The Unnatural History of the Sea

Author: Callum Roberts

Publisher: Island Press

ISBN: 9781597261616

Category: History

Page: 456

View: 9816

Humanity can make short work of the oceans’ creatures. In 1741, hungry explorers discovered herds of Steller’s sea cow in the Bering Strait, and in less than thirty years, the amiable beast had been harpooned into extinction. It’s a classic story, but a key fact is often omitted. Bering Island was the last redoubt of a species that had been decimated by hunting and habitat loss years before the explorers set sail. As Callum M. Roberts reveals in The Unnatural History of the Sea, the oceans’ bounty didn’t disappear overnight. While today’s fishing industry is ruthlessly efficient, intense exploitation began not in the modern era, or even with the dawn of industrialization, but in the eleventh century in medieval Europe. Roberts explores this long and colorful history of commercial fishing, taking readers around the world and through the centuries to witness the transformation of the seas. Drawing on firsthand accounts of early explorers, pirates, merchants, fishers, and travelers, the book recreates the oceans of the past: waters teeming with whales, sea lions, sea otters, turtles, and giant fish. The abundance of marine life described by fifteenth century seafarers is almost unimaginable today, but Roberts both brings it alive and artfully traces its depletion. Collapsing fisheries, he shows, are simply the latest chapter in a long history of unfettered commercialization of the seas. The story does not end with an empty ocean. Instead, Roberts describes how we might restore the splendor and prosperity of the seas through smarter management of our resources and some simple restraint. From the coasts of Florida to New Zealand, marine reserves have fostered spectacular recovery of plants and animals to levels not seen in a century. They prove that history need not repeat itself: we can leave the oceans richer than we found them.
Posted in History

Der Mensch und das Meer

Warum der größte Lebensraum der Erde in Gefahr ist

Author: Callum Roberts

Publisher: DVA

ISBN: 3641100062

Category: Social Science

Page: 592

View: 1294

Der Wandel eines faszinierenden, bedrohten Lebensraums Die Ozeane sind nicht nur der größte Lebensraum der Erde, sondern auch der am wenigsten erforschte. Die unermessliche Vielfalt dieses Ökosystems beginnen wir erst jetzt bis in die letzten Winkel zu begreifen – auch wie wichtig das Meer für unser Leben ist. Im letzten Jahrhundert hat jedoch die Herrschaft des Menschen über die Natur auch die Ozeane erreicht: Wir fischen die Meere leer und füllen sie stattdessen mit Umweltgiften. Tiefseebergbau droht den Lebensraum unzähliger Pflanzen und Tiere bis zur Unkenntlichkeit zu verändern. Die Klimaerwärmung ließ bereits ein Viertel aller Korallen zugrunde gehen. In seinem aufrüttelnden Buch beschreibt der Meeresbiologe und –schützer Callum Roberts den großen Reichtum der Ozeane und ihren Wandel, und er ruft dazu auf, der Zerstörung der Meere endlich Einhalt zu gebieten, denn noch ist es nicht zu spät.
Posted in Social Science

Das sechste Sterben

Wie der Mensch Naturgeschichte schreibt

Author: Elizabeth Kolbert

Publisher: Suhrkamp Verlag

ISBN: 3518740628

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 312

View: 3400

Sie haben noch nie etwas vom Stummelfußfrosch gehört? Oder vom Sumatra-Nashorn? Gut möglich, dass Sie auch nie von ihnen hören werden, denn sie sind dabei auszusterben. Wir erleben derzeit das sechste sogenannte Massenaussterben: In einem relativ kurzen Zeitraum verschwinden ungewöhnlich viele Arten. Experten gehen davon aus, dass es das verheerendste sein wird, seit vor etwa 65 Millionen Jahren ein Asteroid unter anderem die Dinosaurier auslöschte. Doch dieses Mal kommt die Bedrohung nicht aus dem All, sondern wir tragen die Verantwortung. Wie haben wir Menschen das Massenaussterben herbeigeführt? Wie können wir es beenden? Elizabeth Kolbert spricht mit Geologen, die verschwundene Ozeane erforschen, begleitet Botaniker in die Anden und begibt sich gemeinsam mit Tierschützern auf die Suche nach den letzten Exemplaren gefährdeter Arten. Sie zeigt, wie ernst die Lage ist, und macht uns zu Zeugen der dramatischen Ereignisse auf unserem Planeten.
Posted in Technology & Engineering

