<I>The Rise of High-Stakes Educational Testing in Denmark (1920-1970) is an attempt to determine why and how tests rose to prominence in an educational system that used to rely on qualitative tests and teacher evaluations. The study addresses the important issues of how testing interacts with and influences an educational system, and which common factors are involved in order to implement testing in an educational system. The study is based on three relatively unknown case studies - illustrious examples of high-stakes educational testing practices in the Danish public school system. The first case study discusses the sorting of children into remedial education based on standardised intelligence testing in the Frederiksberg municipality from 1930 to 1943, the second case study deals with the comprehensive testing programme conducted at the Copenhagen experimental school of Emdrupborg from 1948 to 1959. The third case study examines the testing of Greenlandic children during the preparation scheme in the Greenlandic educational system from 1961 to 1976.
Author: Christian Ydesen
Publisher: Peter Lang Gmbh, Internationaler Verlag Der Wissenschaften
The past thirty years have seen a rapid expansion of testing, exposing students worldwide to tests that are now, more than ever, standardized and linked to high-stakes outcomes. The use of testing as a policy tool has been legitimized within international educational development to measure education quality in the vast majority of countries worldwide. The embedded nature and normative power of high-stakes standardized testing across national contexts can be understood as a global testing culture. The global testing culture permeates all aspects of education, from financing, to parental involvement, to teacher and student beliefs and practices. The reinforcing nature of the global testing culture leads to an environment where testing becomes synonymous with accountability, which becomes synonymous with education quality. Underlying the global testing culture is a set of values identified from the increasing literature on world culture. These include: education as a human right, academic intelligence, faith in science, decentralization, and neoliberalism. Each of these values highlights different aspects of the dialogue in support of high-stakes standardized testing. The wide approval of these values and their ability to legitimate various aspects of high-stakes testing reinforces the taken-for-granted notion that such tests are effective and appropriate education practices. However, a large body of literature emphasizes the negative unintended consequences – teaching to the test, reshaping the testing pool, the inequitable distribution of school resources and teachers’ attention, and reconstructing the role of the student, teacher, and parent – commonly found when standardized, census-based tests are combined with high-stakes outcomes for educators or students. This book problematizes this culture by providing critical perspectives that challenge the assumptions of the culture and describe how the culture manifests in national contexts. The volume makes it clear that testing, per se, is not the problem. Instead it is how tests are administered, used or misused, and linked to accountability that provide the global testing culture with its powerful ability to shape schools and society and lead to its unintended, undesirable consequences.
shaping education policy, perceptions, and practice
Author: William C. Smith
Publisher: Symposium Books Ltd
Testing and Inclusive Schooling provides a comparative perspective on seemingly incompatible global agendas and efforts to include all children in the general school system, thus reducing exclusion. With an examination of the international testing culture and the politics of inclusion currently permeating national school reforms, this book raises a critical and constructive discussion of these movements, which appear to support one another, yet simultaneously offer profound contradictions. With contributions from around the world, the book analyses the dilemma arising between reforms that urge schools to move towards a constantly higher academic level, and those who practice a politics of inclusion leading to a greater degree of student diversity. The book considers the types of problems that arise when reforms implemented at the international level are transformed into policies and practices, firmly placing global educational efforts into perspective by highlighting a range of different cases at both national and local levels. Testing and Inclusive Schooling sheds light on new possibilities for educational improvements in global and local contexts and is essential reading for academics, researchers and postgraduate students interested in international and comparative education, assessment technologies and practices, inclusion, educational psychology and educational policy.
International Challenges and Opportunities
Author: Bjorn Hamre,Anne Morin,Christian Ydesen
The project Religious Education at Schools in Europe (REL-EDU), which is divided up into six volumes (Central Europe, Western Europe, Northern Europe, Southern Europe, South-Eastern Europe, Eastern Europe), aims to research the situation with regard to religious education in Europe. The third volume outlines the organisational form of religious education in the countries of Northern Europe (Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Norway, Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Iceland). This is done on the basis of thirteen key issues, which allows specific points of comparison between different countries in Europe. Thereby the volume focusses the comparative approach and facilitates further research into specific aspects of the comparison.
