A collection of essays and documents chronicilizing the history of treatment, labeling, and understanding of mental retardating in the U.S. NYUP is one the forefront of publishing in disability studies.
A Historical Reader
Author: Steven Noll,James Trent
Publisher: NYU Press
Immigration history has largely focused on the restriction of immigrants by race and ethnicity, overlooking disability as a crucial factor in the crafting of the image of the “undesirable immigrant.” Defectives in the Land, Douglas C. Baynton’s groundbreaking new look at immigration and disability, aims to change this. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Baynton explains, immigration restriction in the United States was primarily intended to keep people with disabilities—known as “defectives”—out of the country. The list of those included is long: the deaf, blind, epileptic, and mobility impaired; people with curved spines, hernias, flat or club feet, missing limbs, and short limbs; those unusually short or tall; people with intellectual or psychiatric disabilities; intersexuals; men of “poor physique” and men diagnosed with “feminism.” Not only were disabled individuals excluded, but particular races and nationalities were also identified as undesirable based on their supposed susceptibility to mental, moral, and physical defects. In this transformative book, Baynton argues that early immigration laws were a cohesive whole—a decades-long effort to find an effective method of excluding people considered to be defective. This effort was one aspect of a national culture that was increasingly fixated on competition and efficiency, anxious about physical appearance and difference, and haunted by a fear of hereditary defect and the degeneration of the American race.
Disability and Immigration in the Age of Eugenics
Author: Douglas C. Baynton
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Midget, feeble-minded, crippled, lame, and insane: these terms and the historical photographs that accompany them may seem shocking to present-day audiences. In this book, Bogdan and his collaborators gather over 200 historical photographs showing how people with disabilities have been presented over the years.
Beggar, Freak, Citizen, and Other Photographic Rhetoric
Author: Robert Bogdan,Martin Elks,James A. Knoll
Publisher: Syracuse University Press
Disability is often mentioned in discussions of slave health, mistreatment and abuse, but constructs of how "able" and "disabled" bodies influenced the institution of slavery has gone largely overlooked. This volume uncovers a history of disability in African American slavery from the primary record, analyzing how concepts of race, disability, and power converged in the United States in the first half of the nineteenth century. Slaves with physical and mental impairments often faced unique limitations and conditions in their diagnosis, treatment, and evaluation as property. Slaves with disabilities proved a significant challenge to white authority figures, torn between the desire to categorize them as different or defective and the practical need to incorporate their "disorderly" bodies into daily life. Being physically "unfit" could sometimes allow slaves to escape the limitations of bondage and oppression, and establish a measure of self-control. Furthermore, ideas about and reactions to disability—appearing as social construction, legal definition, medical phenomenon, metaphor, or masquerade—highlighted deep struggles over bodies in bondage in antebellum America.
Bodies, Property and Power in the Antebellum South, 1800-1860
Author: Dea H. Boster
Category: Social Science
Junius Wilson (1908-2001) spent seventy-six years at a state mental hospital in Goldsboro, North Carolina, including six in the criminal ward. He had never been declared insane by a medical professional or found guilty of any criminal charge. But he was deaf and black in the Jim Crow South. Unspeakable is the story of his life. Wilson was born and lived the first years of his life with his family in a small town near Wilmington, North Carolina. At age seven he was sent to the residential State School for the Colored Blind and Deaf, where he learned Raleigh Sign Language, a unique form of signing taught only to blacks at that school. After a minor infraction at age sixteen, he was dismissed from school and sent back home, where he was falsely accused of attempted rape in 1925. Judged insane by the court, he was committed to the criminal ward of the State Hospital for the Colored Insane. Wilson was castrated and forced to work on the hospital farm for decades. He remained incarcerated for almost all of his life. Although authorities knew from the 1960s onward that Wilson was not insane, they did not know how to integrate him into society. They determined that keeping him institutionalized was the most benevolent course of action. In 1990, when social worker John Wasson reviewed Wilson's records, he was shocked by what he read. Lawsuits brought against the state by disability rights lawyers led to Wilson's release from the locked wards in the 1990s. He spent the final years of his life in a cottage on the grounds of the hospital, where staff continued to look after his daily needs. Junius Wilson's life was shaped by some of the major developments of twentieth-century America: Jim Crow segregation, the civil rights movement, deinstitutionalization, the rise of professional social work, and the emergence of the deaf and disability rights movements. There is much to learn and remember about Junius Wilson - and the countless others who have lived unspeakable histories.
