A single-source reference with a broad and holistic overview of nonclinical studies, this book offers critical training material and describes regulations of nonclinical testing through guidelines, models, case studies, practical examples, and worldwide perspectives. The book: Provides a complete overview of nonclinical study organization, conduct, and reporting and describes the roles and responsibilities of a Study Director to manage an effective study Covers regulatory and scientific concepts, including international testing and Good Laboratory Practice (GLP), compliance with guidelines, and animal models Features a concluding chapter that compiles case studies / lessons learned from those that have served as a Study Director for many years Addresses the entire spectrum of nonclinical testing, making it applicable to those in the government, laboratories and those actively involved in in all sectors of industry
Pharmaceuticals, Chemicals, Medical Devices, and Pesticides
Author: William J. Brock
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Non-pathologists, such as toxicologists and study personnel, can find it difficult to understand the data they receive from pathologists. Toxicological pathologists write long, detailed and highly technical reports. Study personnel are under daily pressure to decide whether lesions described in pathology reports are treatment-related and thus important to the pharmaceutical company or whether the lesions are background changes and thus of little significance. Written by experienced toxicological pathologists, Pathology for Toxicologists: Principles and Practices of Laboratory Animal Pathology for Study Personnel serves to bridge the gap in the understanding of pathology data, enabling non-pathologists to more easily comprehend pathology reports, better integrate pathology data into final study reports and ask pathologists relevant questions about the test compound. This succinct, fully referenced, full colour book is suitable for toxicologists at all stages of their training or career who want to know more about the pathology encountered in laboratory animals used in safety studies. Key features include important chapters on spontaneous and target organ lesions in rats, mice, non-human primates, mini pigs, rabbits and beagle dogs as well as information on general pathology, macroscopic target organ lesions, ancillary pathology techniques, haematology, biochemistry and adversity. Pathology for Toxicologists: Principles and Practices of Laboratory Animal Pathology for Study Personnel includes: Colour diagrams explaining how lesions are caused by either external compounds or spontaneously The anatomic variations and background lesions of laboratory animals Advice on sampling tissues, necropsy, ancillary pathology techniques and recording data A chapter on the haematology and biochemistry of laboratory animals Full colour photographs of common macroscopic lesions encountered in laboratory animals A comprehensive glossary
Principles and Practices of Laboratory Animal Pathology for Study Personnel
Author: Elizabeth McInnes
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
A Comprehensive Guide to Toxicology in Preclinical Drug Development is a resource for toxicologists in industry and regulatory settings, as well as directors working in contract resource organizations, who need a thorough understanding of the drug development process. Incorporating real-life case studies and examples, the book is a practical guide that outlines day-to-day activities and experiences in preclinical toxicology. This multi-contributed reference provides a detailed picture of the complex and highly interrelated activities of preclinical toxicology in both small molecules and biologics. The book discusses discovery toxicology and the international guidelines for safety evaluation, and presents traditional and nontraditional toxicology models. Chapters cover development of vaccines, oncology drugs, botanic drugs, monoclonal antibodies, and more, as well as study development and personnel, the role of imaging in preclinical evaluation, and supporting materials for IND applications. By incorporating the latest research in this area and featuring practical scenarios, this reference is a complete and actionable guide to all aspects of preclinical drug testing. Chapters written by world-renowned contributors who are experts in their fields Includes the latest research in preclinical drug testing and international guidelines Covers preclinical toxicology in small molecules and biologics in one single source
Author: Ali S. Faqi
Publisher: Academic Press
Nonclinical Study Contracting and Monitoring: A Practical Guide offers a systematic and straightforward handbook for obtaining high quality preclinical Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) studies. This book is full of real-world examples, processes, procedures, useful templates, checklists and sample reports to provide readers with a better understanding of exactly what happens during all stages of a GLP study and the critical aspects of GLP study design and conduct. Designed for both the novice and experienced scientist, this book covers the GLP regulations and how they impact preclinical studies, the differences between GLP, non-GLP and peer-reviewed studies, preclinical GLP study design, laboratory selection, contracts and business ethics, how to obtain test material for the study, animal sourcing and release for study, preparation of a draft report and much more. By illustrating the overall big picture and tying it together with the individual steps, this book is an essential resource to help scientists ensure a high quality GLP study that passes both scientific and regulatory scrutiny. Includes both the "big picture" look at complex processes, such as contracting toxicology and safety studies with CROs, as well as a detailed account of each individual step. Contains several real world examples of problems in preclinical studies to provide you with an idea of the types of challenges that are routinely encountered and how this book can help you avoid these issues. Provides monitoring checklists through the book that will help you comply with each GLP requirement and maintain compliance throughout the entire process. Both entry level and experienced scientists involved in nonclinical toxicology study monitoring will benefit from the ideas, examples, discussions and strategies presented throughout this book.
