Multimedia ist aus modernem Lehren und Lernen nicht mehr wegzudenken. Wie lässt sich die Qualität neuer multimedialer Angebote sicherstellen? Welche Standards gibt es? Welche didaktischen Ansätze sind effektiv? Welche aktuellen lehr- und lernpsychologischen Theorien und Befunde sind hilfreich bei der Konzeption, welche technischen Fragen zu berücksichtigen? 33 Kapitel stellen alle wesentlichen Aspekte dar: u.a. Planung, Konzeption (mit didaktischen Entwurfsmustern, sog. design patterns), Interaktivitätsformen, CSCL, Evaluation, Softwaresysteme, Werkzeuge (z.B. Authoring Tools). Ein fundiertes Kompendium für Lehrende, Entwickler und Anwender.
Author: Helmut M. Niegemann,Steffi Domagk,Silvia Hessel,Alexandra Hein,Matthias Hupfer,Annett Zobel
As a field, computer science occupies a unique scientific space, in that its subject matter can exist in both physical and abstract realms. An artifact such as software is both tangible and not, and must be classified as something in between, or "liminal." The study and production of liminal artifacts allows for creative possibilities that are, and have been, possible only in computer science. In It Began with Babbage, computer scientist and writer Subrata Dasgupta examines the distinct history of computer science in terms of its creative innovations, reaching back to Charles Babbage in 1819. Since all artifacts of computer science are conceived with a use in mind, the computer scientist is not concerned with the natural laws that govern disciplines like physics or chemistry; instead, the field is more concerned with the concept of purpose. This requirement lends itself to a type of creative thinking that, as Dasgupta shows us, has exhibited itself throughout the history of computer science. More than any other, computer science is the science of the artificial, and has a unique history to accompany its unique focus. The book traces a path from Babbage's Difference Engine in the early 19th century to the end of the 1960s by when a new academic discipline named "computer science" had come into being. Along the way we meet characters like Babbage and Ada Lovelace, Turing and von Neumann, Shannon and Chomsky, and a host of other people from a variety of backgrounds who collectively created this new science of the artificial. And in the end, we see how and why computer science acquired a nature and history all of its own.
The Genesis of Computer Science
Author: Subrata Dasgupta
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Agent-based computational modeling is changing the face of social science. In Generative Social Science, Joshua Epstein argues that this powerful, novel technique permits the social sciences to meet a fundamentally new standard of explanation, in which one "grows" the phenomenon of interest in an artificial society of interacting agents: heterogeneous, boundedly rational actors, represented as mathematical or software objects. After elaborating this notion of generative explanation in a pair of overarching foundational chapters, Epstein illustrates it with examples chosen from such far-flung fields as archaeology, civil conflict, the evolution of norms, epidemiology, retirement economics, spatial games, and organizational adaptation. In elegant chapter preludes, he explains how these widely diverse modeling studies support his sweeping case for generative explanation. This book represents a powerful consolidation of Epstein's interdisciplinary research activities in the decade since the publication of his and Robert Axtell's landmark volume, Growing Artificial Societies. Beautifully illustrated, Generative Social Science includes a CD that contains animated movies of core model runs, and programs allowing users to easily change assumptions and explore models, making it an invaluable text for courses in modeling at all levels.
Studies in Agent-Based Computational Modeling
Author: Joshua M. Epstein
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Category: Business & Economics
Computational design has become widely accepted into mainstream architecture, but this is the first book to advocate applying it to create adaptable masterplans for rapid urban growth, urban heterogeneity, through computational urbanism. Practitioners and researchers here discuss ideas from the fields of architecture, urbanism, the natural sciences, computer science, economics, and mathematics to find solutions for managing urban change in Asia and developing countries throughout the world. Divided into four parts (historical and theoretical background, our current situation, methodologies, and prototypical practices), the book includes a series of essays, interviews, built case studies, and original research to accompany chapters written by editor Tom Verebes to give you the most comprehensive overview of this approach. Essays by Marina Lathouri, Jorge Fiori, Jonathan Solomon, Patrik Schumacher, Peter Trummer, and David Jason Gerber. Interviews with Dana Cuff, Xu Wei Guo, Matthew Prior, Tom Barker, Su Yunsheng, and Brett Steele. Built case studies by Zaha Hadid Architects, James Corner Field Operations, XWG Studio, MAD, OCEAN Consultancy Network, Plasma Studio, Groundlab, Peter Trummer, Serie Architects, dotA, and Rocker-Lange Architects.
