The Revolt of the Black Athlete

50th Anniversary Edition

Author: Harry Edwards

Publisher: Sport and Society

ISBN: 9780252084065

Category: History

Page: 232

View: 6079

The Revolt of the Black Athlete hit sport and society like an Ali combination. This Fiftieth Anniversary edition of Harry Edwards's classic of activist scholarship arrives even as a new generation engages with the issues he explored. Edwards's new introduction and afterword revisit the revolts by athletes like Muhammad Ali, Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, Tommie Smith, and John Carlos. At the same time, he engages with the struggles of a present still rife with racism, double standards, and economic injustice. Again relating the rebellion of black athletes to a larger spirit of revolt among black citizens, Edwards moves his story forward to our era of protests, boycotts, and the dramatic politicization of athletes by Black Lives Matter. Incisive yet ultimately hopeful, The Revolt of the Black Athlete is the still-essential study of the conflicts at the interface of sport, race, and society.
Posted in History

Race, Culture, and the Revolt of the Black Athlete

The 1968 Olympic Protests and Their Aftermath

Author: Douglas Hartmann

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226318561

Category: History

Page: 344

View: 1223

Ever since 1968 a single iconic image of race in American sport has remained indelibly etched on our collective memory: sprinters Tommie Smith and John Carlos accepting medals at the Mexico City Olympics with their black-gloved fists raised and heads bowed. But what inspired their protest? What happened after they stepped down from the podium? And how did their gesture impact racial inequalities? Drawing on extensive archival research and newly gathered oral histories, Douglas Hartmann sets out to answer these questions, reconsidering this pivotal event in the history of American sport. He places Smith and Carlos within the broader context of the civil rights movement and the controversial revolt of the black athlete. Although the movement drew widespread criticism, it also led to fundamental reforms in the organizational structure of American amateur athletics. Moving from historical narrative to cultural analysis, Hartmann explores what we can learn about the complex relations between race and sport in contemporary America from this episode and its aftermath.
Posted in History

Race, Sport and Politics

The Sporting Black Diaspora

Author: Ben Carrington

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1849204292

Category: Social Science

Page: 216

View: 8564

Written by one of the leading international authorities on the sociology of race and sport, this is the first book to address sport's role in 'the making of race', the place of sport within black diasporic struggles for freedom and equality, and the contested location of sport in relation to the politics of recognition within contemporary multicultural societies. Race, Sport and Politics shows how, during the first decades of the twentieth century, the idea of 'the natural black athlete' was invented in order to make sense of and curtail the political impact and cultural achievements of black sportswomen and men. More recently, 'the black athlete' as sign has become a highly commodified object within contemporary hyper-commercialized sports-media culture thus limiting the transformative potential of critically conscious black athleticism to re-imagine what it means to be both black and human in the twenty-first century. Race, Sport and Politics will be of interest to students and scholars in sociology of culture and sport, the sociology of race and diaspora studies, postcolonial theory, cultural theory and cultural studies.
Posted in Social Science

We Will Win the Day: The Civil Rights Movement, the Black Athlete, and the Quest for Equality

Author: Louis Moore

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 1440839530

Category: Social Science

Page: 233

View: 6414

This exceedingly timely book looks at the history of black activist athletes and the important role of the black community in making sure fair play existed, not only in sports, but across U.S. society. • Offers the first significant synthesis covering the black athlete and the Civil Rights Movement • Provides a history of activist African American athletes, examining the central role the black athlete and sports played in shaping America's democracy from 1945 through the late 1960s • Discusses the role the black press and the black community played in integrating sports • Links stars like Jackie Robinson and Althea Gibson to athletes who are largely forgotten, like boxer Joe Dorsey who fought Louisiana's ban on integrated sports, and Maggie Hathaway who paved the way for integrated golf in Los Angeles
Posted in Social Science

