The Prison and the Gallows

The Politics of Mass Incarceration in America

Author: Marie Gottschalk

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139455214

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 9549

The United States has built a carceral state that is unprecedented among Western countries and in US history. Nearly one in 50 people, excluding children and the elderly, is incarcerated today, a rate unsurpassed anywhere else in the world. What are some of the main political forces that explain this unprecedented reliance on mass imprisonment? Throughout American history, crime and punishment have been central features of American political development. This 2006 book examines the development of four key movements that mediated the construction of the carceral state in important ways: the victims' movement, the women's movement, the prisoners' rights movement, and opponents of the death penalty. This book argues that punitive penal policies were forged by particular social movements and interest groups within the constraints of larger institutional structures and historical developments that distinguish the United States from other Western countries.
Posted in Political Science

The Prison and the Gallows

The Politics of Mass Incarceration in America

Author: Marie Gottschalk

Publisher: Cambridge Studies in Criminolo

ISBN: N.A

Category: Law

Page: 451

View: 2341

Over the last three decades, the United States has built a carceral state that is unprecedented among Western countries, with nearly one in 50 adult Americans incarcerated today. This book examines the development of the movements that mediated the construction of the carceral state.
Posted in Law

Robben Island and Prisoner Resistance to Apartheid

Author: Fran Lisa Buntman

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521007825

Category: Political Science

Page: 340

View: 9969

This book reconstructs the Robben Island inmates' resistance strategies.
Posted in Political Science

Caught

The Prison State and the Lockdown of American Politics

Author: Marie Gottschalk

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400880815

Category: Political Science

Page: 504

View: 5081

The huge prison buildup of the past four decades has few defenders, yet reforms to reduce the numbers of those incarcerated have been remarkably modest. Meanwhile, an ever-widening carceral state has sprouted in the shadows, extending its reach far beyond the prison gate. It sunders families and communities and reworks conceptions of democracy, rights, and citizenship—posing a formidable political and social challenge. In Caught, Marie Gottschalk examines why the carceral state remains so tenacious in the United States. She analyzes the shortcomings of the two dominant penal reform strategies—one focused on addressing racial disparities, the other on seeking bipartisan, race-neutral solutions centered on reentry, justice reinvestment, and reducing recidivism. With a new preface evaluating the effectiveness of recent proposals to reform mass incarceration, Caught offers a bracing appraisal of the politics of penal reform.
Posted in Political Science

Incarceration Nation

Author: Peter K. Enns

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107132886

Category: Political Science

Page: 184

View: 1710

Incarceration Nation demonstrates that the US public played a critical role in the rise of mass incarceration in this country.
Posted in Political Science

Resistance Behind Bars

The Struggles of Incarcerated Women

Author: N.A

Publisher: PM Press

ISBN: 1604860189

Category: POLITICAL SCIENCE

Page: 258

View: 3539

An expose determind to challenge and change oversights currently prevalent in the incarceration of women. It examines daily struggles against appalling prison conditions and injustices.
Posted in POLITICAL SCIENCE

Laboratories of Virtue

Punishment, Revolution, and Authority in Philadelphia, 1760-1835

Author: Michael Meranze

Publisher: UNC Press Books

ISBN: 0807838276

Category: History

Page: 352

View: 1422

Michael Meranze uses Philadelphia as a case study to analyze the relationship between penal reform and liberalism in early America. In Laboratories of Virtue, he interprets the evolving system of criminal punishment as a microcosm of social tensions that characterized the early American republic. Engaging recent work on the history of punishment in England and continental Europe, Meranze traces criminal punishment from the late colonial system of publicly inflicted corporal penalties to the establishment of penitentiaries in the Jacksonian period. Throughout, he reveals a world of class difference and contested values in which those who did not fit the emerging bourgeois ethos were disciplined and eventually segregated. By focusing attention on the system of public penal labor that developed in the 1780s, Meranze effectively links penal reform to the development of republican principles in the Revolutionary era. His study, richly informed by Foucaultian and Freudian theory, departs from recent scholarship that treats penal reform as a nostalgic effort to reestablish social stability. Instead, Meranze interprets the reform of punishment as a forward-looking project. He argues that the new disciplinary practices arose from the reformers' struggle to contain or eliminate contradictions to their vision of an enlightened, liberal republic.
Posted in History

