Author: Andrew W. Russell,Society for the Social History of Medicine
"Carole Rawcliffe continues with her mission to clean up the Middle Ages. In earlier work she has already given us scholarly yet sympathetic portrayals of English medicine, hospitals, and welfare for lepers. Now she widens her scope to public health. Her argument is clear, simple and convincing. Through the efforts of crown and civic authorities, mercantile �lites and "popular" interests, English towns and cities aspired to a far healthier, less polluted environment than previously supposed. All major sources of possible infection were regulated, from sounds and smells to corrupt matter - and to immorality. Once again Professor Rawcliffe has overturned a well-established orthodoxy in the history of pre-modern health and healing. Her book is a magnificent achievement." Peregrine Horden, Royal Holloway University of London. This first full-length study of public health in pre-Reformation England challenges a number of entrenched assumptions about the insanitary nature of urban life during "the golden age of bacteria". Adopting an interdisciplinary approach that draws on material remains as well as archives, it examines the medical, cultural and religious contexts in which ideas about the welfare of the communal body developed. Far from demonstrating indifference, ignorance or mute acceptance in the face of repeated onslaughts of epidemic disease, the rulers and residents of English towns devised sophisticated and coherent strategies for the creation of a more salubrious environment; among the plethora of initiatives whose origins often predated the Black Death can also be found measures for the improvement of the water supply, for better food standards and for the care of the sick, both rich and poor. Carole Rawcliffe is Professor of Medieval History, University of East Anglia.
Communal Health in Late Medieval English Towns and Cities
Author: Carole Rawcliffe
Publisher: Boydell & Brewer Ltd
This Encyclopedia gathers together the most recent scholarship on Medieval Italy, while offering a sweeping view of all aspects of life in Italy during the Middle Ages. This two volume, illustrated, A-Z reference is a cross-disciplinary resource for information on literature, history, the arts, science, philosophy, and religion in Italy between A.D. 450 and 1375. For more information including the introduction, a full list of entries and contributors, a generous selection of sample pages, and more, visit the Medieval Italy: An Encyclopedia website.
Author: Christopher Kleinhenz
This encyclopedia provides 300 interdisciplinary, cross-referenced entries that document the effect of the plague on Western society across the four centuries of the second plague pandemic, balancing medical history and technical matters with historical, cultural, social, and political factors. • 300 A–Z interdisciplinary entries on medical matters and historical issues • Each entry includes up-to-date resources for further research
Author: Joseph P. Byrne Ph.D.
The Trotula was the most influential compendium on women's medicine in medieval Europe. Scholarly debate has long focused on the traditional attribution of the work to the mysterious Trotula, said to have been the first female professor of medicine in eleventh- or twelfth-century Salerno, just south of Naples, then the leading center of medical learning in Europe. Yet as Monica H. Green reveals in her introduction to this first edition of the Latin text since the sixteenth century, and the first English translation of the book ever based upon a medieval form of the text, the Trotula is not a single treatise but an ensemble of three independent works, each by a different author. To varying degrees, these three works reflect the synthesis of indigenous practices of southern Italians with the new theories, practices, and medicinal substances coming out of the Arabic world. Arguing that these texts can be understood only within the intellectual and social context that produced them, Green analyzes them against the background of historical gynecological literature as well as current knowledge about women's lives in twelfth-century southern Italy. She examines the history and composition of the three works and introduces the reader to the medical culture of medieval Salerno from which they emerged. Among her findings is that the second of the three texts, "On the Treatments for Women," does derive from the work of a Salernitan woman healer named Trota. However, the other two texts—"On the Conditions of Women" and "On Women's Cosmetics"—are probably of male authorship, a fact indicating the complex gender relations surrounding the production and use of knowledge about the female body. Through an exhaustive study of the extant manuscripts of the Trotula, Green presents a critical edition of the so-called standardized Trotula ensemble, a composite form of the texts that was produced in the mid-thirteenth century and circulated widely in learned circles. The facing-page complete English translation makes the work accessible to a broad audience of readers interested in medieval history, women's studies, and premodern systems of medical thought and practice.
A Medieval Compendium of Women's Medicine
Author: Monica H. Green
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press
This volume in the highly respected Cambridge History of Science series is devoted to the history of science in the Middle Ages from the North Atlantic to the Indus Valley. Medieval science was once universally dismissed as non-existent - and sometimes it still is. This volume reveals the diversity of goals, contexts and accomplishments in the study of nature during the Middle Ages. Organized by topic and culture, its essays by distinguished scholars offer the most comprehensive and up-to-date history of medieval science currently available. Intended to provide a balanced and inclusive treatment of the medieval world, contributors consider scientific learning and advancement in the cultures associated with the Arabic, Greek, Latin and Hebrew languages. Scientists, historians and other curious readers will all gain a new appreciation for the study of nature during an era that is often misunderstood.
