<I>The Rise of High-Stakes Educational Testing in Denmark (1920-1970) is an attempt to determine why and how tests rose to prominence in an educational system that used to rely on qualitative tests and teacher evaluations. The study addresses the important issues of how testing interacts with and influences an educational system, and which common factors are involved in order to implement testing in an educational system. The study is based on three relatively unknown case studies - illustrious examples of high-stakes educational testing practices in the Danish public school system. The first case study discusses the sorting of children into remedial education based on standardised intelligence testing in the Frederiksberg municipality from 1930 to 1943, the second case study deals with the comprehensive testing programme conducted at the Copenhagen experimental school of Emdrupborg from 1948 to 1959. The third case study examines the testing of Greenlandic children during the preparation scheme in the Greenlandic educational system from 1961 to 1976.
Author: Christian Ydesen
Publisher: Peter Lang Gmbh, Internationaler Verlag Der Wissenschaften
The past thirty years have seen a rapid expansion of testing, exposing students worldwide to tests that are now, more than ever, standardized and linked to high-stakes outcomes. The use of testing as a policy tool has been legitimized within international educational development to measure education quality in the vast majority of countries worldwide. The embedded nature and normative power of high-stakes standardized testing across national contexts can be understood as a global testing culture. The global testing culture permeates all aspects of education, from financing, to parental involvement, to teacher and student beliefs and practices. The reinforcing nature of the global testing culture leads to an environment where testing becomes synonymous with accountability, which becomes synonymous with education quality. Underlying the global testing culture is a set of values identified from the increasing literature on world culture. These include: education as a human right, academic intelligence, faith in science, decentralization, and neoliberalism. Each of these values highlights different aspects of the dialogue in support of high-stakes standardized testing. The wide approval of these values and their ability to legitimate various aspects of high-stakes testing reinforces the taken-for-granted notion that such tests are effective and appropriate education practices. However, a large body of literature emphasizes the negative unintended consequences – teaching to the test, reshaping the testing pool, the inequitable distribution of school resources and teachers’ attention, and reconstructing the role of the student, teacher, and parent – commonly found when standardized, census-based tests are combined with high-stakes outcomes for educators or students. This book problematizes this culture by providing critical perspectives that challenge the assumptions of the culture and describe how the culture manifests in national contexts. The volume makes it clear that testing, per se, is not the problem. Instead it is how tests are administered, used or misused, and linked to accountability that provide the global testing culture with its powerful ability to shape schools and society and lead to its unintended, undesirable consequences.
shaping education policy, perceptions, and practice
Author: William C. Smith
Publisher: Symposium Books Ltd
Testing and Inclusive Schooling provides a comparative perspective on seemingly incompatible global agendas and efforts to include all children in the general school system, thus reducing exclusion. With an examination of the international testing culture and the politics of inclusion currently permeating national school reforms, this book raises a critical and constructive discussion of these movements, which appear to support one another, yet simultaneously offer profound contradictions. With contributions from around the world, the book analyses the dilemma arising between reforms that urge schools to move towards a constantly higher academic level, and those who practice a politics of inclusion leading to a greater degree of student diversity. The book considers the types of problems that arise when reforms implemented at the international level are transformed into policies and practices, firmly placing global educational efforts into perspective by highlighting a range of different cases at both national and local levels. Testing and Inclusive Schooling sheds light on new possibilities for educational improvements in global and local contexts and is essential reading for academics, researchers and postgraduate students interested in international and comparative education, assessment technologies and practices, inclusion, educational psychology and educational policy.
International Challenges and Opportunities
Author: Bjorn Hamre,Anne Morin,Christian Ydesen
The project Religious Education at Schools in Europe (REL-EDU), which is divided up into six volumes (Central Europe, Western Europe, Northern Europe, Southern Europe, South-Eastern Europe, Eastern Europe), aims to research the situation with regard to religious education in Europe. The third volume outlines the organisational form of religious education in the countries of Northern Europe (Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Norway, Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Iceland). This is done on the basis of thirteen key issues, which allows specific points of comparison between different countries in Europe. Thereby the volume focusses the comparative approach and facilitates further research into specific aspects of the comparison.
