The Promise of Infrastructure

Author: Nikhil Anand,Akhil Gupta,Hannah Appel

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 1478002034

Category: Social Science

Page: 264

View: 691

From U.S.-Mexico border walls to Flint's poisoned pipes, there is a new urgency to the politics of infrastructure. Roads, electricity lines, water pipes, and oil installations promise to distribute the resources necessary for everyday life. Yet an attention to their ongoing processes also reveals how infrastructures are made with fragile and often violent relations among people, materials, and institutions. While infrastructures promise modernity and development, their breakdowns and absences reveal the underbelly of progress, liberal equality, and economic growth. This tension, between aspiration and failure, makes infrastructure a productive location for social theory. Contributing to the everyday lives of infrastructure across four continents, some of the leading anthropologists of infrastructure demonstrate in The Promise of Infrastructure how these more-than-human assemblages made over more-than-human lifetimes offer new opportunities to theorize time, politics, and promise in the contemporary moment. Contributors Nikhil Anand, Hannah Appel, Geoffrey C. Bowker, Dominic Boyer, Akhil Gupta, Penny Harvey, Brian Larkin, Christina Schwenkel, Antina von Schnitzler
Posted in Social Science

Hydraulic City

Water and the Infrastructures of Citizenship in Mumbai

Author: Nikhil Anand

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 0822373599

Category: Social Science

Page: 320

View: 7223

In Hydraulic City Nikhil Anand explores the politics of Mumbai's water infrastructure to demonstrate how citizenship emerges through the continuous efforts to control, maintain, and manage the city's water. Through extensive ethnographic fieldwork in Mumbai's settlements, Anand found that Mumbai's water flows, not through a static collection of pipes and valves, but through a dynamic infrastructure built on the relations between residents, plumbers, politicians, engineers, and the 3,000 miles of pipe that bind them. In addition to distributing water, the public water network often reinforces social identities and the exclusion of marginalized groups, as only those actively recognized by city agencies receive legitimate water services. This form of recognition—what Anand calls "hydraulic citizenship"—is incremental, intermittent, and reversible. It provides residents an important access point through which they can make demands on the state for other public services such as sanitation and education. Tying the ways Mumbai's poorer residents are seen by the state to their historic, political, and material relations with water pipes, the book highlights the critical role infrastructures play in consolidating civic and social belonging in the city.
Posted in Social Science

Infrastructures and Social Complexity

A Companion

Author: Penelope Harvey,Casper Bruun Jensen,Atsuro Morita

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1317224353

Category: Social Science

Page: 424

View: 896

Contemporary forms of infrastructural development herald alternative futures through their incorporation of digital technologies, mobile capital, international politics and the promises and fears of enhanced connectivity. In tandem with increasing concerns about climate change and the anthropocene, there is further an urgency around contemporary infrastructural provision: a concern about its fragility, and an awareness that these connective, relational systems significantly shape both local and planetary futures in ways that we need to understand more clearly. Offering a rich set of empirically detailed and conceptually sophisticated studies of infrastructural systems and experiments, present and past, contributors to this volume address both the transformative potential of infrastructural systems and their stasis. Covering infrastructural figures; their ontologies, epistemologies, classifications and politics, and spanning development, urban, energy, environmental and information infrastructures, the chapters explore both the promises and failures of infrastructure. Tracing the experimental histories of a wide range of infrastructures and documenting their variable outcomes, the volume offers a unique set of analytical perspectives on contemporary infrastructural complications. These studies bring a systematic empirical and analytical attention to human worlds as they intersect with more-than-human worlds, whether technological or biological.
Posted in Social Science

Roads

An Anthropology of Infrastructure and Expertise

Author: Penny Harvey,Hannah Knox

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 0801456452

Category: Social Science

Page: 264

View: 3808

Roads matter to people. This claim is central to the work of Penny Harvey and Hannah Knox, who in this book use the example of highway building in South America to explore what large public infrastructural projects can tell us about contemporary state formation, social relations, and emerging political economies. Roads focuses on two main sites: the interoceanic highway currently under construction between Brazil and Peru, a major public/private collaboration that is being realized within new, internationally ratified regulatory standards; and a recently completed one-hundred-kilometer stretch of highway between Iquitos, the largest city in the Peruvian Amazon, and a small town called Nauta, one of the earliest colonial settlements in the Amazon. The Iquitos-Nauta highway is one of the most expensive roads per kilometer on the planet. Combining ethnographic and historical research, Harvey and Knox shed light on the work of engineers and scientists, bureaucrats and construction company officials. They describe how local populations anticipated each of the road projects, even getting deeply involved in questions of exact routing as worries arose that the road would benefit some more than others. Connectivity was a key recurring theme as people imagined the prosperity that will come by being connected to other parts of the country and with other parts of the world. Sweeping in scope and conceptually ambitious, Roads tells a story of global flows of money, goods, and people—and of attempts to stabilize inherently unstable physical and social environments.
Posted in Social Science