A Practical Guide
Author: William F. Salminen,Joe M. Fowler,James Greenhaw
Publisher: Academic Press
The Minipig in Biomedical Research is a comprehensive resource for research scientists on the potential and use of the minipig in basic and applied biomedical research, and the development of drugs and chemicals. Written by acknowledged experts in the field, and drawing on the authors’ global contacts and experience with regulatory authorities and the pharmaceutical and other industries, this accessible manual ranges widely over the biological, scientific, and practical uses of the minipig in the laboratory. Its coverage extends from the minipig’s origins, anatomy, genetics, immunology, and physiology to its welfare, health, and husbandry; practical dosing and examination procedures; surgical techniques; and all areas of toxicity testing and the uses of the minipig as a disease model. Regulatory aspects of its use are considered. The reader will find an extensive amount of theoretical and practical information in the pharmacology; ADME and toxicology chapters which will help scientists and managers when deciding which species to use in basic research; drug discovery and pharmacology; and toxicology studies of chemicals, biotechnology products and devices. The book discusses regulatory uses of minipigs in the evaluation of human and veterinary pharmaceuticals, medical devices, and other classes of xenobiotics. It describes features of normal health, normal laboratory values, and common diseases. It also carefully elucidates ethical and legal considerations in their supply, housing, and transport. The result is an all-inclusive and up to date manual about the experimental uses of the minipig that describes ‘How to’ and ‘Why’ and ’What to expect in the normal’, combining enthusiasm and experience with critical assessment of its values and potential problems.
Author: Peter A. McAnulty,Anthony D. Dayan,Niels-Christian Ganderup,Kenneth L. Hastings
Publisher: CRC Press
The method described in this Test Guideline is designed for evaluating aerobic and anaerobic transformation of chemicals in soil. The experiments are performed to determine the rate of transformation of the test substance, and the nature and rates ...
Publisher: OECD Publishing
Category: Veterinary toxicology
A Comprehensive Guide to Toxicology in Nonclinical Drug Development, Second Edition, is a valuable reference designed to provide a complete understanding of all aspects of nonclinical toxicology in the development of small molecules and biologics. This updated edition has been reorganized and expanded to include important topics such as stem cells in nonclinical toxicology, inhalation and dermal toxicology, pitfalls in drug development, biomarkers in toxicology, and more. Thoroughly updated to reflect the latest scientific advances and with increased coverage of international regulatory guidelines, this second edition is an essential and practical resource for all toxicologists involved in nonclinical testing in industry, academic, and regulatory settings. Provides unique content that is not always covered together in one comprehensive resource, including chapters on stem cells, abuse liability, biomarkers, inhalation toxicology, biostatistics, and more Updated with the latest international guidelines for nonclinical toxicology in both small and large molecules Incorporates practical examples in order to illustrate day-to-day activities and the expectations associated with working in nonclinical toxicology
Author: Ali S. Faqi
Publisher: Academic Press
Good laboratory practices (GLP) are the recognized rules governing the conduct of non-clinical safety studies. They ensure the quality, integrity and reliability of the study data. This handbook is designed as an aid for those countries wishing to upgrade their laboratories to GLP status. Based on the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) principles of GLP, The aim of the handbook is to provide laboratories and trainers in disease-endemic countries with the necessary technical information for implementing GLP programmes. The material in the handbook is presented in a clear and informative way. The introduction reviews the need for quality standards in drug research and development, and gives a history of GLP. Chapter 2 covers GLP training, and chapter 3, The stepwise introduction of GLP. The OECD principles of GLP and compliance monitoring are reprinted, with kind permission, In the annex section
Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) : Quality Practices for Regulated Non-clinical Research and Development
Author: World Health Organization
Publisher: World Health Organization
Information Resources in Toxicology, Third Edition is a sourcebook for anyone who needs to know where to find toxicology information. It provides an up-to-date selective guide to a large variety of sources--books, journals, organizations, audiovisuals, internet and electronic sources, and more. For the Third Edition, the editors have selected, organized, and updated the most relevant information available. New information on grants and other funding opportunities, physical hazards, patent literature, and technical reports have also been added. This comprehensive, time-saving tool is ideal for toxicologists, pharmacologists, drug companies, testing labs, libraries, poison control centers, physicians, legal and regulatory professionals, and chemists. Key Features * Serves as an all-in-one resource for toxicology information * New edition includes information on publishers, grants and other funding opportunities, physical hazards, patent literature, and technical reports * Updated to include the latest internet and electronic sources, e-mail addresses, etc. * Provides valuable data about the new fields that have emerged within toxicological research; namely, the biochemical, cellular, molecular, and genetic aspects
Author: Philip Wexler
Publisher: Academic Press
This book describes, with references to key source materials, the background to, and conduct of, the principal nonclinical studies that are central to drug development. The chapters provide an understanding of the key components of the preclinical phase of drug development with a hands-on description, with core chapters addressing study conduct, types, and reporting. As such, it is a practical guide through toxicology testing and an up-to-date reference on current issues, new developments, and future directions in toxicology. Opening with a practical description of toxicology and its role in the development of pharmaceuticals, the book proceeds to detail international regulations (including the impact of the new REACH standards for chemical safety), interdisciplinary interactions among scientists in drug development, steps in toxicity testing, and risk management. Further, the book covers the methods of genetic toxicology (assays, genomics, in vivo screening) as a complement to “traditional” toxicology in the risk assessment and risk management of pharmaceuticals.
