Phelps reveals how the Tizard Mission was the turning point in the technological war, giving Great Britain the weapons it desperately needed to defend itself during and laying the groundwork for much of the United States's postwar economic boom.
The Top-Secret Operation That Changed the Course of World War II
Author: Stephen Phelps
Publisher: Westholme Pub Llc
Zimmerman traces the early development of the mission from Britain's initial attempts at technical cooperation in World War I and unsuccessful efforts to restart it in the late 1930s. He highlights Winston Churchill's prominent, yet remarkably inconsistent, role in the story and the often tumultuous diplomatic relations with the Roosevelt administration. Among the secrets Britain revealed was the cavity magnetron, which made microwave radar possible. The Tizard Mission established an effective system of teamwork for Allied technical and scientific cooperation, and it was this teamwork that proved to be a crucial factor in Allied technical superiority. It was also the beginning of the much longer story of Anglo-American scientific and technical cooperation. The Tizard Mission served as a model for the international technical cooperation that continues today in organizations such as NATO.
The Tizard Mission and the Scientific War
Author: David Zimmerman
Publisher: McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP
Category: Political Science
The untold story of an eccentric Wall Street tycoon and the circle of scientific geniuses he assembled before World War II to develop the science for radar and the atomic bomb. Together they changed the course of history. Legendary financier, philanthropist, and society figure Alfred Lee Loomis gathered the most visionary scientific minds of the twentieth century—Albert Einstein, Werner Heisenberg, Niels Bohr, Enrico Fermi, and others—at his state-of-the-art laboratory in Tuxedo Park, New York, in the late 1930s. He established a top-secret defense laboratory at MIT and personally bankrolled pioneering research into new, high-powered radar detection systems that helped defeat the German Air Force and U-boats. With Ernest Lawrence, the Nobel Prize–winning physicist, he pushed Franklin Delano Roosevelt to fund research in nuclear fission, which led to the development of the atomic bomb. Jennet Conant, the granddaughter of James Bryant Conant, one of the leading scientific advisers of World War II, enjoyed unprecedented access to Loomis’ papers, as well as to people intimately involved in his life and work. She pierces through Loomis’ obsessive secrecy and illuminates his role in assuring the Allied victory.
A Wall Street Tycoon and the Secret Palace of Science That Changed the Course of World War II
Author: Jennet Conant
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
Technical and Military Imperatives: A Radar History of World War II is a coherent account of the history of radar in the second World War. Although many books have been written on the early days of radar and its role in the war, this book is by far the most comprehensive, covering ground, air, and sea operations in all theatres of World War II. The author manages to synthesize a vast amount of material in a highly readable, informative, and enjoyable way. Of special interest is extensive new material about the development and use of radar by Germany, Japan, Russia, and Great British. The story is told without undue technical complexity, so that the book is accessible to specialists and nonspecialists alike.
A Radar History of World War 2
Author: L Brown
Publisher: CRC Press
Category: Technology & Engineering
Many books instruct readers on how to use the tools of policy analysis. This book is different. Its primary focus is on helping readers to look critically at the strengths, limitations, and the underlying assumptions analysts make when they use standard tools or problem framings. Using examples, many of which involve issues in science and technology, the book exposes readers to some of the critical issues of taste, professional responsibility, ethics, and values that are associated with policy analysis and research. Topics covered include policy problems formulated in terms of utility maximization such as benefit-cost, decision, and multi-attribute analysis, issues in the valuation of intangibles, uncertainty in policy analysis, selected topics in risk analysis and communication, limitations and alternatives to the paradigm of utility maximization, issues in behavioral decision theory, issues related to organizations and multiple agents, and selected topics in policy advice and policy analysis for government.
