The Smoke of London

Energy and Environment in the Early Modern City

Author: William M. Cavert

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107073006

Category: History

Page: 296

View: 6429

"The Smoke of London uncovers the origins of urban air pollution, two centuries before the industrial revolution. By 1600, London was a fossil-fueled city, its high-sulfur coal a basic necessity for the poor and a source of cheap energy for its growing manufacturing sector. The resulting smoke was found ugly and dangerous throughout the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, leading to challenges in court, suppression by the crown, doctors' attempts to understand the nature of good air, increasing suburbanization, and changing representations of urban life in poetry and on the London stage. Neither a celebratory account of proto-environmentalism nor a declensionist narrative of degradation, The Smoke of London recovers the seriousness of pre-modern environmental concerns even as it explains their limits and failures. Ultimately, Londoners learned to live with their dirty air, an accommodation that reframes the modern process of urbanization and industrial pollution, both in Britain and beyond"--
Posted in History

The Smoke of London

Energy and Environment in the Early Modern City

Author: William M. Cavert

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316586308

Category: History

Page: N.A

View: 3621

The Smoke of London uncovers the origins of urban air pollution, two centuries before the industrial revolution. By 1600, London was a fossil-fuelled city, its high-sulfur coal a basic necessity for the poor and a source of cheap energy for its growing manufacturing sector. The resulting smoke was found ugly and dangerous throughout the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, leading to challenges in court, suppression by the crown, doctors' attempts to understand the nature of good air, increasing suburbanization, and changing representations of urban life in poetry and on the London stage. Neither a celebratory account of proto-environmentalism nor a declensionist narrative of degradation, The Smoke of London recovers the seriousness of pre-modern environmental concerns even as it explains their limits and failures. Ultimately, Londoners learned to live with their dirty air, an accommodation that reframes the modern process of urbanization and industrial pollution, both in Britain and beyond.
Posted in History

The Smoke of London

Energy and Environment in the Early Modern City

Author: William M. Cavert

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781107421318

Category: History

Page: 294

View: 5730

The Smoke of London uncovers the origins of urban air pollution, two centuries before the industrial revolution. By 1600, London was a fossil-fuelled city, its high-sulfur coal a basic necessity for the poor and a source of cheap energy for its growing manufacturing sector. The resulting smoke was found ugly and dangerous throughout the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, leading to challenges in court, suppression by the crown, doctors' attempts to understand the nature of good air, increasing suburbanization, and changing representations of urban life in poetry and on the London stage. Neither a celebratory account of proto-environmentalism nor a declensionist narrative of degradation, The Smoke of London recovers the seriousness of pre-modern environmental concerns even as it explains their limits and failures. Ultimately, Londoners learned to live with their dirty air, an accommodation that reframes the modern process of urbanization and industrial pollution, both in Britain and beyond.
Posted in History

Berlin Alexanderplatz

The Story of Franz Biberkopf

Author: Alfred Döblin

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN: 9780826477897

Category: Philosophy

Page: 378

View: 4073

Alfred Döblin (1878-1957) studied medicine in Berlin and specialized in the treatment of nervous diseases. Along with his experiences as a psychiatrist in the workers' quarter of Berlin, his writing was inspired by the work of Holderlin, Schopenhauer and Nietzsche and was first published in the literary magazine, Der Sturm. Associated with the Expressionist literary movement in Germany, he is now recognized as on of the most important modern European novelists. Berlin Alexanderplatz is one of the masterpieces of modern European literature and the first German novel to adopt the technique of James Joyce. It tells the story of Franz Biberkopf, who, on being released from prison, is confronted with the poverty, unemployment, crime and burgeoning Nazism of 1920s Germany. As Franz struggles to survive in this world, fate teases him with a little pleasure before cruelly turning on him. Foreword by Alexander Stephan Translated by Eugene Jolas>
Posted in Philosophy