The Road Taken

The History and Future of America's Infrastructure

Author: Henry Petroski

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing USA

ISBN: 1632863618

Category: Political Science

Page: 336

View: 8274

Acclaimed engineer and historian Henry Petroski explores our core infrastructure from both historical and contemporary perspectives, explaining how essential their maintenance is to America's economic health. Petroski reveals the genesis of the many parts of America's highway system--our interstate numbering system, the centerline that divides roads, and such taken-for-granted objects as guardrails, stop signs, and traffic lights--all crucial to our national and local infrastructure. A compelling work of history, The Road Taken is also an urgent clarion call aimed at American citizens, politicians, and anyone with a vested interest in our economic well-being. Physical infrastructure in the United States is crumbling, and Petroski reveals the complex and challenging interplay between government and industry inherent in major infrastructure improvement. The road we take in the next decade toward rebuilding our aging infrastructure will in large part determine our future national prosperity.
Posted in Political Science

Democracy's Infrastructure

Techno-Politics and Protest after Apartheid

Author: Antina von Schnitzler

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400882990

Category: Social Science

Page: 256

View: 5190

In the past decade, South Africa's "miracle transition" has been interrupted by waves of protests in relation to basic services such as water and electricity. Less visibly, the post-apartheid period has witnessed widespread illicit acts involving infrastructure, including the nonpayment of service charges, the bypassing of metering devices, and illegal connections to services. Democracy’s Infrastructure shows how such administrative links to the state became a central political terrain during the antiapartheid struggle and how this terrain persists in the post-apartheid present. Focusing on conflicts surrounding prepaid water meters, Antina von Schnitzler examines the techno-political forms through which democracy takes shape. Von Schnitzler explores a controversial project to install prepaid water meters in Soweto—one of many efforts to curb the nonpayment of service charges that began during the antiapartheid struggle—and she traces how infrastructure, payment, and technical procedures become sites where citizenship is mediated and contested. She follows engineers, utility officials, and local bureaucrats as they consider ways to prompt Sowetans to pay for water, and she shows how local residents and activists wrestle with the constraints imposed by meters. This investigation of democracy from the perspective of infrastructure reframes the conventional story of South Africa’s transition, foregrounding the less visible remainders of apartheid and challenging readers to think in more material terms about citizenship and activism in the postcolonial world. Democracy’s Infrastructure examines how seemingly mundane technological domains become charged territory for struggles over South Africa’s political transformation.
Posted in Social Science

Infrastructural Lives

Urban Infrastructure in Context

Author: Stephen Graham,Colin McFarlane

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 131768639X

Category: Architecture

Page: 262

View: 6180

Infrastructural Lives is the first book to describe the everyday experience and politics of urban infrastructures. It focuses on a range of infrastructures in both the global South and North. The book examines how day-to-day experience and perception of infrastructure provides a new and powerful lens to view urban sustainability, politics, economics, cultures and ecologies. An interdisciplinary group of leading and emerging urban researchers examine critical questions about urban infrastructure in different global contexts. The chapters address water, sanitation, and waste politics in Mumbai, Kampala and Tyneside, analyse the use of infrastructure in the dispossession of Palestinian communities, explore the pacification of Rio’s favelas in the run-up to the 2014 World Cup, describe how people’s bodies and lives effectively operate as ‘infrastructure’ in many major cities, and also explores tentative experiments with low-carbon infrastructures. These diverse cases and perspectives are connected by a shared sense of infrastructure not just as a ‘thing’, a ‘system’, or an ‘output,’ but as a complex social and technological process that enables – or disables – particular kinds of action in the city. Infrastructural Lives is crucial reading for academics, researchers, students and practitioners in urban studies globally.
Posted in Architecture