Computational Urbanism in the Twenty-First Century
Author: Tom Verebes
Kenneth A. Posner spent close to two decades as a Wall Street analyst, tracking the so-called "specialty finance" sector, which included controversial companies such as Countrywide, Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, CIT, and MasterCard many of which were caught in the subprime mortgage and capital markets crisis of 2007. While extreme volatility is nothing new in finance, the recent downturn caught many off guard, indicating that the traditional approach to decision making had let them down. Introducing a new framework for handling and evaluating extreme risk, Posner draws on years of experience to show how decision makers can best cope with the "Black Swans" of our time. Posner's shrewd assessment combines the classic fundamental research approach of Benjamin Graham and David Dodd with more recent developments in cognitive science, computational theory, and quantitative finance. He outlines a probabilistic approach to decision making that involves forecasting across a range of scenarios, and he explains how to balance confidence, react accurately to fast-breaking information, overcome information overload, zero in on the critical issues, penetrate the information asymmetry shielding corporate executives, and integrate the power of human intuition with sophisticated analytics. Emphasizing the computational resources we already have at our disposal our computers and our minds Posner offers a new track to decision making for analysts, investors, traders, corporate executives, risk managers, regulators, policymakers, journalists, and anyone who faces a world of extreme volatility.
Research and Decision Making in a World of Extreme Volatility
Author: Kenneth A. Posner
Publisher: Columbia University Press
Category: Business & Economics
The "tragedy of the commons" is a central concept in human ecology and the study of the environment. It has had tremendous value for stimulating research, but it only describes the reality of human-environment interactions in special situations. Research over the past thirty years has helped clarify how human motivations, rules governing access to resources, the structure of social organizations, and the resource systems themselves interact to determine whether or not the many dramas of the commons end happily. In this book, leaders in the field review the evidence from several disciplines and many lines of research and present a state-of-the-art assessment. They summarize lessons learned and identify the major challenges facing any system of governance for resource management. They also highlight the major challenges for the next decade: making knowledge development more systematic; understanding institutions dynamically; considering a broader range of resources (such as global and technological commons); and taking into account the effects of social and historical context. This book will be a valuable and accessible introduction to the field for students and a resource for advanced researchers.
Author: National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on the Human Dimensions of Global Change
Publisher: National Academies Press
Category: Social Science
A landmark, comprehensive reference work that represents the methodological and theoretical diversity of this changing field.
Author: Robert Andrew Wilson,Frank C. Keil
Publisher: MIT Press
This volume explores the integration of recent research on everyday, classroom, and professional scientific thinking. It brings together an international group of researchers to present core findings from each context; discuss connections between contexts, and explore structures; technologies, and environments to facilitate the development and practice of scientific thinking. The chapters focus on: * situations from young children visiting museums, * middle-school students collaborating in classrooms, * undergraduates learning about research methods, and * professional scientists engaged in cutting-edge research. A diverse set of approaches are represented, including sociocultural description of situated cognition, cognitive enthnography, educational design experiments, laboratory studies, and artificial intelligence. This unique mix of work from the three contexts deepens our understanding of each subfield while at the same time broadening our understanding of how each subfield articulates with broader issues of scientific thinking. To provide a common focus for exploring connections between everyday, instructional, and professional scientific thinking, the book uses a "practical implications" subtheme. In particular, each chapter has direct implications for the design of learning environments to facilitate scientific thinking.