Shakespeare and Domestic Life

A Dictionary

Author: Sandra Clark

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1472581822

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 456

View: 2504

This dictionary explores the language of domestic life found in Shakespeare's work and seeks to demonstrate the meanings he attaches to it through his uses of it in particular contexts. "Domestic life" covers a range of topics: the language of the household, clothing, food, family relationships and duties; household practices, the architecture of the home, and all that conditions and governs the life of the home. The dictionary draws on recent cultural materialist research to provide in-depth definitions of the domestic language and life in Shakespeare's works, creating a richly rewarding and informative reference tool for upper level students and scholars.
Posted in Literary Criticism

Governing the Environment in the Early Modern World

Theory and Practice

Author: Sara Miglietti,John Morgan

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1317200292

Category: History

Page: 210

View: 1955

Throughout the early modern period, scientific debate and governmental action became increasingly preoccupied with the environment, generating discussion across Europe and the wider world as to how to improve land and climate for human benefit. This discourse eventually promoted the reconsideration of long-held beliefs about the role of climate in upholding the social order, driving economies and affecting public health. Governing the Environment in the Early Modern World explores the relationship between cultural perceptions of the environment and practical attempts at environmental regulation and change between 1500 and 1800. Taking a cultural and intellectual approach to early modern environmental governance, this edited collection combines an interpretative perspective with new insights into a period largely unfamiliar to environmental historians. Using a rich and multifaceted narrative, this book offers an understanding as to how efforts to enhance productive aspects of the environment were both led by and contributed to new conceptualisations of the role of ‘nature’ in human society. This book offers a cultural and intellectual approach to early modern environmental history and will be of special interest to environmental, cultural and intellectual historians, as well as anyone with an interest in the culture and politics of environmental governance.
Posted in History

Tudor and Stuart Britain

1485-1714

Author: Roger Lockyer,Peter Gaunt

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 0429861958

Category: History

Page: 726

View: 4499

Tudor and Stuart Britain charts the political, religious, economic and social history of Britain from the start of Henry VII’s reign in 1485 to the death of Queen Anne in 1714, providing students and lecturers with a detailed chronological narrative of significant events, such as the Reformation, the nature of Tudor government, the English Civil War, the Interregnum and the restoration of the monarchy. This fourth edition has been fully updated and each chapter now begins with an introductory overview of the topic being discussed, in which important and current historical debates are highlighted. Other new features of the book include a closer examination of the image and style of leadership that different monarchs projected during their reigns; greater coverage of Phillip II and Mary I as joint monarchs; new sections exploring witchcraft during the period and the urban sector in the Stuart age; and increased discussion of the English Civil War, of Oliver Cromwell and of Cromwellian rule during the 1650s. Also containing an entirely rewritten guide to further reading and enhanced by a wide selection of maps and illustrations, Tudor and Stuart Britain is an excellent resource for both students and teachers of this period.
Posted in History

The Sky of Our Manufacture

The London Fog in British Fiction from Dickens to Woolf

Author: Jesse Oak Taylor

Publisher: University of Virginia Press

ISBN: 0813937949

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 272

View: 9935

The smoke-laden fog of London is one of the most vivid elements in English literature, richly suggestive and blurring boundaries between nature and society in compelling ways. In The Sky of Our Manufacture, Jesse Oak Taylor uses the many depictions of the London fog in the late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century novel to explore the emergence of anthropogenic climate change. In the process, Taylor argues for the importance of fiction in understanding climatic shifts, environmental pollution, and ecological collapse. The London fog earned the portmanteau "smog" in 1905, a significant recognition of what was arguably the first instance of a climatic phenomenon manufactured by modern industry. Tracing the path to this awareness opens a critical vantage point on the Anthropocene, a new geologic age in which the transformation of humanity into a climate-changing force has not only altered our physical atmosphere but imbued it with new meanings. The book examines enduringly popular works--from the novels of Charles Dickens and George Eliot to Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, Dracula, and the Sherlock Holmes mysteries to works by Joseph Conrad and Virginia Woolf--alongside newspaper cartoons, scientific writings, and meteorological technologies to reveal a fascinating relationship between our cultural climate and the sky overhead. Under the Sign of Nature: Studies in Ecocriticism
Posted in Literary Criticism