The Shadow Welfare State

Labor, Business, and the Politics of Health Care in the United States

Author: Marie Gottschalk

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 1501725009

Category: Political Science

Page: 304

View: 2543

Why, in the recent campaigns for universal health care, did organized labor maintain its support of employer-mandated insurance? Did labor's weakened condition prevent it from endorsing national health insurance? Marie Gottschalk demonstrates here that the unions' surprising stance was a consequence of the peculiarly private nature of social policy in the United States. Her book combines a much-needed account of labor's important role in determining health care policy with a bold and incisive analysis of the American welfare state. Gottschalk stresses that, in the United States, the social welfare system is anchored in the private sector but backed by government policy. As a result, the private sector is a key political battlefield where business, labor, the state, and employees hotly contest matters such as health care. She maintains that the shadow welfare state of job-based benefits shaped the manner in which labor defined its policy interests and strategies. As evidence, Gottschalk examines the influence of the Taft-Hartley health and welfare funds, the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (E.R.I.S.A.), and experience-rated health insurance, showing how they constrained labor from supporting universal health care. Labor, Gottschalk asserts, missed an important opportunity to develop a broader progressive agenda. She challenges the movement to establish a position on health care that addresses the growing ranks of Americans without insurance, the restructuring of the U.S. economy, and the political travails of the unions themselves.
Posted in Political Science

The Pains of Mass Imprisonment

Author: Benjamin Fleury-Steiner,Jamie G Longazel

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134467974

Category: Social Science

Page: 84

View: 9445

This concise and engaging book presents a critical perspective on the correctional system and the process of incarceration in the United States. Fleury-Steiner and Longazel emphasize the magnitude of mass imprisonment in the United States, especially of people of color, not by objective statistics and trends, but by the voices and lived experiences of individuals who live their harsh conditions on a daily basis. This is an ideal book for courses in corrections, social problems, criminology, and prisoner re-entry.
Posted in Social Science

Prison State

The Challenge of Mass Incarceration

Author: Bert Useem,Anne Morrison Piehl

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139470981

Category: Social Science

Page: N.A

View: 6803

During the past 25 years, the prison population in America shot upward to reach a staggering 1.53 million by 2005. This 2005 book takes a broad, critical look at incarceration, the huge social experiment of American society. The authors investigate the causes and consequences of the prison buildup, often challenging previously held notions from scholarly and public discourse. By examining such themes as social discontent, safety and security within prisons, and the impact on crime and on the labour market, Piehl and Useem use evidence to address the inevitable larger question, where should incarceration go next for American society, and where is it likely to go?
Posted in Social Science

Dying Inside

The HIV/AIDS Ward at Limestone Prison

Author: Benjamin Dov Fleury-Steiner,Carla Crowder

Publisher: University of Michigan Press

ISBN: 047202194X

Category: Political Science

Page: 248

View: 3451

"The HIV+ men incarcerated in Limestone Prison's Dorm 16 were put there to be forgotten. Not only do Benjamin Fleury-Steiner and Carla Crowder bring these men to life, Fleury-Steiner and Crowder also insist on placing these men in the middle of critical conversations about health policy, mass incarceration, and race. Dense with firsthand accounts, Dying Inside is a nimble, far-ranging and unblinking look at the cruelty inherent in our current penal policies." ---Lisa Kung, Director, Southern Center for Human Rights "The looming prison health crisis, documented here at its extreme, is a shocking stain on American values and a clear opportunity to rethink our carceral approach to security." ---Jonathan Simon, University of California, Berkeley "Dying Inside is a riveting account of a health crisis in a hidden prison facility." ---Michael Musheno, San Francisco State University, and coauthor of Deployed "This fresh and original study should prick all of our consciences about the horrific consequences of the massive carceral state the United States has built over the last three decades." ---Marie Gottschalk, University of Pennsylvania, and author of The Prison and the Gallows "An important, bold, and humanitarian book." ---Alison Liebling, University of Cambridge "Fleury-Steiner makes a compelling case that inmate health care in America's prisons and jails has reached the point of catastrophe." ---Sharon Dolovich, University of California, Los Angeles "Fleury-Steiner's persuasive argument not only exposes the sins of commission and omission on prison cellblocks, but also does an excellent job of showing how these problems are the natural result of our nation's shortsighted and punitive criminal justice policy." ---Allen Hornblum, Temple University, and author of Sentenced to Science Dying Inside brings the reader face-to-face with the nightmarish conditions inside Limestone Prison's Dorm 16---the segregated HIV ward. Here, patients chained to beds share their space with insects and vermin in the filthy, drafty rooms, and contagious diseases spread like wildfire through a population with untreated---or poorly managed at best---HIV. While Dorm 16 is a particularly horrific human rights tragedy, it is also a symptom of a disease afflicting the entire U.S. prison system. In recent decades, prison populations have exploded as Americans made mass incarceration the solution to crime, drugs, and other social problems even as privatization of prison services, especially health care, resulted in an overcrowded, underfunded system in which the most marginalized members of our society slowly wither from what the author calls "lethal abandonment." This eye-opening account of one prison's failed health-care standards is a wake-up call, asking us to examine how we treat our forgotten citizens and compelling us to rethink the American prison system in this increasingly punitive age.
Posted in Political Science