Implications From Everyday, Classroom, and Professional Settings
Author: Kevin Crowley,Christian D. Schunn,Takeshi Okada
Publisher: Psychology Press
This volume handles in various perspectives the concept of function and the nature of functional explanations, topics much discussed since two major and conflicting accounts have been raised by Larry Wright and Robert Cummins’ papers in the 1970s. Here, both Wright’s ‘etiological theory of functions’ and Cummins’ ‘systemic’ conception of functions are refined and elaborated in the light of current scientific practice, with papers showing how the ‘etiological’ theory faces several objections and may in reply be revisited, while its counterpart became ever more sophisticated, as researchers discovered fresh applications for it. Relying on a firm knowledge of the original positions and debates, this volume presents cutting-edge research evincing the complexities that today pertain in function theory in various sciences. Alongside original papers from authors central to the controversy, work by emerging researchers taking novel perspectives will add to the potential avenues to be followed in the future. Not only does the book adopt no a priori assumptions about the scope of functional explanations, it also incorporates material from several very different scientific domains, e.g. neurosciences, ecology, or technology. In general, functions are implemented in mechanisms; and functional explanations in biology have often an essential relation with natural selection. These two basic claims set the stage for this book’s coverage of investigations concerning both ‘functional’ explanations, and the ‘metaphysics’ of functions. It casts new light on these claims, by testing them through their confrontation with scientific developments in biology, psychology, and recent developments concerning the metaphysics of realization. Rather than debating a single theory of functions, this book presents the richness of philosophical issues raised by functional discourse throughout the various sciences.
Author: Philippe Huneman
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This volume addresses fundamental issues in the philosophy of science in the context of two most intriguing fields: biology and economics. Written by authorities and experts in the philosophy of biology and economics, Mechanism and Causality in Biology and Economics provides a structured study of the concepts of mechanism and causality in these disciplines and draws careful juxtapositions between philosophical apparatus and scientific practice. By exploring the issues that are most salient to the contemporary philosophies of biology and economics and by presenting comparative analyses, the book serves as a platform not only for gaining mutual understanding between scientists and philosophers of the life sciences and those of the social sciences, but also for sharing interdisciplinary research that combines both philosophical concepts in both fields. The book begins by defining the concepts of mechanism and causality in biology and economics, respectively. The second and third parts investigate philosophical perspectives of various causal and mechanistic issues in scientific practice in the two fields. These two sections include chapters on causal issues in the theory of evolution; experiments and scientific discovery; representation of causal relations and mechanism by models in economics. The concluding section presents interdisciplinary studies of various topics concerning extrapolation of life sciences and social sciences, including chapters on the philosophical investigation of conjoining biological and economic analyses with, respectively, demography, medicine and sociology.
