This anthology, the largest collection of Pythagorean writings ever to appear in English, contains the four ancient biographies of Pythagoras and over 25 Pythagorean and Neopythagorean writings from the Classical and Hellenistic periods. The material of this book is indispensable for anyone who wishes to understand the real spiritual roots of Western civilization.
An Anthology of Ancient Writings which Relate to Pythagoras and Pythagorean Philosophy
Author: Kenneth Sylvan Guthrie,David R. Fideler
Publisher: Red Wheel/Weiser
Pythagoras (fl. 500 B.C.), the first man to call himself a philosopher or lover of wisdom, was both a brilliant mathematician and spiritual teacher. This anthology, the largest collection of Pythagorean writings ever to appear in the English language, contains the four ancient biographies of Pythagoras and over 25 Pythagorean and Neopythagorean writings from the Classical and Hellenistic periods. The Pythagorean ethical and political tractates are especially interesting for they are based on the premise that the universal principles of Harmony, Proportion, and Justice govern the physical cosmos, and these writings show how individuals and societies alike attain their peak of excellence when informed by these same principles. Indexed, illustrated, with appendices and an extensive bibliography, this acclaimed anthology also contains a foreword by Joscelyn Godwin and an introductory essay by the editor, David Fideler.
An Anthology of Ancient Writings Which Relate to Pythagoras and Pythagorean Philosophy
Author: David R. Fideler
Publisher: Red Wheel/Weiser
One of the most important mathematical theorems is named after Pythagoras of Samos, but this semi-mythical Greek sage has more to offer than formulas. He is said to have discovered the numerical nature of the basic consonances and transposed the musical proportions to the cosmos, postulating a "harmony of the spheres." He may have coined the words "cosmos" and "philosophy." He is also believed to have taught the doctrine of transmigration of souls and therefore to have advised a vegetarian diet. Ancient legends have Pythagoras conversing with dogs, bears, and bulls. A distinctly Pythagorean way of life, including detailed ritual regulations, was observed by his disciples, who were organized as a secret society. Later, Pythagorean and Platonic teachings became fused. In this Platonized form, Pythagoreanism has remained influential through medieval Christianity and the Renaissance down to the present. Christoph Riedweg's book is an engaging introduction to the fundamental contributions of Pythagoras to the establishment of European culture. To penetrate the intricate maze of lore and ascertain what history can tell us about the philosopher, Riedweg not only examines the written record but also considers Pythagoras within the cultural, intellectual, and spiritual context of his times. The result is a vivid overview of the life and teachings of a crucial Greek thinker and his most important followers.
His Life, Teaching, and Influence
Author: Christoph Riedweg,Steven Rendall
Publisher: Cornell University Press
Category: Biography & Autobiography
By recognizing the groundbreaking work of many non-Italian ecocritics, and linking to the homegrown contributions of Serenella Iovino, Marco Armerio, and Giovanna Ricoveri, the authors of Ecocritical Approaches to Italian Culture and Literature: The Denatured Wild, challenge the narrowly defined conventions of Italian Studies and illuminate the complexities of an Italian ecocriticism that reveals a rich environmentally engaged literary and cultural tradition.
The Denatured Wild
Author: Pasquale Verdicchio
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
Category: Literary Criticism
The enthralling story of Pythagoras and the Pythagoreans, whose insights transformed the ancient world and still inspire the realms of science, mathematics, philosophy, and the arts. "Pythagoras's influence on the ideas, and therefore on the destiny, of the human race was probably greater than that of any single man before or after him," wrote Arthur Koestler. Though most people know of him only for the famous Pythagorean Theorem (a2 +b2=c2), in fact the pillars of our scientific tradition-belief that the universe is rational, that there is unity to all things, and that numbers and mathematics are a powerful guide to truth about nature and the cosmos-hark back to the convictions of this legendary sixth-century B.C. scholar. Born around 570 B.C. on the cultured Aegean island of Samos, Pythagoras (according to ancient tales) studied with the sage Thales nearby at Miletus, and with priests and scribes in Egypt and Babylon. Eventually he founded his own school at Croton in southern Italy, where he and his followers began to unravel the surprising deep truths concealed behind such ordinary tasks as tuning a lyre. While considering why some string lengths produced beautiful sounds and others discordant ones, they uncovered the ratios of musical harmony, and recognized that hidden behind the confusion and complexity of nature are patterns and orderly relationships. They had surprised the Creator at his drafting board and had glimpsed the mind of God! Some of them later would also find something darker in numbers and nature: irrationality, a revelation so unsettling and subversive that it may have contributed to the destruction of their brotherhood.