Author: Burch Susan
Category: Biography & Autobiography
DIVShows how narratives of contagion structure communities of belonging and how the lessons of these narratives are incorporated into sociological theories of cultural transmission and community formation./div
Cultures, Carriers, and the Outbreak Narrative
Author: Priscilla Wald
Publisher: Duke University Press
An estimated one billion people around the globe live with a disability; this number grows exponentially when family members, friends, and care providers are included. Various countries and international organizations have attempted to guard against discrimination and secure basic human rights for those whose lives are affected by disability. Yet despite such attempts many disabled persons in the United States and throughout the world still face exclusion from full citizenship and membership in their respective societies. They are regularly denied employment, housing, health care, access to buildings, and the right to move freely in public spaces. At base, such discrimination reflects a tacit yet pervasive assumption that disabled persons do not belong in society. Civil Disabilities challenges such norms and practices, urging a reconceptualization of disability and citizenship to secure a rightful place for disabled persons in society. Essays from leading scholars in a diversity of fields offer critical perspectives on current citizenship studies, which still largely assume an ableist world. Placing historians in conversation with anthropologists, sociologists with literary critics, and musicologists with political scientists, this interdisciplinary volume presents a compelling case for reimagining citizenship that is more consistent, inclusive, and just, in both theory and practice. By placing disability front and center in academic and civic discourse, Civil Disabilities tests the very notion of citizenship and transforms our understanding of disability and belonging. Contributors: Emily Abel, Douglas C. Baynton, Susan Burch, Allison C. Carey, Faye Ginsburg, Nancy J. Hirschmann, Hannah Joyner, Catherine Kudlick, Beth Linker, Alex Lubet, Rayna Rapp, Susan Schweik, Tobin Siebers, Lorella Terzi.
Citizenship, Membership, and Belonging
Author: Nancy J. Hirschmann,Beth Linker
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press
Category: Political Science
Ugly as sin, the ugly duckling—or maybe you fell out of the ugly tree? Let’s face it, we’ve all used the word “ugly” to describe someone we’ve seen—hopefully just in our private thoughts—but have we ever considered how slippery the term can be, indicating anything from the slightly unsightly to the downright revolting? What really lurks behind this most favored insult? In this actually beautiful book, Gretchen E. Henderson casts an unfazed gaze at ugliness, tracing its long-standing grasp on our cultural imagination and highlighting all the peculiar ways it has attracted us to its repulsion. Henderson explores the ways we have perceived ugliness throughout history, from ancient Roman feasts to medieval grotesque gargoyles, from Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein to the Nazi Exhibition of Degenerate Art. Covering literature, art, music, and even the cutest possible incarnation of the term—Uglydolls—she reveals how ugliness has long posed a challenge to aesthetics and taste. She moves beyond the traditional philosophic argument that simply places ugliness in opposition to beauty in order to dismantle just what we mean when we say “ugly.” Following ugly things wherever they have trod, she traverses continents and centuries to delineate the changing map of ugliness and the profound effects it has had on the public imagination, littering her path with one fascinating tidbit after another. Lovingly illustrated with the foulest images from art, history, and culture, Ugliness offers an oddly refreshing perspective, going past the surface to ask what “ugly” truly is, even as its meaning continues to shift.
A Cultural History
Author: Gretchen E. Henderson
Publisher: Reaktion Books
How an understanding of intellectual disability transforms the pleasures of reading Narrative informs everything we think, do, plan, remember, and imagine. We tell stories and we listen to stories, gauging their “well-formedness” within a couple of years of learning to walk and talk. Some argue that the capacity to understand narrative is innate to our species; others claim that while that might be so, the invention of writing then re-wired our brains. In The Secret Life of Stories, Michael Bérubé tells a dramatically different tale, in a compelling account of how an understanding of intellectual disability can transform our understanding of narrative. Instead of focusing on characters with disabilities, he shows how ideas about intellectual disability inform an astonishingly wide array of narrative strategies, providing a new and startling way of thinking through questions of time, self-reflexivity, and motive in the experience of reading. Interweaving his own stories with readings of such texts as Faulkner’s The Sound and the Fury, Haddon’s The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time, Kingston’s The Woman Warrior, and Philip K. Dick’s Martian Time-Slip, Bérubé puts his theory into practice, stretching the purview of the study of literature and the role of disability studies within it. Armed only with the tools of close reading, Bérubé demonstrates the immensely generative possibilities in the ways disability is deployed within fiction, finding in them powerful meditations on what it means to be a social being, a sentient creature with an awareness of mortality and causality—and sentience itself. Persuasive and witty, Michael Bérubé engages Harry Potter fans and scholars of literature alike. For all readers, The Secret Life of Stories will fundamentally change the way we think about the way we read.