Ocean of Life

Author: Callum Roberts

Publisher: Penguin UK

ISBN: 1846143950

Category: Science

Page: 400

View: 7635

In this revelatory book, Callum Roberts uses his lifetime's experience working with the oceans to show why they are the most mysterious places on earth, their depths still largely unexplored. In The Ocean of Life we get a panoramic tour beneath the seas: Why do currents circulate the way do? Where exactly do they go? How has the chemistry of the oceans changed? How polluted are we making them? Above all, Roberts reveals the richness of their life, and how it has altered over the centuries. The oceans are now under unprecedented threat. Not only does Roberts show how we are fishing our oceans to extinction, crucially, he explains how this directly affects our lives on land. Ninety-five percent of habitable space on earth lies in the oceans, and marine plants produce half the world's oxygen; the oceans themselves absorb vast quantities of carbon dioxide. The life they support is now in the balance. The Ocean of Life should galvanise debate worldwide. Roberts shows how we can arrest and reverse the damage we are doing. Tantalisingly, it is within our grasp to restore the life of the oceans. There is still time.
Posted in Science

The Unnatural History of Cypress Parish

Author: Elise Blackwell

Publisher: Unbridled Books

ISBN: 1932961518

Category: Fiction

Page: 210

View: 4370

Set in southern Louisiana in the weeks preceding the great flood of 1927, this novel depicts a place and way of life about to be forever changed. On the verge of manhood and a stone's throw of the rising Mississippi River, Louis Proby is pulled between his love of the natural world and the glittering temptations of New Orleans, between the beautiful Nanette Lançon and a father who no longer seems larger-than-life, between the simplicity of childhood and the complicated decisionsof adulthood. Louis comes of age at a time when the country is coming of age. In Louisiana, it's a time when the powerful prove themselves willing to sacrifice the poor to protect their position. As the people of Cypress Parish go about their daily lives, bankers in New Orleans are plotting to alter those lives irrevocably. Like so many calamities, the one that befalls Cypress Parish has both natural and human causes. Based on historical events and narrated on the eve of another disaster, The Unnatural History of Cypress Parish tells the story of a young man growing up in a time and place not quite like any other. And in doing so it reveals the complexity of our own relationship to the past. This a beautifully turned novel of love and natural history, married to the shadowy politics of Louisiana, a novel about what manhood means now and what it meant in the south in the 1920s.
Posted in Fiction

Floating Gold

A Natural (and Unnatural) History of Ambergris

Author: Christopher Kemp

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226430367

Category: History

Page: 187

View: 7817

Discusses what ambergris is and how the substance factors into the natural history of whales and squid, ocean ecology, and the history of the perfume industry.
Posted in History

Vier Fische

Author: Paul Greenberg

Publisher: ebook Berlin Verlag

ISBN: 3827074746

Category: Nature

Page: 320

View: 9144

Der preisgekrönte Autor und passionierte Angler Paul Greenberg nimmt uns mit auf eine Reise über die Flüsse und Meere dieser Welt und erzählt die Geschichte jener vier Fischarten, die mittlerweile überall die Speisekarten beherrschen: Lachs, Barsch, Kabeljau und Thunfisch. Er besucht norwegische Großfarmen, die jährlich 500 000 Tonnen Lachs produzieren - mit Hilfe genetischer Techniken, die ursprünglich bei der Schafzucht zum Einsatz kamen. In Alaska besichtigt er die einzige Fair-Trade-Fischerei der Welt. Er erklärt, warum die Meerestiere zunehmend mit Quecksilber und anderen Schadstoffen belastet sind, und schildert, wie der Mittelmeerbarsch zu einer global nachgefragten Ware werden konnte. Greenberg stellt viele der Fragen, die immer mehr Menschen beim Anblick einer Speisekarte oder der Tiefkühltruhe unseres Supermarkts beschäftigen: Was ist der Unterschied zwischen Wild-, Zucht- und Biofisch? Welchen Fisch können wir bedenkenlos essen? Was bedeutet Überfischung eigentlich? Lassen sich Fische wirklich domestizieren wie andere Tiere auch, oder sollten wir generell aufhören, Fisch zu essen? Fische, so Greenbergs Fazit, sind unser letztes wirklich ?wildes Nahrungsmittel. Womöglich nicht mehr lange. Nur wenn wir besser verstehen, unter welchen Bedingungen und um welchen Preis Fisch auf unseren Tellern landet, werden wir dem Lebensraum - und der Nahrungsquelle - Meer mit neuer, dringend gebotener Achtung begegnen.
Posted in Nature