How an Ancient Brotherhood Cracked the Code of the Universe and Lit the Path from Antiquity to Oute
Author: Kitty Ferguson
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing USA
Was Plato a Pythagorean? Plato's students and earliest critics thought so, but scholars since the nineteenth century have been more skeptical. With this probing study, Phillip Sidney Horky argues that a specific type of Pythagorean philosophy, called "mathematical" Pythagoreanism, exercised a decisive influence on fundamental aspects of Plato's philosophy. The progenitor of mathematical Pythagoreanism was the infamous Pythagorean heretic and political revolutionary Hippasus of Metapontum, a student of Pythagoras who is credited with experiments in harmonics that led to innovations in mathematics. The innovations of Hippasus and other mathematical Pythagoreans, including Empedocles of Agrigentum, Epicharmus of Syracuse, Philolaus of Croton, and Archytas of Tarentum, presented philosophers like Plato with novel ways to reconcile empirical knowledge with abstract mathematical theories. Plato and Pythagoreanism demonstrates how mathematical Pythagoreanism established many of the fundamental philosophical questions Plato dealt with in his central dialogues, including Cratylus, Phaedo, Republic, Timaeus, and Philebus. In the process, it also illuminates the historical significance of the mathematical Pythagoreans, a group whose influence on the development of philosophical and scientific methods has been obscured since late antiquity. The picture that results is one in which Plato inherits mathematical Pythagorean method only to transform it into a powerful philosophical argument about the essential relationships between the cosmos and the human being.
Author: Philip Sidney Horky
Publisher: Oxford University Press
In Moral Education for Women in the Pastoral and Pythagorean Letters: Philosophers of the Household, Annette Bourland Huizenga examines the Greco-Roman moral-philosophical “curriculum” for women by comparing these two pseudepigraphic epistolary collections.
Philosophers of the Household
Author: Annette Huizenga
For the first English edition of his distinguished study, Weisheit und Wissenschaft: Studien zu Pythagoras, Philoloas und Platon, Mr. Burkert has extensively revised both text and notes, taking into account additional literature that has appeared since 1962.
Author: Walter Burkert
Publisher: Harvard University Press
Category: Literary Criticism
The timeless brilliance of this exhaustive survey of the best classical writers of antiquity on Pythagoras was first published in 1687 in Thomas Stanley’s massive tome, The History of Philosophy. It remains as contemporary today as it was over three hundred years ago. The text of the 1687 book has been reset and modernized to make it more accessible to the modern reader. Spelling has been regularized, obsolete words not found in a modern dictionary have been replaced, and contemporary conventions of punctuation have been used. Biographical sketches of Thomas Stanley and Pythagoras by Manly Palmer Hall, founder of the Philosophical Research Society, have been included, along with a profound overview of Pythagorean philosophy by Platonic scholar Dr. Henry L. Drake. The extensive Greek language references throughout the text have been corrected and contextualized, and reset in a modern Greek font. Each quotation has been verified with the source document in Greek. An extensive annotated appendix of these classical sources is included. A complete bibliography details all the reference works utilized, and a small Glossary defines a number of terms, especially those from musical theory, which may be unfamiliar to the non-technical reader.
His Life and Teaching, a Compendium of Classical Sources
Author: Thomas Stanley
Publisher: Nicolas-Hays, Inc.
"Arguably the most distinctive feature of the early Christian literature," writes Bart Ehrman, "is the degree to which it was forged." The Homilies and Recognitions of Clement; Paul's letters to and from Seneca; Gospels by Peter, Thomas, and Philip; Jesus' correspondence with Abgar, letters by Peter and Paul in the New Testament--all forgeries. To cite just a few examples. Forgery and Counterforgery is the first comprehensive study of early Christian pseudepigrapha ever produced in English. In it, Ehrman argues that ancient critics--pagan, Jewish, and Christian--understood false authorial claims to be a form of literary deceit, and thus forgeries. Ehrman considers the extent of the phenomenon, the "intention" and motivations of ancient Greek, Roman, and Jewish forgers, and reactions to their work once detected. He also assesses the criteria ancient critics applied to expose forgeries and the techniques forgers used to avoid detection. With the wider practices of the ancient world as backdrop, Ehrman then focuses on early Christian polemics, as various Christian authors forged documents in order to lend their ideas a veneer of authority in literary battles waged with pagans, Jews, and, most importantly, with one another in internecine disputes over doctrine and practice. In some instances a forger directed his work against views found in another forgery, creating thereby a "counter-forgery." Ehrman's evaluation of polemical forgeries starts with those of the New Testament (nearly half of whose books make a false authorial claim) up through the Pseudo-Ignatian epistles and the Apostolic Constitutions at the end of the fourth century. Shining light on an important but overlooked feature of the early Christian world, Forgery and Counterforgery explores the possible motivations of the deceivers who produced these writings, situating their practice within ancient Christian discourses on lying and deceit.