Author: Martin Rothgangel,Martin Jäggle,Geir Skeie
Publisher: V&R unipress GmbH
A powerful policy of performativity now exists, in which the pupils, teachers and schools are held responsible for ‘performance’ and at the same time these systems are used for stratification of these groups. These performative policies are underpinned by a major global policy to improve economic status and social well being; a market based approach that encourages performance-based activity. Performativity is a technology, a culture and mode of regulation that employs judgements and comparisons and displays the performances of individual subjects or organisations to serve as measures of productivity. Policy makers believe it raises standards in schools and achievement levels of the mass of the population. In setting targets for Regional/Local/District Education Authorities and schools, governments hope to develop a highly skilled workforce that can compete in what it sees as a new global industry – the knowledge economy. It is argued that a higher skills base and higher levels of excellence in knowledge acquisition, and the best use of that knowledge, the higher the economic return will be for national States. This international collection focuses on the experience of students, from the age of four to adulthood, across seven different countries, Australia, Denmark, England, Germany, Ireland, Sweden and the USA. Young children and students performative identities are constructed as they become enculturated, ‘self-designations and self-attributions brought into play during the course of interaction’. These are imputed identities, which a performative learner takes on as they experience everyday discourse practice and engage in social acclimatisation. Researching learners gives an insight into the power and influence of teaching and learning practices – discourses – have on the practices of the self. They cannot avoid the discourses but they seek to find ways to manage them, and occasionally resist them, in order to maintain social relations and social cohesion within their social context. This global collection of articles brings out the ways in which performativity affects students, the tensions created and some strategies to manage performative contexts. It will therefore be of interest to all sectors of education and to readers from across the globe.
An international collection of ethnographic research on learners’ experiences
Author: Annette Rasmussen,Jan Gustafsson,Bob Jeffrey
Publisher: E&E Publishing
Category: Academic achievement
<B>This book has received the AESA (American Educational Studies Association) Critics Choice Award 2012.<BR> This book overturns the typical conception of standards, empowering educators by providing concrete examples of how top-down models of assessment can be embraced and used in ways that are consistent with critical pedagogies. Although standards, as broad frameworks for setting learning targets, are not necessarily problematic, when they are operationalized as high-stakes assessments, test-based pedagogies emerge and frequently dominate the curriculum, leaving little room for critical pedagogies. In addition, critics maintain that high-stakes assessments perpetuate current class structures by maintaining skill gaps and controlling ideology, particularly beliefs in individualism, meritocracy, and what counts as knowledge. This book offers readers a deepened awareness of how educators can alleviate the effects of standardization, especially for students in poor and working-class communities. As teachers negotiate their roles in this time of increasing regulation and standardization, it is essential to maintain and model a critical stance toward curriculum and instruction. Educators know why this approach is vital: This book illustrates how to make it happen.
Exploiting Power with Critical Pedagogy
Author: Julie A. Gorlewski,Bradley J. Porfilio,David A. Gorlewski
Publisher: Peter Lang Pub Incorporated
The study of common and diverse effects in the field of education across Europe is a growing field of inquiry and research. It is the result of many actions, networks and programmes over the last few decades and the development of common European education policies. Europeanizing Education describes the origins of European education policy, as it metamorphosed from cultural policy to networking support and into a space of comparison and data. The authors look at the early development and growth of research networks and agencies, and international and national collaborations. The gradual increase in the velocity and scope of education policy, practice and instruments across Europe is at the heart of the book. The European space of education, a new policy space, has been slowly coaxed into existence; governed softly and by persuasion; developed by experts and agents; and de-politicized by the use of standards and data. It has increasing momentum. It is becoming a single, commensurable space on a rising tide of indicators and benchmarks. The construction of policy spaces by the European Union makes Europe governable: policy spaces have to be mobilized by networks of actors and constructed by comparative data. They are the result of transnational flows of people, ideas and practices across European borders; the direct effects of European Union policy; and, finally, the Europeanizing effect of international institutions and globalization. The European space of education and research has become a new place of work through interconnected institutions, networks and companies, and it is being constructed through the flow of policy ideas, knowledge and practices from place to place, sector to sector, organization to organization, and across borders. This book will be useful to any scholar of the new arena of study, the European Space of Education.