Das Buch Henoch

Author: Johannes Flemming,Ludwig Radermacher

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110299070

Category: Religion

Page: 171

View: 4004

Posted in Religion

Eine kurze Geschichte der Menschheit

Author: Yuval Noah Harari

Publisher: DVA

ISBN: 364110498X

Category: History

Page: 528

View: 5886

Krone der Schöpfung? Vor 100 000 Jahren war der Homo sapiens noch ein unbedeutendes Tier, das unauffällig in einem abgelegenen Winkel des afrikanischen Kontinents lebte. Unsere Vorfahren teilten sich den Planeten mit mindestens fünf weiteren menschlichen Spezies, und die Rolle, die sie im Ökosystem spielten, war nicht größer als die von Gorillas, Libellen oder Quallen. Vor 70 000 Jahren dann vollzog sich ein mysteriöser und rascher Wandel mit dem Homo sapiens, und es war vor allem die Beschaffenheit seines Gehirns, die ihn zum Herren des Planeten und zum Schrecken des Ökosystems werden ließ. Bis heute hat sich diese Vorherrschaft stetig zugespitzt: Der Mensch hat die Fähigkeit zu schöpferischem und zu zerstörerischem Handeln wie kein anderes Lebewesen. Anschaulich, unterhaltsam und stellenweise hochkomisch zeichnet Yuval Harari die Geschichte des Menschen nach und zeigt alle großen, aber auch alle ambivalenten Momente unserer Menschwerdung.
Posted in History

Monster, Mörder und Mutanten

eine Geschichte unserer schönsten Alpträume

Author: Stephen T. Asma

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783549074008

Category:

Page: 479

View: 8762

Posted in

The Human Shore

Seacoasts in History

Author: John R. Gillis

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226922251

Category: History

Page: 272

View: 9166

Since before recorded history, people have congregated near water. But as growing populations around the globe continue to flow toward the coasts on an unprecedented scale and climate change raises water levels, our relationship to the sea has begun to take on new and potentially catastrophic dimensions. The latest generation of coastal dwellers lives largely in ignorance of the history of those who came before them, the natural environment, and the need to live sustainably on the world’s shores. Humanity has forgotten how to live with the oceans. In The Human Shore, a magisterial account of 100,000 years of seaside civilization, John R. Gillis recovers the coastal experience from its origins among the people who dwelled along the African shore to the bustle and glitz of today’s megacities and beach resorts. He takes readers from discussion of the possible coastal location of the Garden of Eden to the ancient communities that have existed along beaches, bays, and bayous since the beginning of human society to the crucial role played by coasts during the age of discovery and empire. An account of the mass movement of whole populations to the coasts in the last half-century brings the story of coastal life into the present. Along the way, Gillis addresses humankind’s changing relationship to the sea from an environmental perspective, laying out the history of the making and remaking of coastal landscapes—the creation of ports, the draining of wetlands, the introduction and extinction of marine animals, and the invention of the beach—while giving us a global understanding of our relationship to the water. Learned and deeply personal, The Human Shore is more than a history: it is the story of a space that has been central to the attitudes, plans, and existence of those who live and dream at land’s end.
Posted in History

Fish Stories Alleged and Experienced

With a Little History Natural and Unnatural

Author: Charles Frederick Holder,David Starr Jordan

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Fishes

Page: 336

View: 2817

Posted in Fishes

Making Seafood Sustainable

American Experiences in Global Perspective

Author: Mansel G. Blackford

Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press

ISBN: 0812206274

Category: History

Page: 288

View: 6488

In the spring of 2007, National Geographic warned, "The oceans are in deep blue trouble. From the northernmost reaches of the Greenland Sea to the swirl of the Antarctic Circle, we are gutting our seas of fish." There were legitimate grounds for concern. After increasing more than fourfold between 1950 and 1994, the global wild fish catch reached a plateau and stagnated despite exponential growth in the fishing industry. As numerous scientific reports showed, many fish stocks around the world collapsed, creating a genuine global overfishing crisis. Making Seafood Sustainable analyzes the ramifications of overfishing for the United States by investigating how fishers, seafood processors, retailers, government officials, and others have worked together to respond to the crisis. Historian Mansel G. Blackford examines how these players took steps to make fishing in some American waters, especially in Alaskan waters, sustainable. Critical to these efforts, Blackford argues, has been government and industry collaboration in formulating and enforcing regulations. What can be learned from these successful experiences? Are they applicable elsewhere? What are the drawbacks? Making Seafood Sustainable addresses these questions and suggests that sustainable seafood management can be made to work. The economic and social costs incurred in achieving sustainable resource usage are significant, but there are ways to mitigate them. More broadly, this study illustrates ways to manage commonly held natural resources around the world—land, water, oil, and so on—in sustainable ways.
Posted in History