Author: David C. Lindberg,Michael H. Shank
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Category: Technology & Engineering
The Encyclopedia of Ancient Natural Scientists is the first comprehensive English language work to provide a survey of all ancient natural science, from its beginnings through the end of Late Antiquity. A team of over 100 of the world’s experts in the field have compiled this Encyclopedia, including entries which are not mentioned in any other reference work – resulting in a unique and hugely ambitious resource which will prove indispensable for anyone seeking the details of the history of ancient science. Additional features include a Glossary, Gazetteer, and Time-Line. The Glossary explains many Greek (or Latin) terms difficult to translate, whilst the Gazetteer describes the many locales from which scientists came. The Time-Line shows the rapid rise in the practice of science in the 5th century BCE and rapid decline after Hadrian, due to the centralization of Roman power, with consequent loss of a context within which science could flourish.
The Greek Tradition and its Many Heirs
Author: Paul T. Keyser,Georgia L. Irby-Massie
This is a comprehensive reference work which surveys all aspects of the history of medicine, both clinical and social, and reflects the complementary approaches to the discipline. The editors have assembled an international team of scholars to provide detailed and informative factual surveys with contemporary interpretations and historiographical debate. Special Features * Comprehensive: 72 substantial and original essays from internationally respected scholars * Unique: no other publication provides so much information in two volumes * Broad-ranging: includes coverage of non-Western as well as Western medicine * Up-to-date: incorporates the very latest in historical research and interpretation * User-friendly: clearly laid out and readable, with a full index of Topics and People * Indispensable: essential information for study and research, including bibliographic notes and cross-referencing between articles.
Author: W. F. Bynum,Roy Porter
The first book of its kind, Forensic Medicine in Western Society: A History draws on the most recent developments in the historiography, to provide an overview of the history of forensic medicine in the West from the medieval period to the present day. Taking an international, comparative perspective on the changing nature of the relationship between medicine, law and society, it examines the growth of medico-legal ideas, institutions and practices in Britain, Europe (principally France, Italy and Germany) and the United States. Following a thematic structure within a broad chronological framework, the book focuses on practitioners, the development of notions of ‘expertise’ and the rise of the expert, the main areas of the criminal law to which forensic medicine contributed, medical attitudes towards the victims and perpetrators of crime, and the wider influences such attitudes had. It thus develops an understanding of how medicine has played an active part in shaping legal, political and social change. Including case studies which provide a narrative context to tie forensic medicine to the societies in which it was practiced, and a further reading section at the end of each chapter, Katherine D. Watson creates a vivid portrait of a topic of relevance to social historians and students of the history of medicine, law and crime.
Author: Katherine D. Watson
Author: Plinio Prioreschi
Publisher: Horatius Press
Author: Plinio Prioreschi
The Medical World of Early Modern France recounts the history of medicine in France between the sixteenth century and the French Revolution. Physicians, surgeons and apothecaries are centre-stage, and the study provides an overview of long-term changes in their ideas about medicine and their craft. Other denizens of the medical world - quacks, charlatans, wise women, midwives, herbalist and others - are also brought into the analysis, which is set within the broader context of social, economic, demographic and cultural change. The breadth of the chronological and analytical framework, and the depth of the archival research behind it, makes this a unique account of the evolution of medical ideas and practices in one of the major countries of early modern Europe.
Author: L. W. B. Brockliss
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
This book examines the relevance of a theoretical model of health care lawmaking in several Central-Eastern European countries. Confronted with the legacy of the ancient regime, the countries selected shifted away from a 'socialist' model towards a more 'market-oriented' health care system. From a legal perspective, this change of system imposed on government the need for drastic reforms starting with the introduction of a compulsory health insurance scheme based on the notion of solidarity. Future accession to the EU, requiring the incorporation of the acquis communautaire, has increased the complexity of legal reforms since. Strengthening the reform process, the author developed a method of law-making based on legaltheoretical understanding. Case study research in three selected countries justifies the conclusion that the analytical model rationalises the law-making activity, including the 'EU law approximation process'. What is more, it became apparent that the importance of this theoretical model is not restricted only to the selected countries but may also be a valuable instrument for other countries in transition in the region. Health care law-making in Central and Eastern Europe - Review of a legal-theoretical model provides a unique resource for scholars and policy makers interested in legal reforms in Central- Eastern European health care systems.
Review of a Legal-theoretical Model
Author: André den Exter
Publisher: Intersentia nv
Hensing, Johann Thomas.
an account of the first chemical examination of the brain and the discovery of phosphorus therein : set against the background of Europe in the 17th and early 18th centuries : a source book in the history of neurochemistry
Author: Donald Bayley Tower,Johann Thomas Hensing
Author: William F. Bynum
Publisher: History of Medicine
Author: Roy Porter
Publisher: History of Medicine
Category: Public health
An examination of how bodies and sexualities have been constructed, categorised, represented, diagnosed, experienced and subverted from the fifteenth to the early twenty-first century. It draws attention to continuities in thinking about bodies and sex: concept may have changed, but hey nevertheless draw on older ideas and language.
Author: Kate Fisher,Sarah Toulalan