The Unlevel Playing Field

A Documentary History of the African American Experience in Sport

Author: David Kenneth Wiggins,Patrick B. Miller

Publisher: University of Illinois Press

ISBN: 9780252028205

Category: Sports & Recreation

Page: 493

View: 8310

This extraordinarily rich compendium of primary sources charts the significant, intertwining history of African Americans and sport. The Unlevel Playing Field contains more than one hundred documents -- ranging chronologically from a challenge issued by prize fighter Tom Molineaux in the London Times in 1810 to a forward-looking interview with Harry Edwards in 2000. Introductions and head-notes provided by David K. Wiggins and Patrick B. Miller place each document in context, shaping an unrivaled narrative.Readers will find dozens of accounts taken from newspapers (both black and white), periodicals, and autobiographies, by literary and sports figures, activists, historians, and others. Frederick Douglass, W. E. B. DuBois, Booker T. Washington, Marcus Garvey, James Weldon Johnson, Richard Wright, A. S. "Doc" Young, Eldredge Cleaver, Nikki Giovanni, John Edgar Wideman, bell hooks, James Baldwin, Roy Wilkins, Henry Louis Gates, and Gerald Early are included here.Tracing the participation of blacks in American sport from the days of slavery, The Unlevel Playing Field touches on nearly every major sport and covers the full sweep of America's past. Documents include discussions of the color line in organized baseball during the Jim Crow era and athletics in the American army, as well as portraits of turn-of-the-century figures like the champion sprint cyclist Marshall "Major" Taylor and boxers George Dixon and Jack Johnson.Other selections tackle the National Tennis Association championship, high school basketball, debates over participation of black athletes in the 1968 Olympics, and the place of African American women in sport. Countless pioneering and modern-day African American athletes are spotlighted here, from Jackie Robinson, Jesse Owens, Joe Louis, Muhammad Ali, and Althea Gibson, to Michael Jordan, Tiger Woods, and Venus and Serena Williams.A thorough and informative bibliographical essay by Wiggins and Miller concludes the volume.
Posted in Sports & Recreation

Not the Triumph But the Struggle

The 1968 Olympics and the Making of the Black Athlete

Author: Amy Bass

Publisher: U of Minnesota Press

ISBN: 9780816639458

Category: Political Science

Page: 438

View: 2077

Summary: "In this far-reaching account, Amy Bass offers nothing less than a history of the black athlete. Beginning with the racial eugenics discussions of the early twentieth century and their continuing reverberations in popular perceptions of black physical abilities, Bass explores ongoing African American attempts to challenge these stereotypes. Although Tommie Smith and John Carlos were reviled by Olympic officials for their demonstration, Bass traces how their protest has come to be the defining image of the 1968 Games, with lingering effects in the sports world and on American popular culture generally."--BOOK JACKET.
Posted in Political Science

Sidelined

How American Sports Challenged the Black Freedom Struggle

Author: Simon Henderson

Publisher: University Press of Kentucky

ISBN: 0813141567

Category: History

Page: 244

View: 3618

In 1968, noted sociologist Harry Edwards established the Olympic Project for Human Rights, calling for a boycott of that year's games in Mexico City as a demonstration against racial discrimination in the United States and around the world. Though the boycott never materialized, Edwards's ideas struck a chord with athletes and incited African American Olympians Tommie Smith and John Carlos to protest by raising their black-gloved fists on the podium after receiving their medals. Sidelined draws upon a wide range of historical materials and more than forty oral histories with athletes and administrators to explore how the black athletic revolt used professional and college sports to promote the struggle for civil rights in the late 1960s. Author Simon Henderson argues that, contrary to popular perception, sports reinforced the status quo since they relegated black citizens to stereotypical roles in society. By examining activists' successes and failures in promoting racial equality on one of the most public stages in the world, Henderson sheds new light on an often-overlooked subject and gives voice to those who fought for civil rights both on the field and off.
Posted in History

Globetrotting

African American Athletes and Cold War Politics

Author: Damion L. Thomas

Publisher: University of Illinois Press

ISBN: 0252094298

Category: Social Science

Page: 232

View: 6508

Throughout the Cold War, the Soviet Union deplored the treatment of African Americans by the U.S. government as proof of hypocrisy in the American promises of freedom and equality. This probing history examines government attempts to manipulate international perceptions of U.S. race relations during the Cold War by sending African American athletes abroad on goodwill tours and in international competitions as cultural ambassadors and visible symbols of American values. Damion L. Thomas follows the State Department's efforts from 1945 to 1968 to showcase prosperous African American athletes including Jackie Robinson, Jesse Owens, and the Harlem Globetrotters as the preeminent citizens of the African Diaspora rather than as victims of racial oppression. With athletes in baseball, track and field, and basketball, the government relied on figures whose fame carried the desired message to countries where English was little understood. However, eventually African American athletes began to provide counter-narratives to State Department claims of American exceptionalism, most notably with Tommie Smith and John Carlos's famous black power salute at the 1968 Mexico City Olympics.
Posted in Social Science