The Merchant Republics

Author: Mary Lindemann

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107074436

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 374

View: 1047

This book analyzes the ways in which Amsterdam, Antwerp and Hamburg developed dual identities as 'communities of commerce' and republics.
Posted in Business & Economics

The Image of the City

Author: Kevin Lynch

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262620017

Category: Architecture

Page: 194

View: 5835

The classic work on the evaluation of city form.
Posted in Architecture

Energy and the English Industrial Revolution

Author: E. A. Wrigley

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521766931

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 272

View: 6777

Explains how new sources of energy increased productivity, thereby transforming industry and changing England permanently and fundamentally.
Posted in Business & Economics

Rebel Cities: From the Right to the City to the Urban Revolution

Author: David Harvey

Publisher: Verso Books

ISBN: 1844678822

Category: Political Science

Page: 187

View: 3538

Explores cities as the origin of revolutionary politics, where social and political issues are always at the surface, using examples from such cities as New York City and Mumbai to examine how they can be better ecologically reorganized.
Posted in Political Science

Smokestacks and Progressives

Environmentalists, Engineers, and Air Quality in America, 1881–1951

Author: David Stradling

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 9780801872501

Category: History

Page: 288

View: 4043

"This clearly written, well-argued, and deeply researched book goes well beyond 'smokestacks and progressives' in helping us understand the important environmental issues embedded in the history of the American city." -- Journal of American History
Posted in History

Urban Climates

Author: T. R. Oke,G. Mills,A. Christen,J. A. Voogt

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1108179363

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 8226

Urban Climates is the first full synthesis of modern scientific and applied research on urban climates. The book begins with an outline of what constitutes an urban ecosystem. It develops a comprehensive terminology for the subject using scale and surface classification as key constructs. It explains the physical principles governing the creation of distinct urban climates, such as airflow around buildings, the heat island, precipitation modification and air pollution, and it then illustrates how this knowledge can be applied to moderate the undesirable consequences of urban development and help create more sustainable and resilient cities. With urban climate science now a fully-fledged field, this timely book fulfills the need to bring together the disparate parts of climate research on cities into a coherent framework. It is an ideal resource for students and researchers in fields such as climatology, urban hydrology, air quality, environmental engineering and urban design.
Posted in Science

The Revenge of Gaia

Earth's Climate Crisis & The Fate of Humanity

Author: James Lovelock

Publisher: Basic Books

ISBN: 0465008666

Category: Science

Page: 208

View: 3881

The key insight of Gaia Theory is that the entire Earth functions as a single living super-organism. But according to James Lovelock, the theory's originator, that organism is now sick. It is running a fever born of increased atmospheric greenhouse gases. Earth will adjust to these stresses, but the human race faces a severe test. It is already too late, Lovelock says, to prevent the global climate from “flipping” into an entirely new equilibrium that will threaten civilization as we know it. But we can do much to save humanity. In the tradition of Silent Spring, this is a call to address a major threat to our collective future.
Posted in Science

English Hours

A Portrait of a Country

Author: Henry James

Publisher: Tauris Parke Paperbacks

ISBN: 1848854854

Category: Travel

Page: 224

View: 2338

Henry James left America for England in 1876 and remained in his adopted country for the next three decades. Arriving in Liverpool, he made his way first to London, the “dreadful, delightful city” that he would come to both love and hate. James reveled in the exoticism and immensity of all that was unknown to him, and his writing spills over with youthful excitement, humor, and vivid descriptions of the people, landscapes, towns, and cities he encountered. He later set out to explore the English countryside: Chester, Warwick, Devon, Wells, Salisbury, Suffolk, and Rye, where he eventually settled, bought Lamb House, and wrote prolifically—producing some of his finest works, including What Maisie Knew, The Wings of the Dove, The Golden Bowl, and The Middle Years
Posted in Travel

The Social Construction of Expertise

The English Civil Service and Its Influence, 1919–1939

Author: Gail Savage

Publisher: University of Pittsburgh Pre

ISBN: 0822974819

Category: Political Science

Page: 248

View: 5460

The British created a system wherein the social identity of civil servants clearly influenced their position on official matters. This privileged class set the tone for major policy decisions affecting all members of society. Savage addresses this social construction of power by analyzing the social origins and career patterns of higher-level civil servants as a backdrop for investigating the way four different social service ministries formulated policies between the two World Wars: the Board of Education, the Ministry of Agriculture, the Ministry of Labour, and the Ministry of Health.
Posted in Political Science