The Use of Literary Deceit in Early Christian Polemics
Author: Bart D. Ehrman
Publisher: Oxford University Press
This work studies the literary and socio-discursive contexts of 'the Ananias and Sapphira episode' in Acts as a narrative illustrating the negative-ethos of community goods. This work examines the dynamics of the Ananias and Sapphira episode in Acts and its role in the narrative of Luke-Acts . McCabe locates the passage within its literary context, and emphasizes the manner in which it is embedded in a discourse on the life of the Christian community expressed through shared goods. Utilizing Speech-Act Theory , McCabe argues that Peter's words, divinely sanctioned, directly execute the divine judgment upon the couple. This is argued by appealing to the social processes and conventions of language-use within the context of a 'community-of-goods' discourse as present in the Lukan narrative. McCabe appeals to the conventions deployed in the narrative world of Luke-Acts which undergird the efficacy of prophetic speech to effect divine judgment, including the patterns established by prophetic figures in the Scriptures of Israel and Luke's own characterization of Jesus as Prophet-King, followed by an examination of Luke's characterization of Peter as an apostolic-prophetic successor to Jesus, deputized to speak on behalf of God. McCabe concludes by examining the successful execution of the speech-act of divine judgment. This is formerly the Journal for the Study of the New Testament Supplement , a book series that explores the many aspects of New Testament study including historical perspectives, social-scientific and literary theory, and theological, cultural and contextual approaches. The Early Christianity in Context series, a part of JSNTS , examines the birth and development of early Christianity up to the end of the third century CE. The series places Christianity in its social, cultural, political and economic context. European Seminar on Christian Origins and Journal for the Study of the Historical Jesus Supplement are also part of JSNTS .
Ananias and Sapphira under the Prophetic Speech-Act of Divine Judgment (Acts 4.32-5.11)
Author: David R. McCabe
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
Explores Thales’s speculative philosophy through a study of geometrical diagrams. Bringing together geometry and philosophy, this book undertakes a strikingly original study of the origins and significance of the Pythagorean theorem. Thales, whom Aristotle called the first philosopher and who was an older contemporary of Pythagoras, posited the principle of a unity from which all things come, and back into which they return upon dissolution. He held that all appearances are only alterations of this basic unity and there can be no change in the cosmos. Such an account requires some fundamental geometric figure out of which appearances are structured. Robert Hahn argues that Thales came to the conclusion that it was the right triangle: by recombination and repackaging, all alterations can be explained from that figure. This idea is central to what the discovery of the Pythagorean theorem could have meant to Thales and Pythagoras in the sixth century BCE. With more than two hundred illustrations and figures, Hahn provides a series of geometric proofs for this lost narrative, tracing it from Thales to Pythagoras and the Pythagoreans who followed, and then finally to Plato’s Timaeus. Uncovering the philosophical motivation behind the discovery of the theorem, Hahn’s book will enrich the study of ancient philosophy and mathematics alike.
Thales, Pythagoras, Engineering, Diagrams, and the Construction of the Cosmos out of Right Triangles
Author: Robert Hahn
Publisher: SUNY Press
Bestselling author and astrophysicist Mario Livio examines the lives and theories of history’s greatest mathematicians to ask how—if mathematics is an abstract construction of the human mind—it can so perfectly explain the physical world. Nobel Laureate Eugene Wigner once wondered about “the unreasonable effectiveness of mathematics” in the formulation of the laws of nature. Is God a Mathematician? investigates why mathematics is as powerful as it is. From ancient times to the present, scientists and philosophers have marveled at how such a seemingly abstract discipline could so perfectly explain the natural world. More than that—mathematics has often made predictions, for example, about subatomic particles or cosmic phenomena that were unknown at the time, but later were proven to be true. Is mathematics ultimately invented or discovered? If, as Einstein insisted, mathematics is “a product of human thought that is independent of experience,” how can it so accurately describe and even predict the world around us? Physicist and author Mario Livio brilliantly explores mathematical ideas from Pythagoras to the present day as he shows us how intriguing questions and ingenious answers have led to ever deeper insights into our world. This fascinating book will interest anyone curious about the human mind, the scientific world, and the relationship between them.