Empire of Extinction

Russians and the North Pacific's Strange Beasts of the Sea, 1741-1867

Author: Ryan Tucker Jones

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199373809

Category: History

Page: 336

View: 4924

In the second half of the eighteenth century, the Russian Empire-already the largest on earth-expanded its dominion onto the ocean. Through a series of government-sponsored voyages of discovery and the establishment of a private fur trade, Russians crossed and re-crossed the Bering Strait and the North Pacific Ocean, establishing colonies in Kamchatka and Alaska and exporting marine mammal furs to Europe and China. In the process they radically transformed the North Pacific, causing environmental catastrophe. In one of the most hotly-contested imperial arenas of the day, the Russian empire organized a host of Siberian and Alaskan native peoples to rapaciously hunt for fur seals, sea otters, and other fur-bearing animals. The animals declined precipitously, and Steller's sea cow went extinct. This destruction captured the attention of natural historians who for the first time began to recognize the threat of species extinction. These experts drew upon Enlightenment and Romantic-era ideas about nature and imperialism but their ideas were refracted through Russian scientific culture and influenced by the region's unique ecology. Cosmopolitan scientific networks ensured the spread of their ideas throughout Europe. Heeding the advice of these scientific experts, Russian colonial governors began long-term management of marine mammal stocks and instituted some of the colonial world's most forward-thinking conservationist policies. Highlighting the importance of the North Pacific in Russian imperial and global environmental history, Empire of Extinction focuses on the development of ideas about the natural world in a crucial location far from what has been considered the center of progressive environmental attitudes.
Posted in History

Ice Bear

A Natural and Unnatural History of the Polar Bear

Author: Kieran Mulvaney

Publisher: Random House

ISBN: 1409022900

Category: Nature

Page: 272

View: 5050

The polar bear is one of the most recognisable animals on the planet. Yet if global warming continues at its present pace, summer sea ice could disappear entirely from the Arctic Ocean by the year 2040. Polar bears could be extinct within a generation. Ice Bear is the definitive account of an iconic species: its life, its past, and its uncertain future. These beautiful bears are creatures of paradox: Arctic residents whose major problem is not staying warm, but keeping cool. Officially classed as marine mammals, they are the world's largest land carnivores. They begin life in a snowdrift; at birth they weigh just twenty ounces. Fully grown, they become massive predators that can walk almost silently, ten feet in length and close to 2,000 pounds. Wandering thousands of miles over the course of a year, they are, above all, creatures of the ice. Without sea ice and the life it supports, polar bears cannot survive. Kieran Mulvaney is an expert on the Polar regions who has led three expeditions to the Arctic as well as Project Thin Ice 2006: Save the Polar Bear - the successful first attempt to reach the North Pole in summer and draw attention to the impact of climate change on polar bears. This book blends natural and human history, myth and reality with scientific and personal observation, to tell the story of these remarkable animals, the region in which they dwell, and the rapid changes overtaking planet Earth.
Posted in Nature

Managed Annihilation

An Unnatural History of the Newfoundland Cod Collapse

Author: Dean Bavington

Publisher: UBC Press

ISBN: 0774859504

Category: Nature

Page: 224

View: 977

The Newfoundland and Labrador cod fishery was once the most successful commercial fishery in the world. When it collapsed in 1992, many pointed to failures in management, such as uncontrolled harvesting, as likely culprits. Managed Annihilation makes the case that the idea of natural resource management itself was the problem. The collapse occurred when the fisheries were state-managed and still, two decades later, there is no recovery in sight. Although the collapse raised doubts among policy-makers about their ability to understand and control nature, their ultimate goal of control through management has not wavered and has been transferred from wild fish to fishermen and farmed cod.
Posted in Nature

Acts of God

The Unnatural History of Natural Disaster in America

Author: Ted Steinberg

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199838992

Category: History

Page: 336

View: 6144

As the waters of the Mississippi River and Lake Pontchartrain began to pour into New Orleans, people began asking the big question--could any of this have been avoided? How much of the damage from Hurricane Katrina was bad luck, and how much was poor city planning? Steinberg's Acts of God is a provocative history of natural disasters in the United States. This revised edition features a new chapter analyzing the failed response to Hurricane Katrina, a disaster Steinberg warned could happen when the book first was published. Focusing on America's worst natural disasters, Steinberg argues that it is wrong to see these tragedies as random outbursts of nature's violence or expressions of divine judgment. He reveals how the decisions of business leaders and government officials have paved the way for the greater losses of life and property, especially among those least able to withstand such blows--America's poor, elderly, and minorities. Seeing nature or God as the primary culprit, Steinberg explains, has helped to hide the fact that some Americans are simply better able to protect themselves from the violence of nature than others. In the face of revelations about how the federal government mishandled the Katrina calamity, this book is a must-read before further wind and water sweep away more lives. Acts of God is a call to action that needs desperately to be heard.
Posted in History