Including Applications in Science and Technology
Author: M. Granger Morgan
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Category: Political Science
Our stories of industrial innovation tend to focus on individual initiative and breakthroughs. With Making Jet Engines in World War II, Hermione Giffard uses the case of the development of jet engines to offer a different way of understanding technological innovation, revealing the complicated mix of factors that go into any decision to pursue an innovative, and therefore risky technology. Giffard compares the approaches of Britain, Germany, and the United States. Each approached jet engines in different ways because of its own war aims and industrial expertise. Germany, which produced more jet engines than the others, did so largely as replacements for more expensive piston engines. Britain, on the other hand, produced relatively few engines—but, by shifting emphasis to design rather than production, found itself at war's end holding an unrivaled range of designs. The US emphasis on development, meanwhile, built an institutional basis for postwar production. Taken together, Giffard's work makes a powerful case for a more nuanced understanding of technological innovation, one that takes into account the influence of the many organizational factors that play a part in the journey from idea to finished product.
Britain, Germany, and the United States
Author: Hermione Giffard
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
With more than 1,700 cross-referenced entries covering every aspect of World War II, the events and developments of the era, and myriad related subjects as well as a documents volume, this is the most comprehensive reference work available on the war. • Provides a clear understanding of the causes of World War II, reaching back to World War I and the role of the Western democracies in its origin • Examines home front developments in major countries during the war, such as race and gender relations in the United States • Recognizes the important roles played by women in the war and describes how the United States mobilized its economy and citizenry for total war • Discusses the Holocaust and establishes responsibility for this genocide • Details the changing attitudes toward the war as expressed in film and literature
The Definitive Encyclopedia and Document Collection
Author: Spencer C. Tucker
In 1940 a team of British Scientists arrived in Washington, bearing Britain s most closely guarded technological secrets, including the cavity magnetron, a revolutionary new source of microwave energy. Its arrival triggered the most dramatic mobilisation of science in history, as America s to scientists enlisted to convert the invention into a potent military weapon. Microwave radars eventually helped destroy Japanese warships, Nazi buzz bombs and enabled Allied bombers to see e through cloud cover After the war the work of radar veterans continues to affect our lives by controlling air traffic, helping to forecast the weather and providing physicians with powerful diagnostic tools. Brimming with telling anecdotes and surprising revelations, this book brings to life the exciting, largely untold story of the scientist who not only created a winning weapon but also changed our world for ever.
The Story of Radar from War to Peace
Author: Robert Buderi
Publisher: Abacus (UK)
R.V. Jones' personal account of his key role in what Churchill called "The Wizard War" with British Scientific Intelligence from 1939 to 1945. Projects he worked on sought to combat Germany's applications of science during World War II, including navigational beams, chaff, and radar. Their efforts helped the Allies achieve ultimate victory.
British Scientific Intelligence, 1939-1945
Author: R. V. Jones
Publisher: Echo Point Books & Media
“Gripping…an outstanding portrait” (The Wall Street Journal) of one of the most influential men of the greatest generation, James B. Conant—a savvy architect of the nuclear age and the Cold War—told by his granddaughter, New York Times bestselling author Jennet Conant. James Bryant Conant was a towering figure. He was at the center of the mammoth threats and challenges of the twentieth century. As a young eminent chemist, he supervised the production of poison gas in World War I. As a controversial president of Harvard University, he was a champion of meritocracy and open admissions. As an advisor to FDR, he led the interventionist cause for US entrance in World War II. During that war, Conant oversaw the development of the atomic bomb and argued that it be used against the industrial city of Hiroshima in Japan. Later, he urged the Atomic Energy Commission to reject the hydrogen bomb and devoted the rest of his life to campaigning for international control of atomic weapons. As Eisenhower’s high commissioner to Germany, he helped to plan German recovery and was an architect of the United States’ Cold War policy. Now New York Times bestselling author Jennet Conant recreates the cataclysmic events of the twentieth century as her grandfather James experienced them. She describes the guilt, fears, and sometimes regret of those who invented and deployed the bombs and the personal toll it took. “A masterly account…a perceptive portrayal of a major player in world events throughout the mid-twentieth century” (Publishers Weekly), Man of the Hour is based on hundreds of documents and diaries, interviews with Manhattan Projects scientists, Harvard colleagues, and Conant’s friends and family, including her father, James B. Conant’s son. This is “a most serious work, well written and evocative of an era when the American foreign establishment exuded gravitas…[a] new, relentless, and personally invested account” (The New York Times Book Review).
