The Physics of Solar Cells

Author: Jenny Nelson

Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company

ISBN: 9781860943409

Category: Science

Page: 363

View: 7169

This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the physics of the photovoltaic cell. It is suitable for undergraduates, graduate students, and researchers new to the field. It covers: basic physics of semiconductors in photovoltaic devices; physical models of solar cell operation; characteristics and design of common types of solar cell; and approaches to increasing solar cell efficiency. The text explains the terms and concepts of solar cell device physics and shows the reader how to formulate and solve relevant physical problems. Exercises and worked solutions are included.
Posted in Science

The Physics of Solar Cells

Author: Jenny Nelson

Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company

ISBN: 1848168233

Category: Science

Page: 384

View: 7959

This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the physics of the photovoltaic cell. It is suitable for undergraduates, graduate students, and researchers new to the field. It covers: basic physics of semiconductors in photovoltaic devices; physical models of solar cell operation; characteristics and design of common types of solar cell; and approaches to increasing solar cell efficiency. The text explains the terms and concepts of solar cell device physics and shows the reader how to formulate and solve relevant physical problems. Exercises and worked solutions are included.
Posted in Science

Handbook of the Physics of Thin-Film Solar Cells

Author: Karl W. Böer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business

ISBN: 3642367488

Category: Science

Page: 882

View: 2056

This handbook is a compendium giving a comprehensive description of the basics of semiconductor physics relevant to the design and analysis of thin film solar cell materials. It starts from the basics of material science, describing the material and its growth, defect and electrical properties, the basics of its interaction with photons and the involved statistics, proceeding to space charge effects in semiconductors and pn-junctions. Most attention is given to analyze homo- and hetero-junction solar cells using various models and applying the field-of-direction analysis for discussing current voltage characteristics, and helping to discover the involvement of high-field effects in solar cells. The comprehensive coverage of the main topics of - and relating to - solar cells with extensive reference to literature helps scientists and engineers at all levels to reach a better understanding and improvement of solar cell properties and their production. The author is one of the founders of thin film solar cell research.
Posted in Science

Grundlagen der Photonik

Author: Bahaa E. A. Saleh,Malvin Carl Teich

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9783527406777

Category: Optoelectronics

Page: 1406

View: 617

Schon die erste Auflage des englischen Lehrbuchs 'Fundamentals of Photonics' zeichnete sich durch seine ausgewogene Mischung von Theorie und Praxis aus, und deckte in detaillierter Darstellung die grundlegenden Theorien des Lichts ab. Es umfasste sowohl die Themen Strahlenoptik, Wellenoptik, elektromagnetische Optik, Photonenoptik, sowie die Wechselwirkung von Licht und Materie, als auch die Theorie der optischen Eigenschaften von Halbleitern. Die Photonik-Technologie hat eine rasante Entwicklung genommen seit der Publikation der ersten Ausgabe von 'Fundamentals of Photonics' vor 15 Jahren. Die nun vorliegende Zweite Auflage des Marksteins auf dem Gebiet der Photonik trägt mit zwei neuen und zusätzlichen Kapiteln den neuesten technologischen Fortschritten Rechnung: Photonische Kristalle sowie Ultrakurzpuls-Optik. Zudem wurden alle Kapitel gründlich überarbeitet und viele Abschnitte hinzugefügt, so z.B. über Laguerre-Gauss Strahlen, die Sellmeier-Gleichung, Photonenkristall-Wellenleiter, photonische Kristallfasern, Mikrosphären-Resonatoren, Optische Kohärenz Tomographie, Bahndrehimpuls des Photons, Bohrsche Theorie, Raman-Verstärker, rauscharme Avalanche-Photodioden, Abstimmkurven und Dispersions-Management.
Posted in Optoelectronics