State of the Wild 2010-2011

A Global Portrait

Author: Eva Fearn

Publisher: Island Press

ISBN: 9781610911580

Category: Nature

Page: 264

View: 3287

State of the Wild is a biennial series that brings together international conservation experts and writers to discuss emerging issues in the conservation of wildlife and wild places. Each volume in the series combines evocative writings with a fascinating tour of conservation news highlights and vital statistics from around the world. One-third of each volume focuses on a topic of particular concern to conservationists. This 2010–2011 edition considers how destabilization and war affect wildlife and wild places. Only recently has the international community begun to appreciate the cost of conflict—simmering tension, war, and reconstruction—on the natural world. This special section examines the role that conservation plays in the context of human conflict considering issues such as, Can the work of saving wildlife and wild places help ameliorate tensions? Can conservation deepen political understanding? Can conservation help in post-conflict situations? The book’s twenty essays are intermixed with poetry and beautiful photos that capture our connection to the wild. State of the Wild’s accessible approach educates a wide range of audiences while at the same time presenting leading-edge scientific overviews of hot topics in conservation. Uniquely structured with magazine-like features up front, conservation news in the middle, and essays from eminent authors and experienced scientists throughout, this landmark series is an essential addition to any environmental bookshelf.
Posted in Nature

The Next Species

The Future of Evolution in the Aftermath of Man

Author: Michael Tennesen

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 1451677537

Category: Science

Page: 336

View: 4404

“Simultaneously sobering and exhilarating, Michael Tennesen’s wide-ranging survey of disasters highlights both life’s fragility and its metamorphosing persistence” (Booklist) and describes what life on earth could look like after the next mass extinction. A growing number of scientists agree we are headed toward a mass extinction, perhaps in as little as 300 years. Already there have been five mass extinctions in the last 600 million years, including the Cretaceous Extinction, during which an asteroid knocked out the dinosaurs. Though these events were initially destructive, they were also prime movers of evolutionary change in nature. And we can see some of the warning signs of another extinction event coming, as our oceans lose both fish and oxygen, and our lands lose both predators and prey. In The Next Species, Michael Tennesen questions what life might be like after it happens. In thoughtful, provocative ways, Tennesen discusses the future of nature and whether humans will make it through the bottleneck of extinction. Could life suddenly get very big as it did before the arrival of humans? Could the conquest of Mars lead to another form of human? Could we upload our minds into a computer and live in a virtual reality? How would we recognize the next humans? Are they with us now? Tennesen delves into the history of the planet and travels to rainforests, canyons, craters, and caves all over the world to explore the potential winners and losers of the next era of evolution. His predictions, based on reports and interviews with top scientists, have vital implications for life on earth today. The Next Species is “an engrossing history of life, the dismal changes wrought by man, and a forecast of life after the sixth mass extinction” (Kirkus Reviews).
Posted in Science

Protecting the Oceans Beyond National Jurisdiction

Strengthening the International Law Framework

Author: Robin Warner

Publisher: BRILL

ISBN: 9004172629

Category: Law

Page: 275

View: 1835

Knowledge of the marine environment beyond national jurisdiction and its unique biodiversity is still developing. Simultaneously, traditional uses of these areas including fishing and shipping, are intensifying and new uses are emerging such as bio-prospecting for marine genetic resources and climate change mitigation activities. This volume examines the threats to the marine environment beyond national jurisdiction from existing and emerging human uses and the adequacy of current international law provisions to protect this major part of the global environment. An analysis of key provisions in the 1982 United Nations Law of the Sea Convention and complementary principles of international environmental law reveals significant tensions between the concept of high seas freedoms and the international law obligation to protect and preserve the marine environment beyond national jurisdiction. The book compares the lack of comprehensive environmental regulation for marine resource exploitation and shipping activities beyond national jurisdiction with the best practice standards for environmental protection being developed by the International Seabed Authority for deep seabed mining exploration. Recent initiatives by the international community to study issues relating to conservation of high seas biodiversity are discussed and a range of soft and hard law options to strengthen the international law framework for protection of the marine environment beyond national jurisdiction are considered.
Posted in Law