The Physics of Solar Cells

Author: Jenny Nelson

Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company

ISBN: 1848168233

Category: Science

Page: 384

View: 5673

This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the physics of the photovoltaic cell. It is suitable for undergraduates, graduate students, and researchers new to the field. It covers: basic physics of semiconductors in photovoltaic devices; physical models of solar cell operation; characteristics and design of common types of solar cell; and approaches to increasing solar cell efficiency. The text explains the terms and concepts of solar cell device physics and shows the reader how to formulate and solve relevant physical problems. Exercises and worked solutions are included.
Posted in Science

The Physics of Solar Cells

Author: Jenny Nelson

Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company Incorporated

ISBN: 9781860943492

Category: Science

Page: 363

View: 8679

An introduction to the physics of the photovoltaic cell. It covers the fundamental principles of semiconductor physics and simple models used to describe solar cell operation. It presents theoretical approaches to efficient solar cell design and examines the main practical types of solar cell
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Solar Cell Device Physics

Author: Stephen Fonash

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0323154638

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 352

View: 3475

Solar Cell Device Physics offers a balanced, in-depth qualitative and quantitative treatment of the physical principles and operating characteristics of solar cell devices. Topics covered include photovoltaic energy conversion and solar cell materials and structures, along with homojunction solar cells. Semiconductor-semiconductor heterojunction cells and surface-barrier solar cells are also discussed. This book consists of six chapters and begins by introducing the reader to the basic physical principles and materials properties that are the foundations of photovoltaic energy conversion, with emphasis on various photovoltaic devices capable of efficiently converting solar energy into usable electrical energy. The electronic and optical properties of crystalline, polycrystalline, and amorphous materials with both organic and inorganic materials are considered, together with the manner in which these properties change from one material class to another and the implications of such changes for photovoltaics. Generation, recombination, and bulk transport are also discussed. The two mechanisms of photocarrier collection in solar cells, drift and diffusion, are then compared. The remaining chapters focus on specific solar cell device classes defined in terms of the interface structure employed: homojunctions, semiconductor-semiconductor heterojunctions, and surface-barrier devices. This monograph is appropriate for use as a textbook for graduate students in engineering and the sciences and for seniors in electrical engineering and applied physics, as well as a reference book for those actively involved in solar cell research and development.
Posted in Technology & Engineering

Handbook of the Physics of Thin-Film Solar Cells

Author: Karl W. Böer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business

ISBN: 3642367488

Category: Science

Page: 882

View: 3677

This handbook is a compendium giving a comprehensive description of the basics of semiconductor physics relevant to the design and analysis of thin film solar cell materials. It starts from the basics of material science, describing the material and its growth, defect and electrical properties, the basics of its interaction with photons and the involved statistics, proceeding to space charge effects in semiconductors and pn-junctions. Most attention is given to analyze homo- and hetero-junction solar cells using various models and applying the field-of-direction analysis for discussing current voltage characteristics, and helping to discover the involvement of high-field effects in solar cells. The comprehensive coverage of the main topics of - and relating to - solar cells with extensive reference to literature helps scientists and engineers at all levels to reach a better understanding and improvement of solar cell properties and their production. The author is one of the founders of thin film solar cell research.
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Semiconductor Materials for Solar Photovoltaic Cells