A Guide to Non-clinical Development
Author: Alberto Lodola,Jeanne Stadler
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Author: European research and development database
Category: Biomedical engineering
Category: Genetic engineering
As the principal agency regulating food, drugs, medical devices, and biological products used by Americans, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) serves one of the most critical consumer protection functions of the federal government. The FDA's reach is enormous, regulating products that represent roughly 25 percent of all consumer spending in the United States. Since 1992, however, federal funding for the agency has diminished, and the FDA's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) currently relies on the fees it receives from the industry it regulates to fund the majority of its drug regulation functions. Prescription drug safety is receiving heightened press coverage and congressional scrutiny as a result of recent, highly publicized events, such as the recall of Vioxx because of its link to heart attacks, and the link between certain antidepressants (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, or SSRIs) and an increased risk of suicidal ideation in children. To address these concerns, the FDA in 2005 commissioned the Institute of Medicine (IOM) to conduct an independent assessment of the current U.S. drug safety system. In September 2006, the IOM committee released its report-The Future of Drug Safety: Promoting and Protecting the Health of the Public-which included 25 recommendations for improving the system for drug safety review. The committee identified four major vulnerabilities in the U.S. drug safety system: (1) chronic underfunding; (2) organization problems, particularly inadequate integration of pre-and postmarket data review; (3) a range of technical problems related to the insufficient quantity and quality of postmarket data and inadequate capability to systematically monitor the risks and benefits of drugs after marketing; and (4) unclear regulatory authority and insufficiently flexible regulatory tools. Since the IOM report was issued, the FDA has taken a number of steps toward implementing the recommended improvements. Like many government agencies, however, the FDA is financially strained by its existing responsibilities, and fully implementing the recommended improvements to the drug safety system would require significant financial commitments.The IOM report addressed some of the costs associated with its recommendations, but left many unanswered questions about the resources required to fully achieve the envisioned improvements. To better understand the types and magnitude of resources required to achieve the goals of the IOM report, the IOM's Forum on Drug Discovery, Development, and Translation convened a 1-day symposium in March 2007. Challenges for the FDA: The Future of Drug Safety, Workshop Summary explains the presentations and discussions in seven key areas: addressing the FDA's resource challenges; strengthening the scientific base of the agency; integrating pre- and postmarket review; enhancing postmarket safety monitoring; conducting confirmatory drug safety and efficacy studies; enhancing the value of clinical trial registration; and enhancing the FDA's postmarket regulation and enforcement.
The Future of Drug Safety: Workshop Summary
Author: Institute of Medicine,Board on Health Sciences Policy,Forum on Drug Discovery, Development, and Translation
Publisher: National Academies Press
Category: Biotechnology industries
Bringing a new drug to market is a costly time-consuming process. Increased regional and international regulation over the last twenty years, while necessary, has only served to amplify these costs. In response to this escalation, developmental strategies have shifted towards a more global approach. In order to create the most cost-effective and safe processes, it is critical for those bringing drugs to market to understand both the globally accepted regulations and the local variations. Nonclinical Safety Assessment: A Guide to International Pharmaceutical Regulations provides a practical description of nonclinical drug development regulations and requirements in the major market regions. It includes: ICH – the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use National regulations, including US FDA, Canada, Mercosur and Brazil, South Africa, China, Japan, India and Australia Repeated dose toxicity studies Carcinogenicity; Genotoxicity; Developmental and reproductive toxicology; Immunotoxicology Biotechnology-derived pharmaceuticals Vaccine development Phototoxicity and photocarcinogenicity Degradants, impurities, excipients and metabolites Primarily intended for those professionals actively involved in the nonclinical and clinical development of a pharmaceutical product, including toxicologists, pharmacologists, clinicians and project managers, this book provides a roadmap for successful new drug approval and marketing.
A Guide to International Pharmaceutical Regulations
Author: William J. Brock,Kenneth L. Hastings,Kathy M. McGown
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons