The Measurement of Time

Time, Frequency and the Atomic Clock

Author: Claude Audoin,Bernard Guinot

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521003971

Category: Reference

Page: 335

View: 6600

A unique insight into the measurement of time and its applications, at an introductory level.
Posted in Reference

The Quantum Beat

The Physical Principles of Atomic Clocks

Author: F. G. Major

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1475729235

Category: Science

Page: 475

View: 596

This work reviews the principles underlying quantum-based atomic clocks, with introductory chapters placing them in context with the development of mechanical clocks and electronic quartz-controlled clocks. The book details design principles of the rubidium, cesium, hydrogen maser, and mercury ion standards; changes enabled by the advent of the laser; and the time-based global navigation systems, Loran-C and the Global Positioning System. The new edition includes such recent developments as clocks based on quantum resonance at optical frequency in individual ions confined in miniature electromagnetic traps. The Quantum Beat explores the subject with a minimum of mathematical formalism.
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Frequency Standards

Basics and Applications

Author: Fritz Riehle

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527605959

Category: Science

Page: 540

View: 8323

Of all measurement units, frequency is the one that may be determined with the highest degree of accuracy. It equally allows precise measurements of other physical and technical quantities, whenever they can be measured in terms of frequency. This volume covers the central methods and techniques relevant for frequency standards developed in physics, electronics, quantum electronics, and statistics. After a review of the basic principles, the book looks at the realisation of commonly used components. It then continues with the description and characterisation of important frequency standards from atomic clocks, to frequency stabilised lasers. The whole is rounded of with a discussion of topical applications in engineering, telecommunications, and metrology.
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Handbook of Metrology

Author: Manfred Kochsiek,Michael Gläser

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527406662

Category: Science

Page: 744

View: 3159

A long required resource to turn to for reliable, up-to-date information on the continually evolving field of metrology. In two easily searched volumes, the Wiley Handbook of Metrology provides a clear overview of both the fundamentals of metrology and recent advances.
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Atom Interferometry

Author: Paul R. Berman

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780080527680

Category: Science

Page: 478

View: 6638

The field of atom interferometry has expanded rapidly in recent years, and todays research laboratories are using atom interferometers both as inertial sensors and for precision measurements. Many researchers also use atom interferometry as a means of researching fundamental questions in quantum mechanics. Atom Interferometry contains contributions from theoretical and experimental physicists at the forefront of this rapidly developing field. Editor Paul R. Berman includes an excellent balance of background material and recent experimental results,providing a general overview of atom interferometry and demonstrating the promise that it holds for the future. Includes contributions from many of the research groups that have pioneered this emerging field Discusses and demonstrates new aspects of the wave nature of atoms Explains the many important applications of atom interferometry, from a measurement of the gravitational constant to atom lithography Examines applications of atom interferometry to fundamentally important quantum mechanics problems
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Springer Handbook of Global Navigation Satellite Systems

Author: Peter Teunissen,Oliver Montenbruck

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319429280

Category: Science

Page: 1500

View: 695

This Handbook presents a complete and rigorous overview of the fundamentals, methods and applications of the multidisciplinary field of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), providing an exhaustive, one-stop reference work and a state-of-the-art description of GNSS as a key technology for science and society at large. All global and regional satellite navigation systems, both those currently in operation and those under development (GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, BeiDou, QZSS, IRNSS/NAVIC, SBAS), are examined in detail. The functional principles of receivers and antennas, as well as the advanced algorithms and models for GNSS parameter estimation, are rigorously discussed. The book covers the broad and diverse range of land, marine, air and space applications, from everyday GNSS to high-precision scientific applications and provides detailed descriptions of the most widely used GNSS format standards, covering receiver formats as well as IGS product and meta-data formats. The full coverage of the field of GNSS is presented in seven parts, from its fundamentals, through the treatment of global and regional navigation satellite systems, of receivers and antennas, and of algorithms and models, up to the broad and diverse range of applications in the areas of positioning and navigation, surveying, geodesy and geodynamics, and remote sensing and timing. Each chapter is written by international experts and amply illustrated with figures and photographs, making the book an invaluable resource for scientists, engineers, students and institutions alike.
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Advances in Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics

Author: N.A

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780123810229

Category: Science

Page: 304

View: 4577

Advances in Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics continues the tradition of the Advances series. It contains contributions from experts in the field of atomic, molecular, and optical (AMO) physics. The articles contain some review material, but are intended to provide a comprehensive picture of recent important developments in AMO physics. Both theoretical and experimental articles are included in the volume. International experts Comprehensive articles New developments
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Frequency Standards