Photoelectrochemistry and Photovoltaics of Layered Semiconductors

Author: A. Aruchamy

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401513015

Category: Science

Page: 360

View: 9311

This volume aims at bringing together the results of extensive research done during the last fifteen years on the interfacial photoelectronic properties of the inorganic layered semiconducting materials, mainly in relation to solar energy conversion. Significant contributions have been made both on the fundamental aspects of interface characteristics and on the suitability of the layered materials in photoelectrochemical (semiconductor/electrolyte junctions) and in solid state photovoltaic(Schottky and p-n junctions) cells. New insights into the physical and chemical characteristics of the contact surfaces have been gained and many new applications of these materials have been revealed. In particular, the basal plane surface of the layered materials shows low chemical reactivity and specific electronic behaviour with respect to isotropic solids. In electrochemical systems, the inert nature of these surfaces characterized by saturated chemical bonds has been recognized from studies on charge transfer reactions and catalysis. In addition, studies on the role of the d-band electronic transitions and the dynamics of the photogene rated charge carriers in the relative stability of the photoelectrodes of the transition metal dichalcogenides have deepened the understanding of the interfacial photoreactions. Transition metal layered compounds are also recognized as ideal model compounds for the studies Involving surfaces: photoreactions, adsorption phenomena and catalysis, scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy and epitaxial growth of thin films. Recently, quantum size effects have been investigated in layered semiconductor colloids.
Posted in Science

Principles of Solar Cells, LEDs and Related Devices

The Role of the PN Junction

Author: Adrian Kitai

Publisher: Wiley

ISBN: 1119451027

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 416

View: 8876

The second edition of the text that offers an introduction to the principles of solar cells and LEDs, revised and updated The revised and updated second edition of Principles of Solar Cells, LEDs and Related Devices offers an introduction to the physical concepts required for a comprehensive understanding of p-n junction devices, light emitting diodes and solar cells. The author – a noted expert in the field – presents information on the semiconductor and junction device fundamentals and extends it to the practical implementation of semiconductors in both photovoltaic and LED devices. In addition, the text offers information on the treatment of a range of important semiconductor materials and device structures including OLED devices and organic solar cells. This second edition contains a new chapter on the quantum mechanical description of the electron that will make the book accessible to students in any engineering discipline. The text also includes a new chapter on bipolar junction and junction field effect transistors as well as expanded chapters on solar cells and LEDs that include more detailed information on high efficiency devices. This important text: Offers an introduction to solar cells and LEDs, the two most important applications of semiconductor diodes Provides a solid theoretical basis for p-n junction devices Contains updated information and new chapters including better coverage of LED out-coupling design and performance and improvements in OLED efficiency Presents student problems at the end of each chapter and worked example problems throughout the text Written for students in electrical engineering, physics and materials science and researchers in the electronics industry, Principles of Solar Cells, LEDs and Related Devices is the updated second edition that offers a guide to the physical concepts of p-n junction devices, light emitting diodes and solar cells.
Posted in Technology & Engineering

2-6 compound semiconductor photovoltaic materials

Author: Robert Birkmire,Materials Research Society. Meeting

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781558996045

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 597

View: 1083

The MRS Symposium Proceeding series is an internationally recognised reference suitable for researchers and practitioners.
Posted in Technology & Engineering

Physics of Organic Semiconductors

Author: Wolfgang Brütting,Chihaya Adachi

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527654968

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 657

View: 1295

The field of organic electronics has seen a steady growth over the last 15 years. At the same time, our scientific understanding of how to achieve optimum device performance has grown, and this book gives an overview of our present-day knowledge of the physics behind organic semiconductor devices. Based on the very successful first edition, the editors have invited top scientists from the US, Japan, and Europe to include the developments from recent years, covering such fundamental issues as: - growth and characterization of thin films of organic semiconductors, - charge transport and photophysical properties of the materials as well as their electronic structure at interfaces, and - analysis and modeling of devices like organic light-emitting diodes or organic lasers. The result is an overview of the field for both readers with basic knowledge and for an application-oriented audience. It thus bridges the gap between textbook knowledge largely based on crystalline molecular solids and those books focusing more on device applications.
Posted in Technology & Engineering

Physics of Semiconductor Devices

17th International Workshop on the Physics of Semiconductor Devices 2013

Author: V. K. Jain,Abhishek Verma

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3319030027

Category: Science

Page: 932

View: 1377

The purpose of this workshop is to spread the vast amount of information available on semiconductor physics to every possible field throughout the scientific community. As a result, the latest findings, research and discoveries can be quickly disseminated. This workshop provides all participating research groups with an excellent platform for interaction and collaboration with other members of their respective scientific community. This workshop’s technical sessions include various current and significant topics for applications and scientific developments, including • Optoelectronics • VLSI & ULSI Technology • Photovoltaics • MEMS & Sensors • Device Modeling and Simulation • High Frequency/ Power Devices • Nanotechnology and Emerging Areas • Organic Electronics • Displays and Lighting Many eminent scientists from various national and international organizations are actively participating with their latest research works and also equally supporting this mega event by joining the various organizing committees.
Posted in Science