governing a new policy space
Author: Martin Lawn,Sotiria Grek
Publisher: Symposium Books Ltd
Physical inactivity is a key determinant of health across the lifespan. A lack of activity increases the risk of heart disease, colon and breast cancer, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, osteoporosis, anxiety and depression and others diseases. Emerging literature has suggested that in terms of mortality, the global population health burden of physical inactivity approaches that of cigarette smoking. The prevalence and substantial disease risk associated with physical inactivity has been described as a pandemic. The prevalence, health impact, and evidence of changeability all have resulted in calls for action to increase physical activity across the lifespan. In response to the need to find ways to make physical activity a health priority for youth, the Institute of Medicine's Committee on Physical Activity and Physical Education in the School Environment was formed. Its purpose was to review the current status of physical activity and physical education in the school environment, including before, during, and after school, and examine the influences of physical activity and physical education on the short and long term physical, cognitive and brain, and psychosocial health and development of children and adolescents. Educating the Student Body makes recommendations about approaches for strengthening and improving programs and policies for physical activity and physical education in the school environment. This report lays out a set of guiding principles to guide its work on these tasks. These included: recognizing the benefits of instilling life-long physical activity habits in children; the value of using systems thinking in improving physical activity and physical education in the school environment; the recognition of current disparities in opportunities and the need to achieve equity in physical activity and physical education; the importance of considering all types of school environments; the need to take into consideration the diversity of students as recommendations are developed. This report will be of interest to local and national policymakers, school officials, teachers, and the education community, researchers, professional organizations, and parents interested in physical activity, physical education, and health for school-aged children and adolescents.
Taking Physical Activity and Physical Education to School
Author: Committee on Physical Activity and Physical Education in the School Environment,Food and Nutrition Board,Institute of Medicine
Publisher: National Academies Press
Bringing together the expertise of top evaluation leaders from around the world, The SAGE International Handbook of Educational Evaluation addresses methods and applications in the field, particularly as they relate to policy- and decision-making in an era of globalization. The comprehensive collection of articles in the Handbook compels readers to consider globalization influences on educational evaluation within distinct genres or families of evaluation approaches. Key Features Discusses substantive issues surrounding globalization, and its implication for educational policy and practice and ultimately evaluation; Includes state-of-the-art theory chapters and method chapters within scientific, accountability-oriented, learning-oriented, and political genres of evaluation approaches; Provides real-world case exemplar chapters to illustrate core concepts within genres; Extends dialogue on controversial topics and contemporary educational evaluation tensions in the context of globalization; Summarizes, by means of an integration chapter, the issues, tensions and dilemmas confronting educational evaluators in an era of globalization. Serving as a state-of-the-art resource on educational evaluation, this volume is designed for graduate students, evaluation scholars and researchers and professional evaluation practitioners with an interest in educational program and policy evaluation.
Author: Katherine Ryan,J. Bradley Cousins
Publisher: SAGE Publications
Category: Social Science
First published in 2000. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
Educational Costs of Standardized Testing
Author: Linda McNeil
The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) was established in 1945 with twin aims: to rebuild various institutions of the world destroyed by war, and to promote international understanding and peaceful cooperation among nations. Based on empirical and historical research and with a particular focus on history teaching, international understanding and peace, UNESCO Without Borders offers a new research trajectory for understanding the roles played by UNESCO and other international organizations, as well as the effects of globalization on education. With fifteen chapters by authors from cross-disciplinary and diverse geographical areas, this book assesses the global implications and results of UNESCO’s educational policies and practices. It explores how UNESCO-approved guidelines of textbook revisions and peace initiatives were implemented in member-states, illustrating the existence of both national confrontations with the new worldview promoted by UNESCO, as well as the constraints of international cooperation. This book provides an insightful analysis of UNESCO’s past challenges and also indicates promising future research directions in support of international understanding for peace and cooperation. As such, it will be of key interest to researchers, postgraduate students, academics in the fields of international and comparative education, education politics and policies, and to those interested in the historical study of international organizations and their global impact. The book will also appeal to practitioners, especially those who conduct research on or work in post-conflict societies.
Educational campaigns for international understanding
Author: Aigul Kulnazarova,Christian Ydesen
In the early twentieth century, a small group of psychologists built a profession upon the new social technology of intelligence testing. They imagined the human mind as quantifiable, defining their new enterprise through analogies to the better established scientific professions of medicine and engineering. Offering a fresh interpretation of this controversial movement, JoAnne Brown reveals how this group created their professional sphere by semantically linking it to historical systems of cultural authority. She maintains that at the same time psychologists participated in a form of Progressivism, which she defines as a political culture founded on the technical exploitation of human intelligence as a "new" natural resource. This book addresses the early days of the mental testing enterprise, including its introduction into the educational system. Moreover, it examines the processes of social change that construct, and are constructed by, shared and contested cultural vocabularies. Brown argues that language is an integral part of social and political experience, and its forms and uses can be specified historically. The historical and theoretical implications will interest scholars in the fields of history, politics, psychology, sociology of knowledge, history and philosophy of social science, and sociolinguistics.
