The Quantum Physics of Atomic Frequency Standards

Recent Developments

Author: Jacques Vanier,Cipriana Tomescu

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1466576979

Category: Science

Page: 486

View: 9569

Up-to-Date Coverage of Stable and Accurate Frequency Standards The Quantum Physics of Atomic Frequency Standards: Recent Developments covers advances in atomic frequency standards (atomic clocks) from the last several decades. It explains the use of various techniques, such as laser optical pumping, coherent population trapping, laser cooling, and electromagnetic and optical trapping, in the implementation of classical microwave and optical atomic frequency standards. The book first discusses improvements to conventional atomic frequency standards, highlighting the main limitations of those frequency standards and the physical basis of the limitations. It then describes how advances in the theory and applications of atomic physics have opened new avenues in frequency standards. The authors go on to explore the research and development of new microwave and optical frequency standards before presenting the results in frequency stability and accuracy achieved with these new frequency standards. They also illustrate the application of atomic clocks in metrology, telecommunications, navigation, and other areas and give some insight into future work. Building on the success of the previous two volumes, this up-to-date, in-depth book examines the vast improvements to atomic clocks that have occurred in the last 25 years. The improved stability and accuracy enable the verification of physical concepts used in fundamental theories, such as relativity, as well as the stability of fundamental constants intrinsic to those theories.
Posted in Science

The Measurement of Time

Time, Frequency and the Atomic Clock

Author: Claude Audoin,Bernard Guinot

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521003971

Category: Reference

Page: 335

View: 5320

A unique insight into the measurement of time and its applications, at an introductory level.
Posted in Reference

Handbook of Metrology

Author: Manfred Kochsiek,Michael Gläser

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527406662

Category: Science

Page: 744

View: 1877

A long required resource to turn to for reliable, up-to-date information on the continually evolving field of metrology. In two easily searched volumes, the Wiley Handbook of Metrology provides a clear overview of both the fundamentals of metrology and recent advances.
Posted in Science

Springer Handbook of Global Navigation Satellite Systems

Author: Peter Teunissen,Oliver Montenbruck

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319429280

Category: Science

Page: 1327

View: 4298

This Handbook presents a complete and rigorous overview of the fundamentals, methods and applications of the multidisciplinary field of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), providing an exhaustive, one-stop reference work and a state-of-the-art description of GNSS as a key technology for science and society at large. All global and regional satellite navigation systems, both those currently in operation and those under development (GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, BeiDou, QZSS, IRNSS/NAVIC, SBAS), are examined in detail. The functional principles of receivers and antennas, as well as the advanced algorithms and models for GNSS parameter estimation, are rigorously discussed. The book covers the broad and diverse range of land, marine, air and space applications, from everyday GNSS to high-precision scientific applications and provides detailed descriptions of the most widely used GNSS format standards, covering receiver formats as well as IGS product and meta-data formats. The full coverage of the field of GNSS is presented in seven parts, from its fundamentals, through the treatment of global and regional navigation satellite systems, of receivers and antennas, and of algorithms and models, up to the broad and diverse range of applications in the areas of positioning and navigation, surveying, geodesy and geodynamics, and remote sensing and timing. Each chapter is written by international experts and amply illustrated with figures and photographs, making the book an invaluable resource for scientists, engineers, students and institutions alike.
Posted in Science

Frequency Standards

Basics and Applications

Author: Fritz Riehle

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527605959

Category: Science

Page: 540

View: 4087

Of all measurement units, frequency is the one that may be determined with the highest degree of accuracy. It equally allows precise measurements of other physical and technical quantities, whenever they can be measured in terms of frequency. This volume covers the central methods and techniques relevant for frequency standards developed in physics, electronics, quantum electronics, and statistics. After a review of the basic principles, the book looks at the realisation of commonly used components. It then continues with the description and characterisation of important frequency standards from atomic clocks, to frequency stabilised lasers. The whole is rounded of with a discussion of topical applications in engineering, telecommunications, and metrology.
Posted in Science

Advances in Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics

Author: N.A

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780123810229

Category: Science

Page: 304

View: 3102

Advances in Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics continues the tradition of the Advances series. It contains contributions from experts in the field of atomic, molecular, and optical (AMO) physics. The articles contain some review material, but are intended to provide a comprehensive picture of recent important developments in AMO physics. Both theoretical and experimental articles are included in the volume. International experts Comprehensive articles New developments
Posted in Science