Golden Gulag

Prisons, Surplus, Crisis, and Opposition in Globalizing California

Author: Ruth Wilson Gilmore

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520938038

Category: Social Science

Page: 412

View: 6947

Since 1980, the number of people in U.S. prisons has increased more than 450%. Despite a crime rate that has been falling steadily for decades, California has led the way in this explosion, with what a state analyst called "the biggest prison building project in the history of the world." Golden Gulag provides the first detailed explanation for that buildup by looking at how political and economic forces, ranging from global to local, conjoined to produce the prison boom. In an informed and impassioned account, Ruth Wilson Gilmore examines this issue through statewide, rural, and urban perspectives to explain how the expansion developed from surpluses of finance capital, labor, land, and state capacity. Detailing crises that hit California’s economy with particular ferocity, she argues that defeats of radical struggles, weakening of labor, and shifting patterns of capital investment have been key conditions for prison growth. The results—a vast and expensive prison system, a huge number of incarcerated young people of color, and the increase in punitive justice such as the "three strikes" law—pose profound and troubling questions for the future of California, the United States, and the world. Golden Gulag provides a rich context for this complex dilemma, and at the same time challenges many cherished assumptions about who benefits and who suffers from the state’s commitment to prison expansion.
Posted in Social Science

Governing through Crime in South Africa

The Politics of Race and Class in Neoliberalizing Regimes

Author: Dr Gail Super

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

ISBN: 1472401735

Category: Law

Page: 192

View: 2251

This book deals with the historic transition to democracy in South Africa and its impact upon crime and punishment. It examines how the problem of crime has emerged as a major issue to be governed in post-apartheid South Africa. Having undergone a dramatic transition from authoritarianism to democracy, from a white minority to black majority government, South Africa provides rich material on the role that political authority, and challenges to it, play in the construction of crime and criminality. As such, the study is about the socio-cultural and political significance of crime and punishment in the context of a change of regime. The work uses the South African case study to examine a question of wider interest, namely the politics of punishment and race in neoliberalizing regimes. It provides interesting and illuminating empirical material to the broader debate on crime control in post-welfare/neoliberalizing/post transition polities.
Posted in Law

Labeling Theory

Empirical Tests

Author: David P. Farrington,Joseph Murray

Publisher: Transaction Publishers

ISBN: 141284794X

Category: Law

Page: 277

View: 9848

Labeling theory has been an extremely important and influential development in criminology, but its recent advances have been largely neglected. This volume aims to reinvigorate labeling theory by presenting a comprehensive range of its modern applications. In the first section, Ross Matsueda chronicles the early history of the theory. Fred Markowitz then reviews labeling theory research as applied to mental illness. Francis T. Cullen and Cheryl Lero Jonson discuss the relationship between labeling theory and correctional rehabilitation. The second section, which is focused on previous tests of labeling theory, begins with a review of prior empirical tests by Kelle Barrick. Anthony Petrosino and his colleagues then summarize their meta-analysis of the impact of the juvenile system processing on delinquency. Lawrence Sherman then discusses experiments on criminal sanctions. The final segment on empirical tests of labeling theory begins with a chapter by Marvin Krohn and his colleagues on the effects of official intervention on later offending. The long-term effects of incarceration are then investigated by Joseph Murray and his colleagues. Finally, Steven Raphael reviews the effects of conviction and incarceration on future employment. This landmark book presents the most comprehensive and up-to-date knowledge about labeling theory, and illustrates the importance of this theory for policy and practice. It is the latest volume in Transaction’s acclaimed Advances in Criminological Theory series.
Posted in Law

Corrections: A Text/Reader

Author: Mary Stohr,Anthony Walsh,Craig Hemmens

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 1452289921

Category: Social Science

Page: 728

View: 4027

Corrections: A Text/Reader, Second Edition is designed for undergraduate and/or graduate corrections courses. Organized like a traditional corrections text, it offers brief authored introductions in a mini-chapter format for each key Section, followed by carefully selected and edited original articles by leading scholars. This hybrid format – ensuring coverage of important material while emphasizing the significance of contemporary research - offers an excellent alternative which recognizes the impact and importance of new directions and policy in this field, and how these advances are determined by research.
Posted in Social Science

The Death Penalty

A Worldwide Perspective

Author: Roger Hood,Carolyn Hoyle

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191005312

Category: Political Science

Page: 480

View: 9471

The fifth edition of this highly praised study charts and explains the progress that continues to be made towards the goal of worldwide abolition of the death penalty. The majority of nations have now abolished the death penalty and the number of executions has dropped in almost all countries where abolition has not yet taken place. Emphasising the impact of international human rights principles and evidence of abuse, the authors examine how this has fuelled challenges to the death penalty and they analyse and appraise the likely obstacles, political and cultural, to further abolition. They discuss the cruel realities of the death penalty and the failure of international standards always to ensure fair trials and to avoid arbitrariness, discrimination and conviction of the innocent: all violations of the right to life. They provide further evidence of the lack of a general deterrent effect; shed new light on the influence and limits of public opinion; and argue that substituting for the death penalty life imprisonment without parole raises many similar human rights concerns. This edition provides a strong intellectual and evidential basis for regarding capital punishment as undeniably cruel, inhuman and degrading. Widely relied upon and fully updated to reflect the current state of affairs worldwide, this is an invaluable resource for all those who study the death penalty and work towards its removal as an international goal.
Posted in Political Science