The Authority of Metaphor in the History of Intelligence Testing, 1890-1930
Author: JoAnne Brown
Publisher: Princeton University Press
China1s importance in the Asia-Pacific has been on the rise, raising concerns about competition the United States. The authors examined the reactions of six U.S. allies and partners to China1s rise. All six see China as an economic opportunity. They want it to be engaged productively in regional affairs, but without becoming dominant. They want the United States to remain deeply engaged in the region.
The Responses of U.S. Allies and Security Partners in East Asia to China's Rise
Author: Evan S. Medeiros
Publisher: Rand Corporation
Category: Political Science
In Cosmopolitanism and the Age of School Reform, noted educationalist Thomas Popkewitz explores turn-of-the-century and contemporary pedagogical reforms while illuminating their complex relation to cosmopolitanism. Popkewitz highlights how policies that include "all children" and leave "no child behind" are rooted in a philosophy of cosmopolitanism—not just in salvation themes of human agency, freedom, and empowerment, but also in the processes of abjection and the differentiation of the disadvantaged, urban, and child left behind as "Other."
Science, Education, and Making Society by Making the Child
Author: Thomas S. Popkewitz
The two volumes of the second edition of the International Handbook of Educational Change comprise a totally new, and updated collection of the most critical and cutting-edge ideas in educational change. Written by the most influential thinkers in the field, these volumes cover educational change at both the theoretical and practical levels. The updated handbook remains connected to the classical concerns of the field, such as educational innovation, reform, and change management, and also offers new insights into educational change that have been brought about by social change and shifting contexts of educational reform. Like the first best selling Handbook, this one will also undoubtedly become an essential resource for people involved in all spheres of education, from classroom teachers, teacher leaders and administrators to educational researchers, curriculum developers, and university professors. No other work provides such a wide-ranging and comprehensive examination of the field of educational change.
Author: Andy Hargreaves,Ann Lieberman,Michael Fullan,David Hopkins
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This book provides a careful historical analysis of the co-evolution of educational attainment and the wage structure in the United States through the twentieth century. During the first eight decades of the twentieth century, the increase of educated workers was higher than the demand for them. This boosted income for most people and lowered inequality. However, the reverse has been true since about 1980. The authors discuss the complex reasons for this educational slow-down and what might be done to ameliorate it.
Author: Claudia Dale Goldin,Lawrence F. Katz
Publisher: Harvard University Press
Category: Business & Economics
“What would happen if Harry met Sally in the age of Tinder and Snapchat? . . . A field guide to Millennial dating in New York City” (New York Daily News). When New York–based graphic designers and long-time friends Timothy Goodman and Jessica Walsh found themselves single at the same time, they decided to try an experiment. The old adage says that it takes 40 days to change a habit—could the same be said for love? So they agreed to date each other for 40 days, record their experiences in questionnaires, photographs, videos, texts, and artworks, and post the material on a website they would create for this purpose. What began as a small experiment between two friends became an Internet sensation, drawing 5 million unique (and obsessed) visitors from around the globe to their site and their story. 40 Days of Dating: An Experiment is a beautifully designed, expanded look at the experiment and the results, including a great deal of material that never made it onto the site, such as who they were as friends and individuals before the 40 days and who they have become since.
Author: Timothy Goodman,Jessica Walsh
Inventing Our Selves proposes a radical new approach to the analysis of our current regime of the self, and the values of autonomy, identity, individuality, liberty and choice that animate it. It argues that psychology, psychiatry, psychotherapy and other "psy" disciplines have played a key role in "inventing our selves," changing the ways in which human beings understand and act upon themselves, and how they are acted upon by politicians, managers, doctors, therapists and a multitude of other authorities. These mutations are intrinsically linked to recent changes in ways of understanding and exercising political power, which have stressed the values of autonomy, personal responsibility and choice. The aim of this critical history is to diagnose and destabilize our contemporary "condition" of the self, to help us think differently about the kind of persons we are, or might become.
Psychology, Power, and Personhood
Author: Nikolas Rose
Publisher: Cambridge University Press