Author: Hsiang-Ke Chao,Szu-Ting Chen,Roberta L. Millstein
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
"Highly recommended."--Choice: Current Reviews for Academic Libraries This handbook is the definitive resource for scholars and students interested in how research and theory within each of the major domains of psychologyódevelopmental, cognitive, personality, and socialóhave been applied to understand the nature of scientific thought and behavior. Edited by two esteemed pioneers in the emerging discipline of the psychology of science, it is the first empirically based compendium of its time. The handbook provides a comprehensive examination of how scientific thinking is learned and evolves from infancy to adolescence and adulthood, and combines developmental and cognitive approaches to show the categorical similarities and differences in thinking between children, adolescents, adults, and scientists. Chapters highlight the breadth and depth of psychological perspectives in the studies of science, from creativity and genius, gender, and conflict and cooperation, to postmodernism and psychobiography. A section on applications offers findings and ideas that can be put to use by educators, policymakers, and science administrators. Contributors examine the importance of mental models in solving difficult technical problems, and the significance of leadership and organizational structure in successful innovation. The final section of the book is devoted to the future of this new field, focusing on how to continue to develop a healthy psychology of science. Key Features: Presents the only empirically based compendium of current knowledge about the psychology of scientific thought and behavior Edited by two pioneers in the discipline of psychology of science Describes how scientific thinking is learned and changes throughout the life span Addresses creativity and genius, gender, conflict and cooperation, postmodernism, and psychobiography Covers applications of the psychology of science that can be used by educators, policymakers, and science administrators
Author: Gregory J. Feist, PhD,Michael E. Gorman, PhD
Publisher: Springer Publishing Company
Human Resource Development Relies Upon a Strong Educational Foundation In the Handbook of Human Resource Development, Neal Chalofsky, Tonette Rocco, and Michael Lane Morris have compiled a collection of chapters sponsored by the Academy of Human Resource Development to address the fundamental concepts and issues that HR professionals face daily. The chapters are written and supported by professionals who offer a wide range of experience and who represent the industry from varying international and demographic perspectives. Topics addressed form a comprehensive view of the HRD field and answer a number of key questions. Nationally and internationally, how does HRD stand with regard to academic study and research? What is its place in the professional world? What are the philosophies, values, and critical perspectives driving HRD forward? What theories, research initiatives, and other ideas are required to understand HRD and function successfully within this field? As the industry grows, what are the challenges and important issues that professionals expect to face? What hot topics are occupying these professionals now? The Handbook’s insight and guidelines allows students and HR professionals to build a fundamental understanding of HRD as an industry, as a field of research, and for future professional success.
Author: Neal F. Chalofsky
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Category: Business & Economics
Instructional-Design Theories and Models, Volume III: Building a Common Knowledge Base is perhaps best described by its new subtitle. Whereas Volume II sought to comprehensively review the proliferating theories and models of instruction of the 1980’s and 1990’s, Volume III takes on an even more daunting task: starting to build a common knowledge base that underlies and supports the vast array of instructional theories, models and strategies that constitute the field of Instructional Design. Unit I describes the need for a common knowledge base, offers some universal principles of instruction, and addresses the need for variation and detailed guidance when implementing the universal principles. Unit II describes how the universal principles apply to some major approaches to instruction such as direct instruction or problem-based instruction. Unit III describes how to apply the universal principles to some major types of learning such as understandings and skills. Unit IV provides a deeper understanding of instructional theory using the structural layers of a house as its metaphor and discusses instructional theory in the broader context of paradigm change in education.
Building a Common Knowledge Base
Author: Charles M. Reigeluth,Alison A. Carr-Chellman