Discipline & Punish

The Birth of the Prison

Author: Michel Foucault

Publisher: Vintage

ISBN: 0307819299

Category: Social Science

Page: 352

View: 4309

In this brilliant work, the most influential philosopher since Sartre suggests that such vaunted reforms as the abolition of torture and the emergence of the modern penitentiary have merely shifted the focus of punishment from the prisoner's body to his soul.
Posted in Social Science

Crime and Public Policy

Author: James Q. Wilson,Joan Petersilia

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199315043

Category: Law

Page: 656

View: 3621

Crime in the United States has fluctuated considerably over the past thirty years, as have the policy approaches to deal with it. During this time criminologists and other scholars have helped to shed light on the role of incarceration, prevention, drugs, guns, policing, and numerous other aspects to crime control. Yet the latest research is rarely heard in public discussions and is often missing from the desks of policymakers. This book accessibly summarizes the latest scientific information on the causes of crime and evidence about what does and does not work to control it. Thoroughly revised and updated, this new version of Crime and Public Policy will include twenty chapters and five new substantial entries. As with previous editions, each essay reviews the existing literature, discusses the methodological rigor of the studies, identifies what policies and programs the studies suggest, and then points to policies now implemented that fail to reflect the evidence. The chapters cover the principle institutions of the criminal justice system (juvenile justice, police, prisons, probation and parole, sentencing), how broader aspects of social life inhibit or encourage crime (biology, schools, families, communities), and topics currently generating a great deal of attention (criminal activities of gangs, sex offenders, prisoner reentry, changing crime rates). With contributions from trusted, leading scholars, Crime and Public Policy offers the most comprehensive and balanced guide to how the latest and best social science research informs the understanding of crime and its control for policymakers, community leaders, and students of crime and criminal justice.
Posted in Law

The First Civil Right

How Liberals Built Prison America

Author: Naomi Murakawa

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199380724

Category: Law

Page: 304

View: 4476

The explosive rise in the U.S. incarceration rate in the second half of the twentieth century, and the racial transformation of the prison population from mostly white at mid-century to sixty-five percent black and Latino in the present day, is a trend that cannot easily be ignored. Many believe that this shift began with the "tough on crime" policies advocated by Republicans and southern Democrats beginning in the late 1960s, which sought longer prison sentences, more frequent use of the death penalty, and the explicit or implicit targeting of politically marginalized people. In The First Civil Right, Naomi Murakawa inverts the conventional wisdom by arguing that the expansion of the federal carceral state-a system that disproportionately imprisons blacks and Latinos-was, in fact, rooted in the civil-rights liberalism of the 1940s and early 1960s, not in the period after. Murakawa traces the development of the modern American prison system through several presidencies, both Republican and Democrat. Responding to calls to end the lawlessness and violence against blacks at the state and local levels, the Truman administration expanded the scope of what was previously a weak federal system. Later administrations from Johnson to Clinton expanded the federal presence even more. Ironically, these steps laid the groundwork for the creation of the vast penal archipelago that now exists in the United States. What began as a liberal initiative to curb the mob violence and police brutality that had deprived racial minorities of their 'first civil right-physical safety-eventually evolved into the federal correctional system that now deprives them, in unjustly large numbers, of another important right: freedom. The First Civil Right is a groundbreaking analysis of root of the conflicts that lie at the intersection of race and the legal system in America.
Posted in Law

Race and American Political Development

Author: Joseph E. Lowndes,Julie Novkov,Dorian T. Warren

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136086420

Category: Political Science

Page: 354

View: 9252

Race has been present at every critical moment in American political development, shaping political institutions, political discourse, public policy, and its denizens’ political identities. But because of the nature of race—its evolving and dynamic status as a structure of inequality, a political organizing principle, an ideology, and a system of power—we must study the politics of race historically, institutionally, and discursively. Covering more than three hundred years of American political history from the founding to the contemporary moment, the contributors in this volume make this extended argument. Together, they provide an understanding of American politics that challenges our conventional disciplinary tools of studying politics and our conservative political moment’s dominant narrative of racial progress. This volume, the first to collect essays on the role of race in American political history and development, resituates race in American politics as an issue for sustained and broadened critical attention.
Posted in Political Science