Models of Discovery

and Other Topics in the Methods of Science

Author: Herbert A. Simon

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401095213

Category: Science

Page: 475

View: 1197

We respect Herbert A. Simon as an established leader of empirical and logical analysis in the human sciences while we happily think of him as also the loner; of course he works with many colleagues but none can match him. He has been writing fruitfully and steadily for four decades in many fields, among them psychology, logic, decision theory, economics, computer science, management, production engineering, information and control theory, operations research, confirmation theory, and we must have omitted several. With all of them, he is at once the technical scientist and the philosophical critic and analyst. When writing of decisions and actions, he is at the interface of philosophy of science, decision theory, philosophy of the specific social sciences, and inventory theory (itself, for him, at the interface of economic theory, production engineering and information theory). When writing on causality, he is at the interface of methodology, metaphysics, logic and philosophy of physics, systems theory, and so on. Not that the interdisciplinary is his orthodoxy; we are delighted that he has chosen to include in this book both his early and little-appreciated treatment of straightforward philosophy of physics - the axioms of Newtonian mechanics, and also his fine papers on pure confirmation theory.
Posted in Science

Complex Information Processing

The Impact of Herbert A. Simon

Author: David Klahr,Kenneth Kotovsky

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 1134739419

Category: Psychology

Page: 480

View: 3012

Here, several leading experts in the area of cognitive science summarize their current research programs, tracing Herbert A. Simon's influence on their own work -- and on the field of information processing at large. Topics covered include problem- solving, imagery, reading, writing, memory, expertise, instruction, and learning. Collectively, the chapters reveal a high degree of coherence across the various specialized disciplines within cognition -- a coherence largely attributable to the initial unity in Simon's seminal and pioneering contributions.
Posted in Psychology

The Sciences of the Artificial

Author: Herbert A. Simon

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262264495

Category: Computers

Page: 248

View: 8038

Continuing his exploration of the organization of complexity and the science of design, this new edition of Herbert Simon's classic work on artificial intelligence adds a chapter that sorts out the current themes and tools -- chaos, adaptive systems, genetic algorithms -- for analyzing complexity and complex systems. There are updates throughout the book as well. These take into account important advances in cognitive psychology and the science of design while confirming and extending the book's basic thesis: that a physical symbol system has the necessary and sufficient means for intelligent action. The chapter "Economic Reality" has also been revised to reflect a change in emphasis in Simon's thinking about the respective roles of organizations and markets in economic systems.
Posted in Computers

Reason in Human Affairs

Author: Herbert Simon

Publisher: Stanford University Press

ISBN: 0804766681

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 128

View: 6915

What can reason (or more broadly, thinking) do for us and what can't it do? This is the question examined by Herbert A. Simon, who received the 1978 Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences "for his pioneering work on decision-making processes in economic organizations." The ability to apply reason to the choice of actions is supposed to be one of the defining characteristics of our species. In the first two chapters, the author explores the nature and limits of human reason, comparing and evaluating the major theoretical frameworks that have been erected to explain reasoning processes. He also discusses the interaction of thinking and emotion in the choice of our actions. In the third and final chapter, the author applies the theory of bounded rationality to social institutions and human behavior, and points out the problems created by limited attention span human inability to deal with more than one difficult problem at a time. He concludes that we must recognize the limitations on our capabilities for rational choice and pursue goals that, in their tentativeness and flexibility, are compatible with those limits.
Posted in Business & Economics

Economics, Bounded Rationality and the Cognitive Revolution

Author: The late Herbert A. Simon,Massimo Egidi,Robin Lapthorn Marris,Riccardo Viale

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 9781781008225

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 232

View: 4120

The purpose of this book is to publish the ideas of the late Herbert Simon and sympathetic economists, on the subject of bounded rationality, economics, cognitive science and related disciplines, and to reprint some of Professor Simon's classic papers which have appeared in journals not widely read by economists. Not only on account of his Nobel Prize in Economics, but also because of the widespread applications of his ideas and theories, it is especially valuable to readers to have a book of this kind at the present time. Currently in this whole field, there is increasing emphasis on computer-related theory building. Herbert Simon, beginning from the time when microcomputers did not exist, was a pioneer of this approach. The book begins with an edited transcript of a colloquium, held between Herbert Simon and a group of Italian economists in Italy in 1988. It continues with the reprinted Simon papers and papers by three scholars, Raymond Boudon, Massimo Egidi and Riccardo Viale coming from different disciplines but holding a common interest in bounded rationality and ends with a response by a sympathetic economist, Robin Marris.
Posted in Business & Economics

