and Control of Violent Behavior,Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309586801

Category: Law

Page: 332

View: 8471

This book analyzes the consequences of violence and strategies for controlling them. Included are reviews of public perceptions and reactions to violence; estimates of the costs; the commonalities and complementarities of criminal justice and public health responses; efforts to reduce violence through the prediction and classification of violent offenders; and the relationships between trends in violence and prison population during a period of greatly increased use of incarceration.
Posted in Law

Children of the Prison Boom

Mass Incarceration and the Future of American Inequality

Author: Sara Wakefield,Christopher Wildeman

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199989249

Category: Social Science

Page: 256

View: 8237

An unrelenting prison boom, marked by stark racial disparities, pulled a disproportionate number of young black men into prison in the last forty years. In Children of the Prison Boom, Sara Wakefield and Christopher Wildeman draw upon broadly representative survey data and interviews to describe the devastating effects of America's experiment in mass incarceration on a generation of vulnerable children tied to these men. In so doing, they show that the effects of mass imprisonment may be even greater on the children left behind than on the men who were locked up. Parental imprisonment has been transformed from an event affecting only the unluckiest of children-those with parents seriously involved in crime-to one that is remarkably common, especially for black children. This book documents how, even for children at high risk of problems, paternal incarceration makes a bad situation worse, increasing mental health and behavioral problems, infant mortality, and child homelessness. Pushing against prevailing understandings of and research on the consequences of mass incarceration for inequality among adult men, these harms to children translate into large-scale increases in racial inequalities. Parental imprisonment has become a distinctively American way of perpetuating intergenerational inequality-one that should be placed alongside a decaying public education system and concentrated disadvantage in urban centers as a factor that disproportionately touches, and disadvantages, poor black children. More troubling, even if incarceration rates were reduced dramatically in the near future, the long-term harms of our national experiment in the mass incarceration of marginalized men are yet to be fully revealed. Optimism about current reductions in the imprisonment rate and the resilience of children must therefore be set against the backdrop of the children of the prison boom-a lost generation now coming of age.
Posted in Social Science

Prisoner Reentry in the Era of Mass Incarceration

Author: Daniel P. Mears,Joshua C. Cochran

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 148331670X

Category: Social Science

Page: 344

View: 844

Understanding and Improving Prisoner Reentry Outcomes Prisoner Reentry is an engaging and comprehensive examination of prisoner reentry and how to improve public safety, well-being, and justice in the “era of mass incarceration.” Renowned authors Daniel P. Mears and Joshua C. Cochran investigate historical trends in incarceration and punishment policy, the salience of in-prison and post-prison contexts and experiences for reentry, and the importance of understanding group differences in offending, punishment, and social context. Using extensive reliance on both theory and empirical research, the authors identify how reentry reflects criminal justice policy in America and, at the same time, has profound implications for crime prevention and justice. Readers will develop a diverse foundation for current policies, identify the implications of reentry for families, community, and society at large, and gain a conceptual and empirical toolkit for analyzing and improving the lives of those released from prison.
Posted in Social Science