Author: M. Parans Paranthaman,Winnie Wong-Ng,Raghu N Bhattacharya

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319203312

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 279

View: 2673

This book reviews the current status of semiconductor materials for conversion of sunlight to electricity, and highlights advances in both basic science and manufacturing. Photovoltaic (PV) solar electric technology will be a significant contributor to world energy supplies when reliable, efficient PV power products are manufactured in large volumes at low cost. Expert chapters cover the full range of semiconductor materials for solar-to-electricity conversion, from crystalline silicon and amorphous silicon to cadmium telluride, copper indium gallium sulfide selenides, dye sensitized solar cells, organic solar cells, and environmentally friendly copper zinc tin sulfide selenides. The latest methods for synthesis and characterization of solar cell materials are described, together with techniques for measuring solar cell efficiency. Semiconductor Materials for Solar Photovoltaic Cells presents the current state of the art as well as key details about future strategies to increase the efficiency and reduce costs, with particular focus on how to reduce the gap between laboratory scale efficiency and commercial module efficiency. This book will aid materials scientists and engineers in identifying research priorities to fulfill energy needs, and will also enable researchers to understand novel semiconductor materials that are emerging in the solar market. This integrated approach also gives science and engineering students a sense of the excitement and relevance of materials science in the development of novel semiconductor materials. · Provides a comprehensive introduction to solar PV cell materials · Reviews current and future status of solar cells with respect to cost and efficiency · Covers the full range of solar cell materials, from silicon and thin films to dye sensitized and organic solar cells · Offers an in-depth account of the semiconductor material strategies and directions for further research · Features detailed tables on the world leaders in efficiency demonstrations · Edited by scientists with experience in both research and industry
Posted in Technology & Engineering

The Physics of Solar Cells

Perovskites, Organics, and Photovoltaic Fundamentals

Author: Juan Bisquert

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1351395572

Category: Science

Page: 226

View: 2992

The book provides an explanation of the operation of photovoltaic devices from a broad perspective that embraces a variety of materials concepts, from nanostructured and highly disordered organic materials, to highly efficient devices such as the lead halide perovskite solar cells. The book establishes from the beginning a simple but very rich model of a solar cell, in order to develop and understand step by step the photovoltaic operation according to fundamental physical properties and constraints. It emphasizes the aspects pertaining to the functioning of a solar cell and the determination of limiting efficiencies of energy conversion. The final chapters of the book establish a more refined and realistic treatment of the many factors that determine the actual performance of experimental devices: transport gradients, interfacial recombination, optical losses and so forth. The book finishes with a short review of additional important aspects of solar energy conversion, such as the photonic aspects of spectral modification, and the direct conversion of solar photons to chemical fuel via electrochemical reactions.
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Principles of Solar Cells, LEDs and Diodes

The Role of the PN Junction

Author: Adrian Kitai

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1444318349

Category: Science

Page: 318

View: 4521

This textbook introduces the physical concepts required for a comprehensive understanding of p–n junction devices, light emitting diodes and solar cells. Semiconductor devices have made a major impact on the way we work and live. Today semiconductor p–n junction diode devices are experiencing substantial growth: solar cells are used on an unprecedented scale in the renewable energy industry; and light emitting diodes (LEDs) are revolutionizing energy efficient lighting. These two emerging industries based on p–n junctions make a significant contribution to the reduction in fossil fuel consumption. This book covers the two most important applications of semiconductor diodes – solar cells and LEDs – together with quantitative coverage of the physics of the p–n junction. The reader will gain a thorough understanding of p–n junctions as the text begins with semiconductor and junction device fundamentals and extends to the practical implementation of semiconductors in both photovoltaic and LED devices. Treatment of a range of important semiconductor materials and device structures is also presented in a readable manner. Topics are divided into the following six chapters: Semiconductor Physics The PN Junction Diode Photon Emission and Absorption The Solar Cell Light Emitting Diodes Organic Semiconductors, OLEDs and Solar Cells Containing student problems at the end of each chapter and worked example problems throughout, this textbook is intended for senior level undergraduate students doing courses in electrical engineering, physics and materials science. Researchers working on solar cells and LED devices, and those in the electronics industry would also benefit from the background information the book provides.
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Materials Concepts for Solar Cells