Sport, Race, Activism, and Social Change

The Impact of Dr. Harry Edward's Scholarship and Service

Author: Fritz G. Polite,Billy Hawkins

Publisher: Cognella Academic Publishing

ISBN: 9781631892226

Category: Social Science

Page: 234

View: 7557

"Sport, Race, Activism, and Social Change: The Impact of Dr. Harry Edwards's Scholarship and Service" expands on the works of a man who spent three decades working for social justice as an activist, scholar, and public servant. Recognizing that more than forty years later his work is still current and relevant, this book examines the role of Dr. Harry Edwards in fighting against racial injustice in the field of sport. Dr. Edwards original scholarship includes seminal pieces on race, sport, human rights, and the discipline of sport sociology. "Sport, Race, Activism, and Social Change" written for sport management practitioners, sport studies scholars, and the sport enthusiast provides necessary insight into the interplay between sport and society. "Sports, Race, Activism, and Social Change" is organized into five units. Beginning with a historical overview, the text then addresses sport and community service, international perspectives, gender relations, legal aspects, sport administration, and media representations. As they read through these chapters students will explore topics such as The Economic Dream of the Black Athlete, Football as the New African Slave Trade, The Role of Harry Edwards in Raising the Bar as a Public Servant, and Social Entrepreneurship as Social Activism. As they present comprehensive analytical scholarship in the areas of their research and expertise, contributors to this anthology also share their experiences. "Sport, Race, Activism, and Social Change" provides a framework for examining the significance of sport in promoting social change. Dr. Fritz G. Polite is a clinical professor of Sport Management, at The University of Tennessee (Knoxville). He is the Director and founder of The Institute for Leadership, Ethics & Diversity (I-LEAD) as well as the Director for Community Outreach and Global Engagement in The College of Education, Health and Human Sciences. He has over 30 years of experience in sports, management, coaching, teaching and business to include 19 years of International experience. His primary research focus is in the area of socio-cultural aspects of sport to include: leadership, hiring practices, race, gender and diversity. He also proudly serves on the Executive Board of the College Sports Research Institute (University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill). Dr. Billy Hawkins is an associate professor at the University of Georgia in the Department of Kinesiology. He is currently a visiting scholar with the University of Trinidad-Tobago. His teaching contributions are in the area of sociology of sport and cultural studies, sport management, and sport for development at the undergraduate and graduate levels. His research focus is on racial issues in the context of sport and physical activity. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Iowa in Physical Education and Sport and Cultural Studies and Masters Degree from the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse. His book, "The New Plantation: Black Athletes and College Athletics," examines the experiences of Black student athletes in intercollegiate athletics.
Posted in Social Science

Silent Gesture

The Autobiography of Tommie Smith

Author: Tommie Smith,David Steele

Publisher: Temple University Press

ISBN: 9781592136414

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 288

View: 5956

The story of the most famous protest in sports history, written by one of the men who staged it.
Posted in Biography & Autobiography

The New American Sport History

Recent Approaches and Perspectives

Author: S. W. Pope

Publisher: University of Illinois Press

ISBN: 9780252065675

Category: Sports & Recreation

Page: 423

View: 599

Posted in Sports & Recreation

Something in the Air

American Passion and Defiance in the 1968 Mexico City Olympics

Author: Richard Hoffer

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 9781416593898

Category: Sports & Recreation

Page: 272

View: 6168

In the tradition of Seabiscuit and The Summer of ’49, a gripping sports narrative that brilliantly tells the amazing individual stories of the unforgettable athletes who gathered in Mexico City in a year of dramatic upheaval. The 1968 Mexico City Olympics reflected the spirit of their revolutionary times. Richard Hoffer’s Something in the Air captures the turbulence and offbeat heroism of that historic Olympiad, which was as rich in inspiring moments as it was drenched in political and racial tensions. Although the basketball star Lew Alcindor decided to boycott, heavyweight boxer George Foreman not only competed, but waved miniature American flags over his fallen opponents. The sprinters Tommie Smith and John Carlos became as famous for their raised-fist gestures of protest as their speed on the track. No one was prepared for Bob Beamon’s long jump, which broke the world’s record by a staggering twenty-two inches. And then there was Dick Fosbury, the goofball high jumper whose backwards, upside down approach to the bar (the "Fosbury Flop") baffled his coaches while breaking records. Though Fosbury was his own man, he was apolitical and easygoing. He didn’t defy authority; he defied gravity. Witty, insightful, and filled with human drama, Something in the Air mixes Shakespearean complexity with Hollywood sentimentality, sociopolitical significance, and the exhilarating spectacle of youthful, physical prowess. It is a powerful, unforgettable tale that will resonate with sports fans and readers of social history alike.
Posted in Sports & Recreation