Basics and Applications

Author: Fritz Riehle

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527605959

Category: Science

Page: 540

View: 5316

Of all measurement units, frequency is the one that may be determined with the highest degree of accuracy. It equally allows precise measurements of other physical and technical quantities, whenever they can be measured in terms of frequency. This volume covers the central methods and techniques relevant for frequency standards developed in physics, electronics, quantum electronics, and statistics. After a review of the basic principles, the book looks at the realisation of commonly used components. It then continues with the description and characterisation of important frequency standards from atomic clocks, to frequency stabilised lasers. The whole is rounded of with a discussion of topical applications in engineering, telecommunications, and metrology.
Posted in Science

Physics for Students of Science and Engineering

Author: A. L. Stanford,J. M. Tanner

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 148322029X

Category: Science

Page: 816

View: 4001

Physics for Students of Science and Engineering is a calculus-based textbook of introductory physics. The book reviews standards and nomenclature such as units, vectors, and particle kinetics including rectilinear motion, motion in a plane, relative motion. The text also explains particle dynamics, Newton's three laws, weight, mass, and the application of Newton's laws. The text reviews the principle of conservation of energy, the conservative forces (momentum), the nonconservative forces (friction), and the fundamental quantities of momentum (mass and velocity). The book examines changes in momentum known as impulse, as well as the laws in momentum conservation in relation to explosions, collisions, or other interactions within systems involving more than one particle. The book considers the mechanics of fluids, particularly fluid statics, fluid dynamics, the characteristics of fluid flow, and applications of fluid mechanics. The text also reviews the wave-particle duality, the uncertainty principle, the probabilistic interpretation of microscopic particles (such as electrons), and quantum theory. The book is an ideal source of reference for students and professors of physics, calculus, or related courses in science or engineering.
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From Sundials to Atomic Clocks

Understanding Time and Frequency

Author: James Jespersen,Jane Fitz-Randolph

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486409139

Category: Science

Page: 345

View: 6464

Clear and accessible introduction to the concept of time examines measurement, historic timekeeping methods, uses of time information, role of time in science and technology, and much more. Over 300 illustrations.
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The Hydrogen Atom

Precision Physics of Simple Atomic Systems

Author: S.G. Karshenboim,F.S. Pavone,F. Bassani,M. Inguscio,T.W. Hänsch

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3540453954

Category: Science

Page: 296

View: 4895

For more than a century, studies of atomic hydrogen have been a rich source of scientific discoveries. These began with the Balmer series in 1885 and the early quantum theories of the atom, and later included the development of QED and the first successful gauge field theory. Today, hydrogen and its relatives continue to provide new fundamental information, as witnessed by the contributions to this book. The printed volume contains invited reviews on the spectroscopy of hydrogen, muonium, positronium, few-electron ions and exotic atoms, together with related topics such as frequency metrology and the determination of fundamental constants. The accompanying CD contains, in addition to these reviews, a further 40 contributed papers also presented at the conference "Hydrogen Atom 2" held in summer 2000. Finally, to facilitate a historical comparison, the CD also contains the proceedings of the first "Hydrogen Atom" conference of 1988. The book includes a foreword by Norman F. Ramsey.
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An Assessment of the National Institute of Standards and Technology Physics Laboratory

Fiscal Year 2010

Author: National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Laboratory Assessments Board,Panel on Physics

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309163309

Category: Science

Page: 72

View: 3473

The mission of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Physics Laboratory is to support U.S. industry, government, and the scientific community by providing measurement services and research for electronic, optical, and radiation technology. In this respect, the laboratory provides the foundation for the metrology of optical and ionizing radiations, time and frequency, and fundamental quantum processes, historically major areas of standards and technology. The Panel on Physics visited the six divisions of the laboratory and reviewed a selected sample of their programs and projects.
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Precision Physics of Simple Atomic Systems

Author: Savely G. Karshenboim,Valery B. Smirnov

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540404897

Category: Science

Page: 217

View: 9847

Precision physics of simple atoms is a multidisciplinary area, involving atomic, laser, nuclear and particle physics and also metrology. This book will thus be of interest to a broad community of physicists and metrologists. Furthermore, since hydrogen (and other hydrogen-like atoms) is a model system for applying quantum theory, the book contains valuable material for students. The chapters provide in-depth reviews covering precision measurements, accurate calculations, fundamental constants, frequency standards, and tests of fundamental theory. The latest progress in each of these areas is also described for the specialist. The topics selected for this book are largely complementary to those of the earlier related volume, LNP 570.
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Metrology at the Frontiers of Physics and Technology