Author: N.A

Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company

ISBN: 1786344505

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 568

View: 4068

A modern challenge is for solar cell materials to enable the highest solar energy conversion efficiencies, at costs as low as possible, and at an energy balance as sustainable as necessary in the future. This textbook explains the principles, concepts and materials used in solar cells. It combines basic knowledge about solar cells and the demanded criteria for the materials with a comprehensive introduction into each of the four classes of materials for solar cells, i.e. solar cells based on crystalline silicon, epitaxial layer systems of III-V semiconductors, thin-film absorbers on foreign substrates, and nano-composite absorbers. In this sense, it bridges a gap between basic literature on the physics of solar cells and books specialized on certain types of solar cells. The last five years had several breakthroughs in photovoltaics and in the research on solar cells and solar cell materials. We consider them in this second edition. For example, the high potential of crystalline silicon with charge-selective hetero-junctions and alkaline treatments of thin-film absorbers, based on chalcopyrite, enabled new records. Research activities were boosted by the class of hybrid organic-inorganic metal halide perovskites, a promising newcomer in the field. This is essential reading for students interested in solar cells and materials for solar cells. It encourages students to solve tasks at the end of each chapter. It has been well applied for postgraduate students with background in materials science, engineering, chemistry or physics.
Posted in Technology & Engineering

Fundamentals Of Solar Cells

Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion

Author: Alan Fahrenbruch,Richard Bube

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0323145388

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 580

View: 5032

Fundamentals of Solar Cells: Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion provides an introduction to the fundamental physical principles of solar cells. It aims to promote the expansion of solar photovoltaics from relatively small and specialized use to a large-scale contribution to energy supply. The book begins with a review of basic concepts such as the source of energy, the role of photovoltaic conversion, the development of photovoltaic cells, and sequence of phenomena involved in solar power generation. This is followed by separate chapters on each of the processes that take place in solar cell. These include solar input; properties of semiconductors; recombination and the flow of photogenerated carriers; charge separation and the characteristics of junction barriers; and calculation of solar efficiency. Subsequent chapters deal with the operation of specific solar cell devices such as a single-crystal homojunction (Si); a single-crystal-heterojunction/buried-homojunction (AlGaAs/GaAs); and a polycrystalline, thin-film cell (CuxS/CdS). This book is intended for upper-level graduate students who have a reasonably good understanding of solid state physics and for scientists and engineers involved in research and development of solar cells.
Posted in Technology & Engineering

Nanostructured Materials for Solar Energy Conversion

Author: Tetsuo Soga

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080468303

Category: Science

Page: 614

View: 2633

Nanostructured Materials for Solar Energy Conversion covers a wide variety of materials and device types from inorganic materials to organic materials. This book deals with basic semiconductor physics, modelling of nanostructured solar cell, nanostructure of conventional solar cells such as silicon, CIS and CdTe, dye-sensitized solar cell, organic solar cell, photosynthetic materials, fullerene, extremely thin absorber (ETA) solar cell, quantum structured solar cell, intermediate band solar cell, carbon nanotube, etc. including basic principle and the latest results. There are many books written on conventional p-n junction solar cells, but few books focus on new concepts in this area. * Focuses on the use of nanostructured materials for solar energy * Looks at a wide variety of materials and device types * Covers both organic and inorganic materials
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Photoelectrochemistry and Photovoltaics of Layered Semiconductors

Author: A. Aruchamy

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401513015

Category: Science

Page: 360

View: 6069

This volume aims at bringing together the results of extensive research done during the last fifteen years on the interfacial photoelectronic properties of the inorganic layered semiconducting materials, mainly in relation to solar energy conversion. Significant contributions have been made both on the fundamental aspects of interface characteristics and on the suitability of the layered materials in photoelectrochemical (semiconductor/electrolyte junctions) and in solid state photovoltaic(Schottky and p-n junctions) cells. New insights into the physical and chemical characteristics of the contact surfaces have been gained and many new applications of these materials have been revealed. In particular, the basal plane surface of the layered materials shows low chemical reactivity and specific electronic behaviour with respect to isotropic solids. In electrochemical systems, the inert nature of these surfaces characterized by saturated chemical bonds has been recognized from studies on charge transfer reactions and catalysis. In addition, studies on the role of the d-band electronic transitions and the dynamics of the photogene rated charge carriers in the relative stability of the photoelectrodes of the transition metal dichalcogenides have deepened the understanding of the interfacial photoreactions. Transition metal layered compounds are also recognized as ideal model compounds for the studies Involving surfaces: photoreactions, adsorption phenomena and catalysis, scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy and epitaxial growth of thin films. Recently, quantum size effects have been investigated in layered semiconductor colloids.
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Photovoltaic Materials