James B. Conant, Warrior Scientist
Author: Jennet Conant
Publisher: Simon & Schuster
Category: Biography & Autobiography
The latest advances in science were fully exploited in the Second World War. They included radar, sonar, improved radio, methods of reducing disease, primitive computers, the new science of operational research and, finally, the atomic bomb, necessarily developed like all wartime technology in a remarkably short time. Such progress would have been impossible without the cooperation of Allied scientists with the military. The Axis powers' failure to recognise this was a major factor in their defeat.
Author: G. Hartcup,B. Lovell
Guy Stewart Callendar (1898–1964) is noted for identifying, in 1938, the link between the artifcial production of carbon dioxide and global warming. Today this is called the “Callendar Efect. ” He was one of Britain’s leading steam and combustion engineers, a specialist in infrared physics, author of the standard reference book on the properties of steam at high tempe- tures and pressures, and designer of the burners of the notable World War II airfeld fog dispersal system, FIDO. He was keenly interested in weather and climate, taking measurement so accurate that they were used to correct the ofcial temperature records of central England and collecting a series of worldwide weather data that showed an unprecedented warming trend in the frst four decades of the twentieth century. He formulated a coherent theory of infrared absorption and emission by trace gases, established the nineteenth-century background concentration of carbon dioxide, and - gued that its atmospheric concentration was rising due to human activities, which was causing the climate to warm. Callendar’s contributions to climatology led the way in the mid-twentie- century transition from the traditional practice of gathering descriptive c- mate statistics to the new and exciting feld of climate dynamics. In the frst half of the twentieth century, the carbon dioxide theory of climate change xiv Introduction had fallen out of favor with climatists.
The Life and Work of Guy Stewart Callendar (1898-1964)
Author: James Fleming
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Category: Intelligence service
This was the first cross-over book into the history of science written by an historian of economics. It shows how 'history of technology' can be integrated with the history of economic ideas. The analysis combines Cold War history with the history of postwar economics in America and later elsewhere, revealing that the Pax Americana had much to do with abstruse and formal doctrines such as linear programming and game theory. It links the literature on 'cyborg' to economics, an element missing in literature to date. The treatment further calls into question the idea that economics has been immune to postmodern currents, arguing that neoclassical economics has participated in the deconstruction of the integral 'self'. Finally, it argues for an alliance of computational and institutional themes, and challenges the widespread impression that there is nothing else besides American neoclassical economic theory left standing after the demise of Marxism.
Economics Becomes a Cyborg Science
Author: Philip Mirowski
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Category: Business & Economics
The history of the United States Air Force is inextricably bound up in the history of aerospace technology. Major revolutions have influenced the evolution of Air Force capabilities and systems, most notably those of atomic weaponry, the turbojet revolution, supersonic flight, avionics, aerial refueling, space flight, precision weaponry, electronic flying controls, composite materials, and stealth.
Author: Jacob Neufeld,George M. Watson,David Chenoweth
NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER From one of the foremost historians of the period and the acclaimed author of Inferno and Catastrophe: 1914, The Secret War is a sweeping examination of one of the most important yet underexplored aspects of World War II—intelligence—showing how espionage successes and failures by the United States, Britain, Russia, Germany, and Japan influenced the course of the war and its final outcome. Spies, codes, and guerrillas played unprecedentedly critical roles in the Second World War, exploited by every nation in the struggle to gain secret knowledge of its foes, and to sow havoc behind the fronts. In The Secret War, Max Hastings presents a worldwide cast of characters and some extraordinary sagas of intelligence and resistance, to create a new perspective on the greatest conflict in history
Spies, Ciphers, and Guerrillas, 1939-1945
Author: Max Hastings