Quantenphysik für Dummies

Author: Steven Holzner

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527668004

Category: Science

Page: 316

View: 3428

Von den Grundlagen bis zur Streutheorie – das Wichtigste zur Quantenmechanik Die Quantenphysik ist ein zentrales und spannendes, wenn auch von vielen Schülern und Studenten ungeliebtes Thema der Physik. Aber keine Sorge! Steven Holzner erklärt Ihnen verständlich und lebendig, was Sie über Quantenphysik wissen müssen. Er erläutert die Grundlagen von Drehimpuls und Spin, gibt Ihnen Tipps, wie Sie komplexe Gleichungen lösen und nimmt den klassischen Problemen der Quantenphysik den Schrecken. Dabei arbeitet er mit Beispielen, die er ausführlich erklärt und gibt Ihnen so zusätzliche Sicherheit auf einem vor Unschärfen wimmelnden Feld.
Posted in Science

The Quantum Beat

The Physical Principles of Atomic Clocks

Author: Fouad G. Major

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1475729235

Category: Science

Page: 475

View: 6390

This work reviews the principles underlying quantum-based atomic clocks, with introductory chapters placing them in context with the development of mechanical clocks and electronic quartz-controlled clocks. The book details design principles of the rubidium, cesium, hydrogen maser, and mercury ion standards; changes enabled by the advent of the laser; and the time-based global navigation systems, Loran-C and the Global Positioning System. The new edition includes such recent developments as clocks based on quantum resonance at optical frequency in individual ions confined in miniature electromagnetic traps. The Quantum Beat explores the subject with a minimum of mathematical formalism.
Posted in Science

Frequency Measurement and Control

Advanced Techniques and Future Trends

Author: Andre N. Luiten

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540449914

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 397

View: 5965

This text on precision frequency measurement and its key enabling techniques includes reviews written by some of the most experienced researchers in their respective fields. This text should prove useful to researchers just entering the field of frequency metrology and standards, or equally well to the experienced practitioner.
Posted in Technology & Engineering

Quantenrealität

Jenseits der Neuen Physik

Author: HERBERT

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 303486681X

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 342

View: 9817

Posted in Juvenile Nonfiction

Atomic Physics: Precise Measurements and Ultracold Matter

Author: Massimo Inguscio,Leonardo Fallani

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191509639

Category: Science

Page: 360

View: 9969

This book illustrates the history of Atomic Physics and shows how its most recent advances allow the possibility of performing precise measurements and achieving an accurate control on the atomic state. Written in an introductory style, this book is addressed to advanced undergraduate and graduate students, as well as to more experienced researchers who need to remain up-to-date with the most recent advances. The book focuses on experimental investigations, illustrating milestone experiments and key experimental techniques, and discusses the results and the challenges of contemporary research. Emphasis is put on the investigations of precision physics: from the determination of fundamental constants of Nature to tests of General Relativity and Quantum Electrodynamics; from the realization of ultra-stable atomic clocks to the precise simulation of condensed matter theories with ultracold gases. The book discusses these topics while tracing the evolution of experimental Atomic Physics from traditional laser spectroscopy to the revolution introduced by laser cooling, which allows the manipulation of atoms at a billionth of a degree above absolute zero and reveals new frontiers of precision in atomic spectroscopy.
Posted in Science

Recent Advances in Metrology and Fundamental Constants

Varenna on Lake Como, Villa Monastero, 25 July-4 August 2000

Author: Società italiana di fisica

Publisher: IOS Press

ISBN: 9781586031671

Category: Science

Page: 827

View: 5164

Over the last decade of the 20th century, many improvements took place in the field of metrology and fundamental constants. These developments and improvements are discussed in this book. The old caesium SI second definition has found a new realization with the fountain approach, replacing the classical thermal atomic beam. The use of cold atom techniques, slowed down and cooled, has opened a number of unexpected avenues for metrology and fundamental constants, one of these possibilities being the atom interferometry. Another development was the demonstration of the possiblility of performing a direct frequency division in the visible, using short femtosecond pulses. Many other developments are also discussed.
Posted in Science

An Assessment of Precision Time and Time Interval Science and Technology

Author: National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Naval Studies Board,Committee for an Assessment of Precision Time and Time Interval Science and Technology