Author: Mario Livio
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
This is the story of Pythagoras and the Pythagoreans, whose insights transformed the ancient world and still inspire the realms of science, mathematics, philosophy and the arts. Einstein said that the most incredible thing about our universe was that it was comprehensible at all. As Kitty Ferguson explains, Pythagoras had much the same idea - but 2,500 years earlier. Though known by many only for his famous Theorem, in fact the pillars of our scientific tradition - belief that the universe is rational, that there is unity to all things, and that numbers and mathematics are a powerful guide to truth about nature and the cosmos - hark back to the convictions of this legendary scholar. Kitty Ferguson brilliantly evokes Pythagoras' ancient world of, showing how ideas spread in antiquity, and chronicles the incredible influence he and his followers have had on so many extraordinary people in the history of Western thought and science. 'Pythagoras' influence on the ideas, and therefore on the destiny, of the human race was probably greater than that of any single man before or after him' - Arthur Koestler.
His Lives and the Legacy of a Rational Universe
Author: Kitty Ferguson
Publisher: Icon Books Ltd
Discover who the real Pythagoras was within the pages of this philosophical work of historical fiction. This controversial novel looks at the first philosopher from an unfamiliar perspective to most Western readers and scholars. El Koussa stands in the vanguard of a new generation of writers and thinkers who are bringing the rich and diverse history of the Phoenician culture to a new audience. "Here is a historical novel for the spirits in quest of awakening... Karim El-Koussa, or the literature in awakening." - Appeared in L'orient le Jour, Wednesday October 3, 2001. "Pythagoras is the quest of a Lebanon, its historical identity, and the spiritual identity of the Human Being. This novel is an essay of religion, philosophy and science, brought together into the human consciousness." - "Appeared in the Magazine, issue of November 2, 2001: "On the 19th of December 2001, at the Lebanese Press Syndicate, the poet and thinker Saiid Akl, gave his 90th award to the young Lebanese author, Karim El-Koussa.He said: I'm very happy that I'm giving my prize to Karim... I'm indeed very proud of that work on the Great Pythagoras."- Appeared in As-Safir, December 19, and Ad-Diyar, December 21, 2001. In an interview with Said Akl in the magazine Al-Afkar, issued January 21, 2002, the notorious Lebanese poet stated: "In 2001, there appeared three books that brightened the year... the third book was Pythagoras by Karim El-Koussa, which speaks deeply about Pythagoras, of Lebanese origin, son of Saydoun (Sidon), and one of the world's giants who has greatly influenced the sciences and religions." In October 2005, the book received two official citations for achievement in Literature in the USA; one was bestowed by the Mayor of the city of Waterbury and the other by the General Assembly of the State of Connecticut.
Author: Karim El Koussa
Publisher: Sunbury PressInc
Divine Harmony describes Pythagoras's wanderings in ancient Phoenicia, Egypt, Babylon, and Greece, and explores key Pythagorean ideas as taught at his scholarly community in southern Italy. This fascinating study of the sixth-century Greek scientist and mystic includes illustrations, a map, a new introduction, and an updated bibliography. Drawing on the writings of Pythagoras's disciples, the authors present a lively portrait of a man whose ideas continue to resonate.
The Life and Teachings of Pythagoras
Author: John Strohmeier,Peter Westbrook
With an introduction to the life of Porphyry and an overview of Neoplatonic thought by David Fideler.
concerning the life of philosophy and the ascent to the gods
Author: Porphyry,Alice Zimmern,David R. Fideler
Publisher: Phanes Pr
Category: Body, Mind & Spirit
This is a comprehensive, authoritative and innovative account of Pythagoras and Pythagoreanism, one of the most enigmatic and influential philosophies in the West. In twenty-one chapters covering a timespan from the sixth century BC to the seventeenth century AD, leading scholars construct a number of different images of Pythagoras and his community, assessing current scholarship and offering new answers to central problems. Chapters are devoted to the early Pythagoreans, and the full breadth of Pythagorean thought is explored including politics, religion, music theory, science, mathematics and magic. Separate chapters consider Pythagoreanism in Plato, Aristotle, the Peripatetics and the later Academic tradition, while others describe Pythagoreanism in the historical tradition, in Rome and in the pseudo-Pythagorean writings. The three great lives of Pythagoras by Diogenes Laertius, Porphyry and Iamblichus are also discussed in detail, as is the significance of Pythagoras for the Middle Ages and Renaissance.
Author: Carl A. Huffman
Publisher: Cambridge University Press