Author: L. Crovini,T.J. Quinn

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0444597832

Category: Science

Page: 673

View: 7945

The spectroscopy of trapped ions or laser-cooled atoms offers the prospect of visible frequency standards to match or even exceed the accuracy of the caesium standard. The development of satellite methods for time comparisons has improved by more than an order of magnitude the accuracy with which national laboratories can routinely compare their clocks. Mechanical metrology has not been left behind. Driven by the need to improve manufacturing technology, major advances have taken place in computer control machining and mechanical measuring systems. These, and many other fascinating developments in the field of metrology are presented in this book.
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The Quantum Theory of Light

Author: Rodney Loudon

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780191589782

Category:

Page: 448

View: 6461

This third edition, like its two predecessors, provides a detailed account of the basic theory needed to understand the properties of light and its interactions with atoms, in particular the many nonclassical effects that have now been observed in quantum-optical experiments. The earlier chapters describe the quantum mechanics of various optical processes, leading from the classical representation of the electromagnetic field to the quantum theory of light. The later chapters develop the theoretical descriptions of some of the key experiments in quantum optics. Over half of the material in this third edition is new. It includes topics that have come into prominence over the last two decades, such as the beamsplitter theory, squeezed light, two-photon interference, balanced homodyne detection, travelling-wave attenuation and amplification, quantum jumps, and the ranges of nonliner optical processes important in the generation of nonclassical light. The book is written as a textbook, with the treatment as a whole appropriate for graduate or postgraduate students, while earlier chapters are also suitable for final- year undergraduates. Over 100 problems help to intensify the understanding of the material presented.
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Introduction to Quantum Metrology

Quantum Standards and Instrumentation

Author: Waldemar Nawrocki

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319156691

Category: Science

Page: 279

View: 709

This book presents the theory of quantum effects used in metrology and results of the author’s own research in the field of quantum electronics. The book provides also quantum measurement standards used in many branches of metrology for electrical quantities, mass, length, time and frequency. This book represents the first comprehensive survey of quantum metrology problems. As a scientific survey, it propagates a new approach to metrology with more emphasis on its connection with physics. This is of importance for the constantly developing technologies and nanotechnologies in particular. Providing a presentation of practical applications of the effects used in quantum metrology for the construction of quantum standards and sensitive electronic components, the book is useful for a wide audience of physicists and metrologists in the broad sense of both terms. In 2014 a new system of units, the so called Quantum SI, is introduced. This book helps to understand and approve the new system to both technology and academic community.
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Controlling the Quantum World:

The Science of Atoms, Molecules, and Photons

Author: Board on Physics and Astronomy,Committee on AMO2010,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309102707

Category: Science

Page: 244

View: 4554

As part of the Physics 2010 decadal survey project, the Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation requested that the National Research Council assess the opportunities, over roughly the next decade, in atomic, molecular, and optical (AMO) science and technology. In particular, the National Research Council was asked to cover the state of AMO science, emphasizing recent accomplishments and identifying new and compelling scientific questions. Controlling the Quantum World, discusses both the roles and challenges for AMO science in instrumentation; scientific research near absolute zero; development of extremely intense x-ray and laser sources; exploration and control of molecular processes; photonics at the nanoscale level; and development of quantum information technology. This book also offers an assessment of and recommendations about critical issues concerning maintaining U.S. leadership in AMO science and technology.
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Black Bodies and Quantum Cats

Tales from the Annals of Physics

Author: Jennifer Ouellette

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 1101221402

Category: Science

Page: 336

View: 1260

Physics, once known as "natural philosophy," is the most basic science, explaining the world we live in, from the largest scale down to the very, very, very smallest, and our understanding of it has changed over many centuries. In Black Bodies and Quantum Cats, science writer Jennifer Ouellette traces key developments in the field, setting descriptions of the fundamentals of physics in their historical context as well as against a broad cultural backdrop. Newton’s laws are illustrated via the film Addams Family Values, while Back to the Future demonstrates the finer points of special relativity. Poe’s "The Purloined Letter" serves to illuminate the mysterious nature of neutrinos, and Jeanette Winterson’s novel Gut Symmetries provides an elegant metaphorical framework for string theory. An enchanting and edifying read, Black Bodies and Quantum Cats shows that physics is not an arcane field of study but a profoundly human endeavor—and a fundamental part of our everyday world.
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Frequency Measurement and Control

Advanced Techniques and Future Trends

Author: Andre N. Luiten

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540676942

Category: Science

Page: 394

View: 558

With contributions by numerous experts
Posted in Science