Garbage Citizenship

Vital Infrastructures of Labor in Dakar, Senegal

Author: Rosalind Fredericks

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 1478002506

Category: Social Science

Page: 216

View: 5662

Over the last twenty-five years, garbage infrastructure in Dakar, Senegal, has taken center stage in the struggles over government, the value of labor, and the dignity of the working poor. Through strikes and public dumping, Dakar's streets have been periodically inundated with household garbage as the city's trash collectors and ordinary residents protest urban austerity. Often drawing on discourses of Islamic piety, garbage activists have provided a powerful language to critique a neoliberal mode of governing-through-disposability and assert rights to fair labor. In Garbage Citizenship Rosalind Fredericks traces Dakar's volatile trash politics to recalibrate how we understand urban infrastructure by emphasizing its material, social, and affective elements. She shows how labor is a key component of infrastructural systems and how Dakar's residents use infrastructures as a vital tool for forging collective identities and mobilizing political action. Fleshing out the materiality of trash and degraded labor, Fredericks illuminates the myriad ways waste can be a potent tool of urban control and rebellion.
Posted in Social Science

Mastering Chef Provisioning

Author: Earl Waud

Publisher: Packt Publishing Ltd

ISBN: 1785884212

Category: Computers

Page: 262

View: 8516

Learn Chef Provisioning like a boss and finally own your infrastructure About This Book This is the first Chef book focused on provisioning infrastructure as its sole task. The book offers a clear solution to a specific pain point: learn to make your system work faster. Learning better approaches to load balancing and parallelization with this book will save you time By mastering the techniques in this book, you will know how to run an entire fleet of machines without breaking a sweat This book is more helpful than the documentation ( https://docs.chef.io/provisioning.html), with a stronger guiding voice and clearer explanations and use cases Who This Book Is For This book is for Software Engineers, System Administrators, or DevOps Engineers who need to quickly deliver reliably consistent infrastructure at scale. You are expected to have intermediate experience with Chef and Ruby and will be reading this book to advance your knowledge and take your skillset to the next level. What You Will Learn Use best practices to describe your entire infrastructure as code Automate and document every aspect of your network, from the hardware of individual nodes to software, middleware, and all containers and clouds Create a perfect model system Make the best possible use of your resources and avoid redundancy Deliver on the promise of Infrastructure as Code Scale with ease by properly provisioning their infrastructure Use the best Test Driven Development methodologies In Detail This book will show you the best practices to describe your entire infrastructure as code. With the help of this book you can expand your knowledge of Chef because and implement robust and scalable automation solutions. You can automate and document every aspect of your network, from the hardware to software, middleware, and all your containers. You will become familiar with the Chef's Chef Provisioning tool. You will be able to make a perfect model system where everything is represented as code beneath your fingertips. Make the best possible use of your resources, and deliver infrastructure as code, making it as versionable, testable and repeatable as application software Style and approach By dedicating a whole book solely to the question of provisioning, this book will teach administrators to use Chef as a birds-eye lens for their entire system. It will moves you away from the specifics of each machine and its automations and instead will teach you them how to approach the entire cluster as something different than the sum of its parts. By focusing on infrastructure as code as its own project, the book offers elegant, time-saving solutions for a perfectly described and automated network.
Posted in Computers

Algorithms of Oppression

How Search Engines Reinforce Racism

Author: Safiya Umoja Noble

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 1479837245

Category: Computers

Page: 256

View: 6105

A revealing look at how negative biases against women of color are embedded in search engine results and algorithms Run a Google search for “black girls”—what will you find? “Big Booty” and other sexually explicit terms are likely to come up as top search terms. But, if you type in “white girls,” the results are radically different. The suggested porn sites and un-moderated discussions about “why black women are so sassy” or “why black women are so angry” presents a disturbing portrait of black womanhood in modern society. In Algorithms of Oppression, Safiya Umoja Noble challenges the idea that search engines like Google offer an equal playing field for all forms of ideas, identities, and activities. Data discrimination is a real social problem; Noble argues that the combination of private interests in promoting certain sites, along with the monopoly status of a relatively small number of Internet search engines, leads to a biased set of search algorithms that privilege whiteness and discriminate against people of color, specifically women of color. Through an analysis of textual and media searches as well as extensive research on paid online advertising, Noble exposes a culture of racism and sexism in the way discoverability is created online. As search engines and their related companies grow in importance—operating as a source for email, a major vehicle for primary and secondary school learning, and beyond—understanding and reversing these disquieting trends and discriminatory practices is of utmost importance. An original, surprising and, at times, disturbing account of bias on the internet, Algorithms of Oppression contributes to our understanding of how racism is created, maintained, and disseminated in the 21st century.
Posted in Computers