Physics and Technology of Amorphous-Crystalline Heterostructure Silicon Solar Cells

Author: Wilfried G. J. H. M. van Sark,Lars Korte,Francesco Roca

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642222757

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 582

View: 8560

Today’s solar cell multi-GW market is dominated by crystalline silicon (c-Si) wafer technology, however new cell concepts are entering the market. One very promising solar cell design to answer these needs is the silicon hetero-junction solar cell, of which the emitter and back surface field are basically produced by a low temperature growth of ultra-thin layers of amorphous silicon. In this design, amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) constitutes both „emitter“ and „base-contact/back surface field“ on both sides of a thin crystalline silicon wafer-base (c-Si) where the electrons and holes are photogenerated; at the same time, a-Si:H passivates the c-Si surface. Recently, cell efficiencies above 23% have been demonstrated for such solar cells. In this book, the editors present an overview of the state-of-the-art in physics and technology of amorphous-crystalline heterostructure silicon solar cells. The heterojunction concept is introduced, processes and resulting properties of the materials used in the cell and their heterointerfaces are discussed and characterization techniques and simulation tools are presented.
Posted in Technology & Engineering

The Physics of Semiconductors

An Introduction Including Nanophysics and Applications

Author: Marius Grundmann

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642138843

Category: Science

Page: 864

View: 1676

Semiconductorelectronicsiscommonplaceineveryhousehold.Semiconductor deviceshavealsoenabledeconomicallyreasonable?ber-basedopticalcom- nication, optical storage and high-frequency ampli?cation and have recently revolutionizedphotography,displaytechnologyandlighting.Alongwiththese tremendous technological developments, semiconductors have changed the way we work, communicate, entertain and think. The technological progress of semiconductor materials and devices is evolving continuously with a large worldwide e?ort in human and monetary capital. For students, semicond- tors o?er a rich, diverse and exciting ?eld with a great tradition and a bright future. This book introduces students to semiconductor physics and semicond- tor devices. It brings them to the point where they can specialize and enter supervisedlaboratoryresearch.Itisbasedonthetwosemestersemiconductor physics course taught at Universit ̈ at Leipzig in its Master of Science physics curriculum. Since the book can be followed with little or no pre-existing knowledge in solid-state physics and quantum mechanics, it is also suitable for undergraduate students. For the interested reader some additional topics are included in the book that can be covered in subsequent, more speci- ized courses. The material is selected to provide a balance between aspects of solid-state and semiconductor physics, the concepts of various semiconductor devices and modern applications in electronics and photonics.
Posted in Science

Semiconductor Physical Electronics

Author: Sheng S. Li

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 146130489X

Category: Science

Page: 528

View: 5396

The purpose of this book is to provide the reader with a self-contained treatment of fundamen tal solid state and semiconductor device physics. The material presented in the text is based upon the lecture notes of a one-year graduate course sequence taught by this author for many years in the ·Department of Electrical Engineering of the University of Florida. It is intended as an introductory textbook for graduate students in electrical engineering. However, many students from other disciplines and backgrounds such as chemical engineering, materials science, and physics have also taken this course sequence, and will be interested in the material presented herein. This book may also serve as a general reference for device engineers in the semiconductor industry. The present volume covers a wide variety of topics on basic solid state physics and physical principles of various semiconductor devices. The main subjects covered include crystal structures, lattice dynamics, semiconductor statistics, energy band theory, excess carrier phenomena and recombination mechanisms, carrier transport and scattering mechanisms, optical properties, photoelectric effects, metal-semiconductor devices, the p--n junction diode, bipolar junction transistor, MOS devices, photonic devices, quantum effect devices, and high speed III-V semiconductor devices. The text presents a unified and balanced treatment of the physics of semiconductor materials and devices. It is intended to provide physicists and mat erials scientists with more device backgrounds, and device engineers with a broader knowledge of fundamental solid state physics.
Posted in Science