Author: Richard H. Bube

Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company

ISBN: 9781860940651

Category: Science

Page: 281

View: 2061

Posted in Science

The Physics and Applications of Amorphous Semiconductors

Author: Arun Madan,M. P. Shaw

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080924433

Category: Science

Page: 545

View: 6428

This comprehensive, detailed treatise on the physics and applications of the new emerging technology of amorphous semiconductors focuses on specific device research problems such as the optimization of device performance. The first part of the book presents hydrogenated amorphous silicon type alloys, whose applications include inexpensive solar cells, thin film transistors, image scanners, electrophotography, optical recording and gas sensors. The second part of the book discusses amorphous chalcogenides, whose applications include electrophotography, switching, and memory elements. This book will serve as an excellent reference source for solid state scientists and engineers, and as a useful self-contained introduction to the field for graduate students.
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The Physics of Solar Cells

Perovskites, Organics, and Photovoltaic Fundamentals

Author: Juan Bisquert

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1351395580

Category: Science

Page: 226

View: 2324

The book provides an explanation of the operation of photovoltaic devices from a broad perspective that embraces a variety of materials concepts, from nanostructured and highly disordered organic materials, to highly efficient devices such as the lead halide perovskite solar cells. The book establishes from the beginning a simple but very rich model of a solar cell, in order to develop and understand step by step the photovoltaic operation according to fundamental physical properties and constraints. It emphasizes the aspects pertaining to the functioning of a solar cell and the determination of limiting efficiencies of energy conversion. The final chapters of the book establish a more refined and realistic treatment of the many factors that determine the actual performance of experimental devices: transport gradients, interfacial recombination, optical losses and so forth. The book finishes with a short review of additional important aspects of solar energy conversion, such as the photonic aspects of spectral modification, and the direct conversion of solar photons to chemical fuel via electrochemical reactions.
Posted in Science

Applied Photovoltaics

Author: Richard Corkish,Martin A Green,Muriel E Watt,Stuart R Wenham

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136571620

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 336

View: 4928

A reliable, accessible and comprehensive guide for students of photovoltaic applications and renewable energy engineering. This thoroughly considered textbook from a group of leading influential and award-winning authors is brimming with information and is carefully designed to meet the needs of its readers. Along with exercises and references at the end of each chapter, the book features a set of detailed technical appendices that provide essential equations, data sources and standards. Starting from basics with 'The Characteristics of Sunlight' the reader is guided step-by-step through semiconductors and p-n junctions; the behaviour of solar cells; cell properties ad design; and PV cell interconnection and module fabrication. The book covers stand-alone photovoltaic systems; specific purpose photovoltaic systems; remote are power supply systems; and grid-connected photovoltaic systems. There is also a section on photovoltaic water pumping system components and design. Applied Photovolatics is well illustrated and readable with an abundance of diagrams and illustrations, and will provide the reader with all the information needed to start working with photovoltaics.
Posted in Technology & Engineering