From Don Quixote to Harry Potter, How Understanding Intellectual Disability Transforms the Way We Read
Author: Michael Bérubé
Publisher: NYU Press
Category: Literary Criticism
Since its initial publication, scholars and students alike have turned to Keywords for American Cultural Studies as an invaluable resource for understanding key terms and debates in the fields of American studies and cultural studies. As scholarship has continued to evolve, this revised and expanded second edition offers indispensable meditations on new and developing concepts used in American studies, cultural studies, and beyond. It is equally useful for college students who are trying to understand what their teachers are talking about, for general readers who want to know what’s new in scholarly research, and for professors who just want to keep up. Designed as a print-digital hybrid publication, Keywords collects more than 90 essays—30 of which are new to this edition—from interdisciplinary scholars, each on a single term such as “America,” “culture,” “law,” and “religion.” Alongside “community,” “prison,” "queer," “region,” and many others, these words are the nodal points in many of today’s most dynamic and vexed discussions of political and social life, both inside and outside of the academy. The Keywords website, which features 33 essays, provides pedagogical tools that engage the entirety of the book, both in print and online. The publication brings together essays by scholars working in literary studies and political economy, cultural anthropology and ethnic studies, African American history and performance studies, gender studies and political theory. Some entries are explicitly argumentative; others are more descriptive. All are clear, challenging, and critically engaged. As a whole, Keywords for American Cultural Studies provides an accessible A to Z survey of prevailing academic buzzwords and a flexible tool for carving out new areas of inquiry.
Author: Bruce Burgett,Glenn Hendler
Publisher: NYU Press
Category: Literary Criticism
Author: Jay Sibara
Publisher: U of Nebraska Press
"A rhetorical examination of the spaces, technologies, and discourses of immigration restriction during the peak period of North American immigration in the early twentieth century. Links anti-immigration rhetoric to eugenics--and argues racist and ableist ideas about bodily values have never really gone away"--
Eugenics, Immigration, and the Construction of Race and Disability
Author: Jay Timothy Dolmage
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
This is the first book of its kind to feature interdisciplinary art history and disability studies scholarship. Art historians have traditionally written about images of figures with impairments and artworks by disabled artists, without integrating disability studies scholarship, while many disability studies scholars discuss works of art, but do not necessarily incorporate art historical research and methodology. The chapters in this volume emphasize a shift away from the medical model of disability that is often scrutinized in art history by considering the social model and representations of disabled figures from a range of styles and periods, mostly from the twentieth century. Topics addressed include visible versus invisible impairments; scientific, anthropological, and vernacular images of disability; and the theories and implications of looking/staring versus gazing. They also explore ways in which art responds to, envisions, and at times stereotypes and pathologizes disability. The insights offered in this book contextualize understanding of disability historically, as well as in terms of medicine, literature, and visual culture.
Author: Ann Millett-Gallant,Elizabeth Howie
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Mobilizing Metaphor illustrates how radical and unconventional forms of activism, including art, are reshaping the rich and vibrant tradition of disability mobilization in Canada. The artists, activists, and scholars in Mobilizing Metaphor reveal how their work is distinctive as both art and social action, and how disability activism is as varied as the population it represents. Sketching the shifting contours of Canadian disability politics, the authors challenge perceptions of disability and the politics that surround it, leading us to re-examine how we define oppression and how we enact change.
Art, Culture, and Disability Activism in Canada
Author: Christine Kelly,Michael Orsini
Publisher: UBC Press
Category: Social Science
Beth Lew-Williams shows how American immigration policies incited violence against Chinese workers, and how that violence provoked new exclusionary policies. Locating the origins of the modern American "alien" in this violent era, she makes clear that the present resurgence of xenophobia builds mightily upon past fears of the "heathen Chinaman."
Violence, Exclusion, and the Making of the Alien in America
Author: Beth Lew-Williams
Publisher: Harvard University Press
"Focuses on the Americans with Disabilties Act (ADA) and the rights of the disabled under this Act. Also explored are the areas covered by the ADA, specifically employment, transportation, public accommodations, State and local government services, and telecommunications. For areas not covered by the ADA, a review of other pertinent legislation is provided"--Provided by publisher.
Author: Margaret C. Jasper
Publisher: Oxford University Press