Author: Martin Rothgangel,Martin Jäggle,Geir Skeie
Publisher: V&R unipress GmbH
A powerful policy of performativity now exists, in which the pupils, teachers and schools are held responsible for ‘performance’ and at the same time these systems are used for stratification of these groups. These performative policies are underpinned by a major global policy to improve economic status and social well being; a market based approach that encourages performance-based activity. Performativity is a technology, a culture and mode of regulation that employs judgements and comparisons and displays the performances of individual subjects or organisations to serve as measures of productivity. Policy makers believe it raises standards in schools and achievement levels of the mass of the population. In setting targets for Regional/Local/District Education Authorities and schools, governments hope to develop a highly skilled workforce that can compete in what it sees as a new global industry – the knowledge economy. It is argued that a higher skills base and higher levels of excellence in knowledge acquisition, and the best use of that knowledge, the higher the economic return will be for national States. This international collection focuses on the experience of students, from the age of four to adulthood, across seven different countries, Australia, Denmark, England, Germany, Ireland, Sweden and the USA. Young children and students performative identities are constructed as they become enculturated, ‘self-designations and self-attributions brought into play during the course of interaction’. These are imputed identities, which a performative learner takes on as they experience everyday discourse practice and engage in social acclimatisation. Researching learners gives an insight into the power and influence of teaching and learning practices – discourses – have on the practices of the self. They cannot avoid the discourses but they seek to find ways to manage them, and occasionally resist them, in order to maintain social relations and social cohesion within their social context. This global collection of articles brings out the ways in which performativity affects students, the tensions created and some strategies to manage performative contexts. It will therefore be of interest to all sectors of education and to readers from across the globe.
An international collection of ethnographic research on learners’ experiences
Author: Annette Rasmussen,Jan Gustafsson,Bob Jeffrey
Publisher: E&E Publishing
Category: Academic achievement
Durch Instrumente wie PISA erlangte und erhielt die OECD die Autorität, über Erfolg und Scheitern nationalstaatlicher Bildungspolitiken zu urteilen. Regula Bürgi beleuchtet aus historischer Perspektive die Denkstile und Netzwerke, mittels derer diese internationale – vornehmlich wirtschaftspolitische – Organisation zu einer Bildungsexpertin avancieren konnte. Basierend auf vielfältigem Quellenmaterial dringt die Autorin in das Räderwerk der Organisation vor und identifiziert Schlüsseleigenschaften des OECD-Erfolgs.
Denkstile und Netzwerke einer internationalen Bildungsexpertise
Author: Regula Bürgi
Publisher: Verlag Barbara Budrich
Author: Peter van Dam
Publisher: Waxmann Verlag
Category: Labor movement
Die Untersuchung befaßt sich in der ersten Hälfte mit der Darstellung und Bildung in Bildern (z.B. in Karikaturen, Symbolen, Allegorien, Darstellungen wichtiger pädagogischer Ereignisse und Situationen). Bilder dieser Art werden als bisher noch zu wenig ausgeschöpfte Quellen der bildungsgeschichtlichen Forschung interpretiert, und zwar vorwiegend an Beispielen aus der Sozialgeschichte der Bildung. Die zweite Buchhälfte konkretisiert das Thema «Bildung durch Bilder», indem gezeigt wird, in welchen Bereichen von Schule und Bildungswesen Bilder im Zentrum des Lernens stehen.
Beiträge zur Grundlegung einer pädagogischen Ikonologie und Ikonographie
Author: Franz Pöggeler
Category: Pictures in education
Category: London (England)
Erste Ergebnisse von PISA 2003
Publisher: OECD Publishing
Includes sections "Book reviews" and "Periodical literature."
Category: Electronic journals
Category: Juvenile Nonfiction
Drei fundamentale Antriebskräfte bestimmen die Grundlagen der Gesellschaft von morgen: - zunehmende soziale Diversität - tiefgreifende Umwälzungen der Wirtschaftsstrukturen - rasche Globalisierung.
Publisher: OECD Publishing
Author: Alexander Hamilton,James Madison,John Jay
Category: Constitutional history
Gesundheit und Propaganda im Dritten Reich
Author: Robert N. Proctor
Category: History, Modern