Infrastructures of Race

Concentration and Biopolitics in Colonial Mexico

Author: Daniel Nemser

Publisher: University of Texas Press

ISBN: 1477312625

Category: History

Page: N.A

View: 6509

Many scholars believe that the modern concentration camp was born during the Cuban war for independence when Spanish authorities ordered civilians living in rural areas to report to the nearest city with a garrison of Spanish troops. But the practice of spatial concentration—gathering people and things in specific ways, at specific places, and for specific purposes—has a history in Latin America that reaches back to the conquest. In this paradigm-setting book, Daniel Nemser argues that concentration projects, often tied to urbanization, laid an enduring, material groundwork, or infrastructure, for the emergence and consolidation of new forms of racial identity and theories of race. Infrastructures of Race traces the use of concentration as a technique for colonial governance by examining four case studies from Mexico under Spanish rule: centralized towns, disciplinary institutions, segregated neighborhoods, and general collections. Nemser shows how the colonial state used concentration in its attempts to build a new spatial and social order, and he explains why the technique flourished in the colonies. Although the designs for concentration were sometimes contested and short-lived, Nemser demonstrates that they provided a material foundation for ongoing processes of racialization. This finding, which challenges conventional histories of race and mestizaje (racial mixing), promises to deepen our understanding of the way race emerges from spatial politics and techniques of population management.
Posted in History

Internal Improvement

National Public Works and the Promise of Popular Government in the Early United States

Author: John Lauritz Larson

Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press

ISBN: 0807875643

Category: History

Page: 352

View: 2438

When the people of British North America threw off their colonial bonds, they sought more than freedom from bad government: most of the founding generation also desired the freedom to create and enjoy good, popular, responsive government. This book traces the central issue on which early Americans pinned their hopes for positive government action--internal improvement. The nation's early republican governments undertook a wide range of internal improvement projects meant to assure Americans' security, prosperity, and enlightenment--from the building of roads, canals, and bridges to the establishment of universities and libraries. But competitive struggles eventually undermined the interstate and interregional cooperation required, and the public soured on the internal improvement movement. Jacksonian politicians seized this opportunity to promote a more libertarian political philosophy in place of activist, positive republicanism. By the 1850s, the United States had turned toward a laissez-faire system of policy that, ironically, guaranteed more freedom for capitalists and entrepreneurs than ever envisioned in the founders' revolutionary republicanism.
Posted in History

Pipe Politics, Contested Waters

Embedded Infrastructures of Millennial Mumbai

Author: Lisa Björkman

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 0822375214

Category: History

Page: 296

View: 8109

Winner, 2014 Joseph W. Elder Prize in the Indian Social Sciences Despite Mumbai's position as India's financial, economic, and cultural capital, water is chronically unavailable for rich and poor alike. Mumbai's dry taps are puzzling, given that the city does not lack for either water or financial resources. In Pipe Politics, Contested Waters, Lisa Björkman shows how an elite dream to transform Mumbai into a "world class" business center has wreaked havoc on the city’s water pipes. In rich ethnographic detail, Pipe Politics explores how the everyday work of getting water animates and inhabits a penumbra of infrastructural activity—of business, brokerage, secondary markets, and sociopolitical networks—whose workings are reconfiguring and rescaling political authority in the city. Mumbai’s increasingly illegible and volatile hydrologies, Björkman argues, are lending infrastructures increasing political salience just as actual control over pipes and flows becomes contingent on dispersed and intimate assemblages of knowledge, power, and material authority. These new arenas of contestation reveal the illusory and precarious nature of the project to remake Mumbai in the image of Shanghai or Singapore and gesture instead toward the highly contested futures and democratic possibilities of the actually existing city.
Posted in History

Infrastructure

A Guide to the Industrial Landscape

Author: Brian Hayes

Publisher: W W Norton & Company Incorporated

ISBN: 9780393349832

Category: Social Science

Page: 559

View: 9431

“Original, highly readable. . . . An extraordinary book.” —Anne Eisenberg, Scientific American
Posted in Social Science

In Search of Certainty

The Science of Our Information Infrastructure

Author: Mark Burgess

Publisher: "O'Reilly Media, Inc."