The Humane Metropolis

People and Nature in the 21st-century City

Author: Rutherford H. Platt

Publisher: Univ of Massachusetts Press

ISBN: 1558495541

Category: Architecture

Page: 326

View: 5258

Four-fifths of Americans now live in the nation's sprawling metropolitan areas, and half of the world's population is now classified as "urban." As cities become the dominant living evironment for humans, there is growing concern about how to make such places more habitable, more healthy and safe, more ecological, and more equitable -- in short, more "humane." This book explores the prospects for a more humane metropolis through a series of essays and case studies that consider why and how urban places can be made greener and more amenable. Its point of departure is the legacy of William H. Whyte (1917-1999), one of America's most admired urban thinkers. From his eyrie high above Manhattan in the offices of the Rockefeller Brothers Fund, Whyte laid the foundation for today's "smart growth" and "new urbanist" movements with books such as The Last Landscape (1968). His passion for improving the habitability of cities and suburbs is reflected in the diverse grassroots urban design and regreening strategies discussed in this volume. Topics examined in this book include urban and regional greenspaces, urban ecological restoration, social equity, and green design. Some of the contributors are recognized academic experts, while others offer direct practical knowledge of particular problems and initiatives. The editor's introduction and epilogue set the individual chapters in a broader context and suggest how the strategies described, if widely replicated, may help create more humane urban environments. In addition to Rutherford H. Platt, contributors to the volume include Carl Anthony, Thomas Balsley, Timothy Beatley, Eugenie L. Birch, Edward J. Blakely, Colin M. Cathcart, Steven E. Clemants, Christopher A. De Sousa, Steven N. Handel, Peter Harnik, Michael C. Houck, Jerold S. Kayden, Albert LaFarge, Andrew Light, Charles E. Little, Anne C. Lusk, Thalya Parilla, Deborah E. Popper, Frank J. Popper, Mary V. Rickel, Cynthia Rosenzweig, Robert L. Ryan, Laurin N. Sievert, Andrew G. Wiley-Schwartz, and Ann Louise Strong. Included in the back of the book is a DVD of a 22-minute film created by Ted White, which serves as a companion to the text.
Posted in Architecture

The Birth of the English Kitchen, 1600-1850

Author: Sara Pennell

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1441191860

Category: History

Page: 272

View: 440

Sara Pennell traces the emergence of the domestic kitchen as a distinctive space that helped make houses homes from the 17th century through to the middle of the 19th, and explores how the kitchen and its contents Â? from the hearth to the contents of the dresser drawer -- became a site of specialised activity, sociability and strife. Drawing upon texts, images, surviving structures and objects, The Birth of the English Kitchen, 1600-1850 opens up the early modern English kitchen as an important historical site in the construction of domestic relations between husband and wife, masters, mistresses and servants and householders and outsiders; and as a crucial resource in contemporary heritage landscapes.
Posted in History

A Global History of Literature and the Environment

Author: John Parham,Louise Westling

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1108107680

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: N.A

View: 5261

In A Global History of Literature and the Environment, an international group of scholars illustrate the immense riches of environmental writing from the earliest literary periods down to the present. It addresses ancient writings about human/animal/plant relations from India, classical Greece, Chinese and Japanese literature, the Maya Popol Vuh, Islamic texts, medieval European works, eighteenth-century and Romantic ecologies, colonial/postcolonial environmental interrelations, responses to industrialization, and the emerging literatures of the world in the present Anthropocene moment. Essays range from Trinidad to New Zealand, Estonia to Brazil. Discussion of these texts indicates a variety of ways environmental criticism can fruitfully engage literary works and cultures from every continent and every historical period. This is a uniquely varied and rich international history of environmental writing from ancient Mesopotamian and Asian works to the present. It provides a compelling account of a topic that is crucial to twenty-first-century global literary studies.
Posted in Literary Criticism