Scientific Discovery

Computational Explorations of the Creative Processes

Author: Pat Langley

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262620529

Category: Psychology

Page: 357

View: 5682

Scientific discovery is often regarded as romantic and creative -- and hence unanalyzable -- whereas the everyday process of verifying discoveries is sober and more suited to analysis. Yet this fascinating exploration of how scientific work proceeds argues that however sudden the moment of discovery may seem, the discovery process can be described and modeled. Using the methods and concepts of contemporary information-processing psychology (or cognitive science) the authors develop a series of artificial-intelligence programs that can simulate the human thought processes used to discover scientific laws. The programs -- BACON, DALTON, GLAUBER, and STAHL -- are all largely data-driven, that is, when presented with series of chemical or physical measurements they search for uniformities and linking elements, generating and checking hypotheses and creating new concepts as they go along. Scientific Discovery examines the nature of scientific research and reviews the arguments for and against a normative theory of discovery; describes the evolution of the BACON programs, which discover quantitative empirical laws and invent new concepts; presents programs that discover laws in qualitative and quantitative data; and ties the results together, suggesting how a combined and extended program might find research problems, invent new instruments, and invent appropriate problem representations. Numerous prominent historical examples of discoveries from physics and chemistry are used as tests for the programs and anchor the discussion concretely in the history of science.
Posted in Psychology

How Baking Works

Exploring the Fundamentals of Baking Science

Author: Paula I. Figoni

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470392673

Category: Cooking

Page: 528

View: 510

The guide to understanding and applying food science in the bakeshop-now in a revised and updated 3rd Edition How Baking Works, 3rd Edition thoroughly covers the entire baking process, emphasizing the "whys" at work behind basic techniques. The book takes the user through the major ingredient groups, explaining how sweeteners, fats, milk, leavening agents, and other ingredients affect the appearance, flavor, and texture of the end product. The coverage also includes scaling and measurements, heat transfer, and sensory properties in baking. Includes hands-on exercises and experiments at the end of each chapter to illustrate the sensory properties of ingredients and their impact on baked goods Covers variety grains, enzymes, starch structure and gelatinization, and gluten structure, and includes an all-new chapter on baking for health and wellness Features end-of-chapter questions that review content and require readers to apply and synthesize what they've learned With explanatory photographs to illustrate the science of baking, How Baking Works, 3rd Edition offers a dynamic, hands-on learning experience for both practicing and future bakers and pastry chefs.
Posted in Cooking

Artificial Life

An Overview

Author: Christopher G. Langton

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262621120

Category: Computers

Page: 340

View: 2574

This book brings together a series of overview articles that appeared in the first three issues of the groundbreaking journal Artificial Life.
Posted in Computers

Simulation For The Social Scientist

Author: Gilbert, Nigel,Troitzsch, Klaus

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education (UK)

ISBN: 9780335216000

Category: Social Science

Page: 295

View: 9872

Social sciences -- Simulation methods. Social interaction -- Computer simulation. Social sciences -- Mathematical models. (publisher)
Posted in Social Science

Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems

An Introductory Analysis with Applications to Biology, Control, and Artificial Intelligence

Author: John Henry Holland

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262581110

Category: Psychology

Page: 211

View: 7097

List of figures. Preface to the 1992 edition. Preface. The general setting. A formal framework. lustrations. Schemata. The optimal allocation of trials. Reproductive plans and genetic operators. The robustness of genetic plans. Adaptation of codings and representations. An overview. Interim and prospectus. Glossary of important symbols.
Posted in Psychology

Thinking in Complexity

The Complex Dynamics of Matter, Mind, and Mankind

Author: Klaus Mainzer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3662033054

Category: Science

Page: 351

View: 4374

Since the first edition sold out in less than a year, we now present the revised second edition of Mainzer's popular book. The theory of nonlinear complex systems has become a successful problem-solving approach in the natural sciences from laser physics, quantum chaos, and meteorology to computer simulations of cell growth in biology. It is now recognized that many of our social, ecological, and political problems are also of a global, complex, and nonlinear nature. And one of the most exciting contemporary topics is the idea that even the human mind is governed largely by the nonlinear dynamics of complex systems. In this wide-ranging but concise treatment, Prof. Mainzer discusses, in a nontechnical language, the common framework behind these endeavors. Emphasis is given to the evolution of new structures in natural and cultural systems and we see clearly how the new integrative approach can give insights not available from traditional reductionistic methods.
Posted in Science

Design Rules: The power of modularity

Author: Carliss Young Baldwin,Kim B. Clark

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262024662

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 471

View: 2864

Using the computer industry as an example, this work develops a theory of design and industrial revolution. It argues that the industry has experienced previously unimaginable levels of innovation and growth because it embraced the concept of modularity.
Posted in Business & Economics