ISBN: 1491923377

Category: Computers

Page: 472

View: 9580

Quite soon, the world’s information infrastructure is going to reach a level of scale and complexity that will force scientists and engineers to approach it in an entirely new way. The familiar notions of command and control are being thwarted by realities of a faster, denser world of communication where choice, variety, and indeterminism rule. The myth of the machine that does exactly what we tell it has come to an end. What makes us think we can rely on all this technology? What keeps it together today, and how might it work tomorrow? Will we know how to build the next generation—or will we be lulled into a stupor of dependence brought about by its conveniences? In this book, Mark Burgess focuses on the impact of computers and information on our modern infrastructure by taking you from the roots of science to the principles behind system operation and design. To shape the future of technology, we need to understand how it works—or else what we don’t understand will end up shaping us. This book explores this subject in three parts: Part I, Stability: describes the fundamentals of predictability, and why we have to give up the idea of control in its classical meaning Part II, Certainty: describes the science of what we can know, when we don’t control everything, and how we make the best of life with only imperfect information Part III, Promises: explains how the concepts of stability and certainty may be combined to approach information infrastructure as a new kind of virtual material, restoring a continuity to human-computer systems so that society can rely on them.
Posted in Computers

Signal and Noise

Media, Infrastructure, and Urban Culture in Nigeria

Author: Brian Larkin

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 9780822341086

Category: History

Page: 313

View: 1870

DIVExamines the role of media technologies in shaping urban Africa through an ethnographic study of popular culture in northern Nigeria./div
Posted in History

Handbook of New Media

Student Edition

Author: Leah A Lievrouw

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9781412918732

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 475

View: 2800

Thoroughly revised and updated, this Student Edition of the successful Handbook of New Media has been abridged to showcase the best of the hardback edition. This Handbook sets out boundaries of new media research and scholarship and provides a definitive statement of the current state-of-the-art of the field. Covering major problem areas of research, the Handbook of New Media includes an introductory essay by the editors and a concluding essay by Ron Rice. Each chapter, written by an internationally renowned scholar, provides a review of the most significant social research findings and insights.
Posted in Business & Economics

Infrastructure Redux

Crisis, Progress in Industrial Pakistan & Beyond

Author: N. Anwar

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137448172

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 252

View: 2610

The focus of this book is on industrial infrastructures of production and circulation, from power distribution and roads to dry ports and airports. It looks at how these infrastructures underpin visions of progress and mediate relations between the state and capitalist firms in industrializing districts in Punjab, Pakistan.
Posted in Business & Economics

The Promise of a Pencil

How an Ordinary Person Can Create Extraordinary Change

Author: Adam Braun,Carlye Adler

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 1476730628

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 254

View: 2498

The author describes how he left a lucrative business consulting job to found the nonprofit Pencils of Promise, an organization responsible for building schools for the poor in developing countries around the world and which recently completed its two hundredth school.
Posted in Business & Economics

Infrastructure Investing

Managing Risks & Rewards for Pensions, Insurance Companies & Endowments

Author: Rajeev J. Sawant

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780470602348

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 288

View: 9699

Invaluable information regarding one of the biggest worldwide growth areas in investing-infrastructure assets Infrastructure investing is about to explode on the worldwide scene. The fact is that real money will need to be spent on real projects-which will present real opportunities for stable, long-term returns. But infrastructure assets have unique characteristics and the investments and funds that will likely rise up must be suitably structured to serve investor needs. Author Rajeev Sawant has been analyzing infrastructure investments, funds, and project financing programs for nearly five years, and with this book, he presents information that will be invaluable to lenders, pension funds, insurance companies, investment funds, rating agencies, and even governments. Presents comprehensive data analysis on infrastructure cases worldwide Analyzes the opportunities as well as the pitfalls of infrastructure investing Focuses on the needs of pensions, insurance companies, and endowments interested in infrastructure investing For the next decade, worldwide economic growth and increased employment-as well as investment returns-will come from infrastructure projects. This book will help you understand today's dynamic infrastructure asset class and quickly get you up to speed on the unique risks and rewards associated with it.
Posted in Business & Economics