Out of Play

Critical Essays on Gender and Sport

Author: Michael A. Messner

Publisher: SUNY Press

ISBN: 0791479781

Category: Social Science

Page: 240

View: 3492

A revealing look at gender issues in contemporary sport.
Posted in Social Science

The Fight of the Century

Jack Johnson, Joe Louis, and the Struggle for Racial Equality

Author: Thomas R. Hietala

Publisher: M.E. Sharpe

ISBN: 9780765607232

Category: Political Science

Page: 390

View: 9606

Examines the symbolic significance of fighters Jack Johnson and Joe Louis during the prejudice and segregation of the 1900s to the 1940s. Explores how they overcame obstacles as important black sports figures. Covers the Johnson-Jeffries 1910 fight, Johnson's Mann Act Trial in 1913, Louis' two fights with Max Schmeling in the 1930s, and Louis' 1942 Army enlistment.
Posted in Political Science

Curt Flood in the Media

Baseball, Race, and the Demise of the Activist-Athlete

Author: Abraham Iqbal Khan

Publisher: Univ. Press of Mississippi

ISBN: 1617031399

Category: Social Science

Page: 224

View: 2485

Curt Flood in the Media examines the public discourse surrounding Curt Flood (1938-1997), the star center fielder for the St. Louis Cardinals throughout the sixties. In 1969, Flood was traded to the Philadelphia Phillies. At the time, all Major League Baseball players were subject to the reserve clause, which essentially bound a player to work in perpetuity for his original team, unless traded for another player or sold for cash, in which case he worked under the same reserve conditions for the next team. Flood refused the trade on a matter of principle, arguing that Major League Baseball had violated both U.S. antitrust laws and the 13th Amendment’s prohibition of involuntary servitude. In a defiant letter to Commissioner Bowie Kuhn asking for his contractual release, Flood infamously wrote, “after twelve years in the major leagues, I do not feel that I am a piece of property to be bought and sold irrespective of my wishes.” Most significantly, Flood appeared on national television with Howard Cosell and described himself as a “well-paid slave.” Explosive controversy ensued. Khan examines the ways in which the media constructed the case and Flood’s persona. By examining the mainstream press, the black press, and primary sources including Flood’s autobiography, Khan exposes the complexities of what it means to be a prominent black American athlete-in 1969 and today.
Posted in Social Science

Pay for Play

A History of Big-time College Athletic Reform

Author: Ronald Austin Smith

Publisher: University of Illinois Press

ISBN: 0252035879

Category: Education

Page: 344

View: 9114

In an era when college football coaches frequently command higher salaries than university presidents, many call for reform to restore the balance between amateur athletics and the educational mission of schools. This book traces attempts at college athletics reform from 1855 through the early twenty-first century while analyzing the different roles played by students, faculty, conferences, university presidents, the NCAA, legislatures, and the Supreme Court.Pay for Play: A History of Big-Time College Athletic Reformalso tackles critically important questions about eligibility, compensation, recruiting, sponsorship, and rules enforcement. Discussing reasons for reform—to combat corruption, to level the playing field, and to make sports more accessible to minorities and women—Ronald A. Smith candidly explains why attempts at change have often failed. Of interest to historians, athletic reformers, college administrators, NCAA officials, and sports journalists, this thoughtful book considers the difficulty in balancing the principles of amateurism with the need to draw income from sporting events. Ronald A. Smith is professor emeritus of sports history at Penn State University and the author of several books, includingSports and Freedom: The Rise of Big-Time College AthleticsandPlay-by-Play: Radio, Television, and Big-Time College Sport.
Posted in Education

Redemption Song

Muhammad Ali and the Spirit of the Sixties

Author: Mike Marqusee

Publisher: Verso Books

ISBN: 1786632063

Category: History

Page: 326

View: 4910

A classic book that traces Muhammad Ali’s political development in the sixties When Muhammad Ali died, many mourned the life of the greatest sportsman the world had ever seen. In Redemption Song, Mike Marqusee argues that Ali was not only a boxer but a remarkable political figure in a decade of tumultuous change. Playful, popular, always confrontational, Ali refashioned the role of a political activist and was central, alongside figures such as Malcolm X and Martin Luther King, to the black liberation and the anti-war movements. Marqusee shows that sport and politics were always intertwined, and this is the reason why Ali remained an international beacon of hope, long after he had left the ring.
Posted in History