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309085225

Category: Science

Page: 88

View: 9856

Knowledge of time is essential to precise knowledge of location, and for this reason the Navy, with its need to navigate on the high seas, has historically played an important role in the development and application of advanced time realization and dissemination technologies. Discoveries coming from basic research funded by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) lie at the heart of today's highest performance atomic clocks, Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) expertise played a role in developing the space-qualified atomic clocks that enable the Global Positioning System (GPS), and the U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO) maintains and disseminates the standard of time for all of the Department of Defense (DOD). The Navy has made major investments in most aspects of precision time and time interval (PTTI) science and technology, although specific PTTI-related research has also been funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and non-DOD agencies such as the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the Department of Commerce. Navy funding, largely through ONR, has a history of being an early enabler of key new developments. Judicious funding decisions by the Navy-particularly by ONR program officers-have underpinned most of the major advances in PTTI science and technology (S&T) in the last 50 years. PTTI is important to modern naval needs, and indeed to all the armed Services, for use in both navigation and communications. Precise time synchronization is needed to efficiently determine the start of a code sequence in secure communications, to perform navigation, and to locate the position of signal emitters. Precise frequency control is required in communications for spectrum utilization and frequency-hopped spread-spectrum techniques. There are many examples of essential military operations that depend on PTTI and could benefit from improvements in PTTI technology. These include: -GPS clocks and autonomous operations, -Weapon system four-dimensional coordination, -GPS antijamming, -Network-centric warfare, and -Secure military communications. This report summarizes that reductions in the size, weight, and power requirements and increases in the ruggedness of PTTI devices without sacrificing performance would put more accurate and precise timekeeping in the hands of the warrior, improving capabilities in all of the above operations.
Posted in Science

Metrology at the Frontiers of Physics and Technology

Author: L. Crovini,T.J. Quinn

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0444597832

Category: Science

Page: 673

View: 6779

The spectroscopy of trapped ions or laser-cooled atoms offers the prospect of visible frequency standards to match or even exceed the accuracy of the caesium standard. The development of satellite methods for time comparisons has improved by more than an order of magnitude the accuracy with which national laboratories can routinely compare their clocks. Mechanical metrology has not been left behind. Driven by the need to improve manufacturing technology, major advances have taken place in computer control machining and mechanical measuring systems. These, and many other fascinating developments in the field of metrology are presented in this book.
Posted in Science

Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics: Charged Particles

Author: N.A

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780080860176

Category: Science

Page: 463

View: 3969

With this volume, Methods of Experimental Physics becomes Experimental Methods in the Physical Sciences, a name change which reflects the evolution of todays science. This volume is the first of three which will provide a comprehensive treatment of the key experimental methods of atomic, molecular, and optical physics; the three volumes as a set will form an excellent experimental handbook for the field. The wide availability of tunable lasers in the pastseveral years has revolutionized the field and lead to the introduction of many new experimental methods that are covered in these volumes. Traditional methods are also included to ensure that the volumes will be a complete reference source for the field.
Posted in Science

An Assessment of the National Institute of Standards and Technology Physics Laboratory

Fiscal Year 2010

Author: National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Laboratory Assessments Board,Panel on Physics

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309163309

Category: Science

Page: 72

View: 9821

The mission of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Physics Laboratory is to support U.S. industry, government, and the scientific community by providing measurement services and research for electronic, optical, and radiation technology. In this respect, the laboratory provides the foundation for the metrology of optical and ionizing radiations, time and frequency, and fundamental quantum processes, historically major areas of standards and technology. The Panel on Physics visited the six divisions of the laboratory and reviewed a selected sample of their programs and projects.
Posted in Science

The Physical Basis of Atomic Frequency Standards (Classic Reprint)

Author: A. S. Risley

Publisher: Forgotten Books

ISBN: 9781391655703

Category: Science

Page: 68

View: 7776

Excerpt from The Physical Basis of Atomic Frequency Standards Today, the atomistic character of matter is taken for granted by almost everyone who has been raised in a technological society. And yet, for 2200 years (from the time of Democritus), a majority of scientists, partly on theological grounds, actively rejected the idea. About the Publisher Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com This book is a reproduction of an important historical work. Forgotten Books uses state-of-the-art technology to digitally reconstruct the work, preserving the original format whilst repairing imperfections present in the aged copy. In rare cases, an imperfection in the original, such as a blemish or missing page, may be replicated in our edition. We do, however, repair the vast majority of imperfections successfully; any imperfections that remain are intentionally left to preserve the state of such historical works.
Posted in Science

Atom Chips

Author: Jakob Reichel,Vladan Vuletic

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527643923

Category: Science

Page: 445

View: 6513

This stimulating discussion of a rapidly developing field is divided into two parts. The first features tutorials in textbook style providing self-contained introductions to the various areas relevant to atom chip research. Part II contains research reviews that provide an integrated account of the current state in an active area of research where atom chips are employed, and explore possible routes of future progress. Depending on the subject, the length of the review and the relative weight of the 'review' and 'outlook' parts vary, since the authors include their own personal view and style in their accounts.
Posted in Science