Principles of Solar Cells, LEDs and Related Devices

The Role of the PN Junction

Author: Adrian Kitai

Publisher: Wiley

ISBN: 1119451027

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 416

View: 848

The second edition of the text that offers an introduction to the principles of solar cells and LEDs, revised and updated The revised and updated second edition of Principles of Solar Cells, LEDs and Related Devices offers an introduction to the physical concepts required for a comprehensive understanding of p-n junction devices, light emitting diodes and solar cells. The author – a noted expert in the field – presents information on the semiconductor and junction device fundamentals and extends it to the practical implementation of semiconductors in both photovoltaic and LED devices. In addition, the text offers information on the treatment of a range of important semiconductor materials and device structures including OLED devices and organic solar cells. This second edition contains a new chapter on the quantum mechanical description of the electron that will make the book accessible to students in any engineering discipline. The text also includes a new chapter on bipolar junction and junction field effect transistors as well as expanded chapters on solar cells and LEDs that include more detailed information on high efficiency devices. This important text: Offers an introduction to solar cells and LEDs, the two most important applications of semiconductor diodes Provides a solid theoretical basis for p-n junction devices Contains updated information and new chapters including better coverage of LED out-coupling design and performance and improvements in OLED efficiency Presents student problems at the end of each chapter and worked example problems throughout the text Written for students in electrical engineering, physics and materials science and researchers in the electronics industry, Principles of Solar Cells, LEDs and Related Devices is the updated second edition that offers a guide to the physical concepts of p-n junction devices, light emitting diodes and solar cells.
Posted in Technology & Engineering

Rethinking Incarceration: Advocating for Justice That Restores

Author: Dominique DuBois Gilliard

Publisher: InterVarsity Press

ISBN: 0830887733

Category: SOCIAL SCIENCE

Page: N.A

View: 9469

The United States has more people locked up in jails, prisons, and detention centers than any other country in the history of the world. Exploring the history and foundations of mass incarceration, Dominique Gilliard examines Christianity's role in its evolution and expansion, assessing justice in light of Scripture, and showing how Christians can pursue justice that restores and reconciles.
Posted in SOCIAL SCIENCE

Physics of Solar Cells

From Basic Principles to Advanced Concepts

Author: Peter WÃ1⁄4rfel,Uli WÃ1⁄4rfel

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 352741309X

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 5913

The new edition of this highly regarded textbook provides a detailed overview of the most important characterization techniques for solar cells and a discussion of their advantages and disadvantages. It describes in detail all aspects of solar cell function, the physics behind every single step, as well as all the issues to be considered when improving solar cells and their efficiency. The text is now complete with examples of how the appropriate characterization techniques enable the distinction between several potential limitation factors, describing how quantities that have been introduced theoretically in earlier chapters become experimentally accessible. With exercises after each chapter to reinforce the newly acquired knowledge and requiring no more than standard physics knowledge, this book enables students and professionals to understand the factors driving conversion efficiency and to apply this to their own solar cell development.
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Optical Properties of Semiconductors

Author: G. Martinez

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401580758

Category: Science

Page: 324

View: 6032

It is widely recognized that an understanding of the optical pro perties of matter will give a great deal of important information re levant to the fundamental physical properties. This is especially true in semiconductor physics for which, due to the intrinsic low screening of these materials, the optical response is quite rich. Their spectra reflect indeed as well electronic as spin or phonon transitions. This is also in the semiconductor field that artificial structures have been recently developed, showing for the first time specific physical properties related to the low dimentionality of the electronic and vi bronic properties : with this respect the quantum and fractional quan tum Hall effects are among the most well known aspects. The associated reduced screening is also a clear manifestation of these aspects and as such favors new optical properties or at least significantly enhan ces some of them. For all these reasons, it appeared necessary to try to review in a global way what the optical investigation has brought today about the understanding of the physics of semiconductors. This volume collects the papers presented at the NATO Advanced study Inst i tut e on "Optical Properties of Semiconductors" held at the Ettore Majorana Centre, Erice, Sicily on March 9th to 20th, 1992. This school brought together 70 scientists active in research related to optical properties of semiconductors. There were 12 lecturers who pro vided the main contributions .
Posted in Science