First Edition named an AJN Book of the Year! ìJoanne Duffy makes a compelling argument in this book that relationships have been marginalized and no longer serve as the central organizing principle of health servicesÖThis book resonates with a virtual groundswell of findings regarding the importance of relationships for organizational performance and for human wellbeing.î -Jody Hoffer Gittell Professor of Management, Brandeis University This edition stresses the proven need for a return to the patient-centered care neglected through our health systemís emphasis on procedures, protocols, diagnostic testing, technology, and costs. It addresses the significant challenges to quality care posed by the upcoming changes in our health care system, and focuses on health systems, the role of nursing within them, and the interprofessional health team as the key to change ensuring high quality care. The book responds to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Actís focus on accountable care organizations, the recent IOMís Future of Nursing Report, the call for radical transformation of nursing education, and current evidence on patient safety and quality of care. This text explores the Quality-Caring Model©, which honors nursingís most deeply felt value, and can be applied to clinical, educational, and leadership practice to advance our nationís health system. Among the bookís strengths are its translation of theoretical knowledge to practical applications that can be used for clinical interventions and resolution of professional issues. Chapters include key terms, case studies along with practical exercises and references, and ìCalls to Actionî offering inspiration and guidance for implementing change. New to the Second Edition: Focuses on current challenges to quality care posed by upcoming changes to our health system Addresses health systems, the interprofessional health team, and the role of nursing within them Combines theoretical foundations for practice with clinical, leadership, and educational applications Examines the powerful role of relationships in promoting nursing excellence, improving patient satisfaction, and patient outcomes Serves as a key guide for graduate nurse educators and students, nurse leaders, and hospital leadership seeking Magnet certification Incorporates recommendations of the Affordable Care Actís focus on accountable care organizations, the IOMís Future of Nursing Report, educational transformation, and current research on safety and quality of care
Implications for Clinicians, Educators, and Leaders, 2nd Edition
Author: Joanne R. Duffy, PhD, RN, FAAN
Publisher: Springer Publishing Company
Die Nobelpreis-Schmiede Massachusetts Institute of Technology ist der bedeutendste technologische Think Tank der USA. Dort arbeitet Professor Max Tegmark mit den weltweit führenden Entwicklern künstlicher Intelligenz zusammen, die ihm exklusive Einblicke in ihre Labors gewähren. Die Erkenntnisse, die er daraus zieht, sind atemberaubend und zutiefst verstörend zugleich. Neigt sich die Ära der Menschen dem Ende zu? Der Physikprofessor Max Tegmark zeigt anhand der neusten Forschung, was die Menschheit erwartet. Hier eine Auswahl möglicher Szenarien: - Eroberer: Künstliche Intelligenz übernimmt die Macht und entledigt sich der Menschheit mit Methoden, die wir noch nicht einmal verstehen. - Der versklavte Gott: Die Menschen bemächtigen sich einer superintelligenten künstlichen Intelligenz und nutzen sie, um Hochtechnologien herzustellen. - Umkehr: Der technologische Fortschritt wird radikal unterbunden und wir kehren zu einer prä-technologischen Gesellschaft im Stil der Amish zurück. - Selbstzerstörung: Superintelligenz wird nicht erreicht, weil sich die Menschheit vorher nuklear oder anders selbst vernichtet. - Egalitäres Utopia: Es gibt weder Superintelligenz noch Besitz, Menschen und kybernetische Organismen existieren friedlich nebeneinander. Max Tegmark bietet kluge und fundierte Zukunftsszenarien basierend auf seinen exklusiven Einblicken in die aktuelle Forschung zur künstlichen Intelligenz.
Mensch sein im Zeitalter Künstlicher Intelligenz
Author: Max Tegmark
Publisher: Ullstein Buchverlage
Category: Social Science
Nowadays, philosophy and methodology of science appear as a combination of novelty and continuity. This blend is clear both in the general approaches to science (those thought of as any science) and in the specific perspectives on every science, either formal or empirical. There are new topics for philosophical reflection, such as key issues in philosophy of medicine and central problems raised by neuroscience. Thus, new contents have brought attention to aspects that previously went almost unnoticed. In addition, there are new angles for philosophical study, such as the repercussion of society on scientific activity (in aims, processes, and results). But the background of the main philosophical and methodological trends of the twentieth century is, in many ways, still in place.
Author: Wenceslao J. González
Public attention has focused in recent years on an array of technological risks to health, safety, and the environment. At the same time, responsibilities for technological risk as sessment, evaluation, and management have grown in both the public and private sectors because of a perceived need to anticipate, prevent, or reduce the risks inherent in modem society. In attempting to meet these responsibilities, legislative, judicial, regulatory, and private sector institutions have had to deal with the extraordinarily complex problems of assessing and balancing risks, costs, and benefits. The need to help society cope with technological risks has given rise to a new intellectual endeavor: the social and behavioral study of issues in risk evaluation and risk management. The scope and complexity of these analyses require a high degree of cooperative effort on the part of specialists from many fields. Analyzing social and behavioral issues requires the efforts of political scientists, sociologists, decision analysts, management scientists, econ omists, psychologists, philosophers, and policy analysts, among others.
Author: V.T. Covello,Joshua Menkes,J.L. Mumpower
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Category: Technology & Engineering