Unified Theories of Cognition

Author: Allen Newell

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674921016

Category: Psychology

Page: 549

View: 6710

Psychology is now ready for unified theories of cognition--so says Allen Newell, a leading investigator in computer science and cognitive psychology. Not everyone will agree on a single set of mechanisms that will explain the full range of human cognition, but such theories are within reach and we should strive to articulate them. In this book, Newell makes the case for unified theories by setting forth a candidate. After reviewing the foundational concepts of cognitive science--knowledge, representation, computation, symbols, architecture, intelligence, and search--Newell introduces Soar, an architecture for general cognition. A pioneer system in artificial intelligence, Soar is the first problem solver to create its own subgoals and learn continuously from its own experience. Newell shows how Soar's ability to operate within the real-time constraints of intelligent behavior, such as immediate-response and item-recognition tasks, illustrates important characteristics of the human cognitive structure. Throughout, Soar remains an exemplar: we know only enough to work toward a fully developed theory of cognition, but Soar's success so far establishes the viability of the enterprise. Given its integrative approach, Unified Theories of Cognition will be of tremendous interest to researchers in a variety of fields, including cognitive science, artificial intelligence, psychology, and computer science. This exploration of the nature of mind, one of the great problems of philosophy, should also transcend disciplines and attract a large scientific audience.
Posted in Psychology

The Book of Why

The New Science of Cause and Effect

Author: Judea Pearl,Dana Mackenzie

Publisher: Basic Books

ISBN: 0465097618

Category: Computers

Page: 432

View: 8314

How the study of causality revolutionized science and the world "Correlation is not causation." This mantra, chanted by scientists for more than a century, has led to a virtual prohibition on causal talk. Today, that taboo is dead. The causal revolution, instigated by Judea Pearl and his colleagues, has cut through a century of confusion and established causality--the study of cause and effect--on a firm scientific basis. His work explains how we can know easy things, like whether it was rain or a sprinkler that made a sidewalk wet; and how to answer hard questions, like whether a drug cured an illness. Pearl's work enables us to know not just whether one thing causes another: it lets us explore the world that is and the worlds that could have been. It shows us the essence of human thought and key to artificial intelligence. Anyone who wants to understand either needs The Book of Why.
Posted in Computers

Encyclopedia of Information Science and Technology, Third Edition

Author: Khosrow-Pour, Mehdi

Publisher: IGI Global

ISBN: 1466658894

Category: Computers

Page: 10384

View: 6765

"This 10-volume compilation of authoritative, research-based articles contributed by thousands of researchers and experts from all over the world emphasized modern issues and the presentation of potential opportunities, prospective solutions, and future directions in the field of information science and technology"--Provided by publisher.
Posted in Computers

Manual of Equine Reproduction - E-Book

Author: Steven P. Brinsko,Terry L. Blanchard,Dickson D. Varner,James Schumacher,Charles C. Love

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 0323065139

Category: Medical

Page: 336

View: 6562

Now in full color, Manual of Equine Reproduction, 3rd Edition provides a comprehensive look at the reproductive management of horses, including management of stallions, pregnant mares, and neonatal foals. Expert authors use a concise, practical approach in discussing improved therapies and treatments in equine breeding. You’ll enhance your skills and knowledge with this book’s detailed coverage of techniques used in reproductive examination, breeding procedures, pregnancy diagnosis, foaling, and reproductive tract surgery. A clinical emphasis includes a step-by-step format of possible scenarios from conception to breeding management. Practical information includes topics such as breeding with transported cooled or frozen semen, and caring for the broodmare and newborn foal. The organization of material corresponds to the course of study in veterinary school, so you can find topics easily. Chapter objectives and study questions at the beginning of each chapter guide you through the material and provide clear learning goals. Evaluation of Breeding Records chapter covers the importance of breeding records, and how to use them to evaluate stallion performance and optimize fertility. References are listed at the end of each chapter for further research and study. Full-color photographs and illustrations clearly depict procedures, and all drawings have been redrawn and improved. NEW Assisted Reproductive Technology chapter goes beyond embryo transfer. Updated content includes the latest advances in therapies and treatments. New content is added to two chapters, Reproductive Physiology of the Nonpregnant Mare and Manipulation of Estrus in the Mare. Thorough coverage of every aspect of equine reproduction provides a strong foundation for success in veterinary practice, including a discussion of the use of GnRH-analog deslorelin (Ovuplant) to hasten ovulation; aseptic technique for endometrial biopsy; use of transabdominal ultrasonography, especially in early pregnancy; determination of fetal gender by transrectal ultrasonography; aspiration testicular biopsy using a spring-loaded biopsy instrument; and procedure for surgical embryo transfer.
Posted in Medical

The Big Book of Concepts

Author: Gregory Murphy

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262250061

Category: Psychology

Page: 568

View: 8082

Concepts embody our knowledge of the kinds of things there are in the world. Tying our past experiences to our present interactions with the environment, they enable us to recognize and understand new objects and events. Concepts are also relevant to understanding domains such as social situations, personality types, and even artistic styles. Yet like other phenomenologically simple cognitive processes such as walking or understanding speech, concept formation and use are maddeningly complex.Research since the 1970s and the decline of the "classical view" of concepts have greatly illuminated the psychology of concepts. But persistent theoretical disputes have sometimes obscured this progress. The Big Book of Concepts goes beyond those disputes to reveal the advances that have been made, focusing on the major empirical discoveries. By reviewing and evaluating research on diverse topics such as category learning, word meaning, conceptual development in infants and children, and the basic level of categorization, the book develops a much broader range of criteria than is usual for evaluating theories of concepts.
Posted in Psychology