Muhammad Ali, the People's Champ

Author: Elliott J. Gorn

Publisher: University of Illinois Press

ISBN: 9780252067211

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 200

View: 7993

Ali as cultural icon, antiwar protestor, narcissist . . . this is the first book to comprehensively evaluate Ali's import outside the ring.
Posted in Biography & Autobiography

Qualifying Times

Points of Change in U.S. Women's Sport

Author: Jaime Schultz

Publisher: University of Illinois Press

ISBN: 0252095960

Category: Social Science

Page: 304

View: 7435

This perceptive, lively study explores U.S. women's sport through historical "points of change": particular products or trends that dramatically influenced both women's participation in sport and cultural responses to women athletes. Beginning with the seemingly innocent ponytail, the subject of the Introduction, scholar Jaime Schultz challenges the reader to look at the historical and sociological significance of now-common items such as sports bras and tampons and ideas such as sex testing and competitive cheerleading. Tennis wear, tampons, and sports bras all facilitated women’s participation in physical culture, while physical educators, the aesthetic fitness movement, and Title IX encouraged women to challenge (or confront) policy, financial, and cultural obstacles. While some of these points of change increased women's physical freedom and sporting participation, they also posed challenges. Tampons encouraged menstrual shame, sex testing (a tool never used with male athletes) perpetuated narrowly-defined cultural norms of femininity, and the late-twentieth-century aesthetic fitness movement fed into an unrealistic beauty ideal. Ultimately, Schultz finds that U.S. women's sport has progressed significantly but ambivalently. Although participation in sports is no longer uncommon for girls and women, Schultz argues that these "points of change" have contributed to a complex matrix of gender differentiation that marks the female athletic body as different than--as less than--the male body, despite the advantages it may confer.
Posted in Social Science

Race, Sport and the American Dream

Author: Earl Smith

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781611634877

Category: Social Science

Page: 282

View: 6910

Race, Sport and the American Dream reports the main findings of a long term research project investigating the scope and consequences of the deepening relationship between African American males and the institution of sport. While there is some scholarly literature on the topic, author Earl Smith tries to understand through this project how sport has changed the nature of African American Civil Society and has come to be a major influence on economic opportunities, schooling and the shaping of African American family life.The third edition of Race, Sport and the American Dream improves upon the second edition in four key ways: (1) by updating the empirical data so that it is the most current on the market, (2) by expanding the discussion of the Athletic Industrial Complex (AIC) to include a robust discussion of the explosion of Conference Realignment, (3) by expanding the discussion of leadership in SportsWorld to include the most current theory in the area of sports management and (4) by adding an entirely new chapter on male athletes and violence against women.In addition, the third edition expands the discussion of the elusive American Dream and the role of sports in accessing better life chances, success and happiness. The third edition of Race, Sport and the American Dream also includes a discussion of the increased role that social media plays in SportsWorld by allowing everyone and anyone to become a “sports critic” as well as a discussion of race in SportsWorld in the era of changing the racial landscape of the US. Specifically, the US has become more racially diverse and critics are debating the role that the election of the first African American president plays in this changing landscape. All in all, the third edition of Race, Sport and the American Dream expands on existing discussions and provides new areas of inquiry.This book is intended to provide social scientists and others interested in sports with an understanding of carefully selected issues related to the African American athlete. Smith examines the world of amateur sports (Olympic and intercollegiate sport) using Immanuel Wallerstein's “World-Systems Paradigm” which provides a lens with which to examine the colonizing and exploitative nature of intercollegiate sports and the special arrangements that universities have with SportsWorld.All of the topics in this book are addressed within the context of the history of racial oppression that has dominated race relations in the United States since its inception as a nation-state in the 1620s. Across a variety of topics including sport as big business—which Smith terms the Athletic Industrial Complex—to criminal behavior by athletes, to the lack of leadership opportunities for African American athletes, to the question of the biological superiority of African American athletes, Smith argues that any discussion of race and sport must be understood within this context of power and domination. Otherwise the importance of the question itself will always be (a) misunderstood or (b) underestimated.
Posted in Social Science