Physical Chemistry of Semiconductor Materials and Processes

Author: Sergio Pizzini

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118514572

Category: Science

Page: 440

View: 6196

The development of semiconductor devices began a little more than a century ago, with the discovery of the electrical conductivity of ionic solids. Today, solid state technologies form the background of the society in which we live. The aim of this book is threefold: to present the background physical chemistry on which the technology of solid state devices is based; secondly, to describe specific issues such as the role of defects on the properties of solids, and the crucial influence of surface properties; and ultimately, to look at the physics and chemistry of growth processes, both at the bulk and thin–film level, together with some issues relating to the properties of nano–devices. Divided into five chapters, it covers: Thermodynamics of solids, including phases and their properties and structural order Point defects in semiconductors Extended defects in semiconductors and their interactions with point defects and impurities Growth of semiconductor materials Physical chemistry of semiconductor materials processing With applications across all solid state technologies,the book is useful for advanced students and researchers in materials science, physics, chemistry, electrical and electronic engineering. It is also useful for those in the semiconductor industry.
Posted in Science

Dilute III-V Nitride Semiconductors and Material Systems

Physics and Technology

Author: Ayse Erol

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540745297

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 592

View: 5111

This book reviews the current status of research and development in dilute III-V nitrides. It covers major developments in this new class of materials within 24 chapters from prominent research groups. The book integrates materials science and applications in optics and electronics in a unique way. It is valuable both as a reference work for researchers and as a study text for graduate students.
Posted in Technology & Engineering

Physics of Semiconductor Devices

Proceedings of the Eleventh International Workshop on the Physics of Semiconductor Devices : (December 11-15, 2001)

Author: Vikram Kumar,Prasanta Kumar Basu

Publisher: Allied Publishers

ISBN: 9780819445001

Category: Semiconductors

Page: N.A

View: 7941

Posted in Semiconductors

Nanostructured Semiconductor Oxides for the Next Generation of Electronics and Functional Devices

Properties and Applications

Author: Serge Zhuiykov

Publisher: Woodhead Publishing

ISBN: 1782422242

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 466

View: 2148

Nanostructured Semiconductor Oxides for the Next Generation of Electronics and Functional Devices focuses on the development of semiconductor nanocrystals, their technologies and applications, including energy harvesting, solar cells, solid oxide fuel cells, and chemical sensors. Semiconductor oxides are used in electronics, optics, catalysts, sensors, and other functional devices. In their 2D form, the reduction in size confers exceptional properties, useful for creating faster electronics and more efficient catalysts. After explaining the physics affecting the conductivity and electron arrangement of nanostructured semiconductors, the book addresses the structural and chemical modification of semiconductor nanocrystals during material growth. It then covers their use in nanoscale functional devices, particularly in electronic devices and carbon nanotubes. It explores the impact of 2D nanocrystals, such as graphene, chalcogenides, and oxide nanostructures, on research and technology, leading to a discussion of incorporating graphene and semiconductor nanostructures into composites for use in energy storage. The final three chapters focus on the applications of these functional materials in photovoltaic cells, solid oxide fuel cells, and in environmental sensors including pH, dissolved oxygen, dissolved organic carbon, and dissolved metal ion sensors. Nanostructured Semiconductor Oxides for the Next Generation of Electronics and Functional Devices is a crucial resource for scientists, applied researchers, and production engineers working in the fabrication, design, testing, characterization, and analysis of new semiconductor materials. This book is a valuable reference for those working in the analysis and characterization of new nanomaterials, and for those who develop technologies for practical devices fabrication. Focuses on the development of semiconductor nanocrystals, their technologies and applications, including energy harvesting, solar cells, solid oxide fuel cells, and chemical sensors Reviews fundamental physics of conductivity and electron arrangement before proceeding to practical applications A vital resource for applied researchers and production engineers working with new semiconductor materials
Posted in Technology & Engineering

Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide-Based Thin Film Solar Cells

Author: Kentaro Ito

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 111843787X

Category: Science

Page: 440

View: 3342

Beginning with an overview and historical background of Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide (CZTS) technology, subsequent chapters cover properties of CZTS thin films, different preparation methods of CZTS thin films, a comparative study of CZTS and CIGS solar cell, computational approach, and future applications of CZTS thin film solar modules to both ground–mount and rooftop installation. The semiconducting compound (CZTS) is made up earth–abundant, low–cost and non–toxic elements, which make it an ideal candidate to replace Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) and CdTe solar cells which face material scarcity and toxicity issues. The device performance of CZTS–based thin film solar cells has been steadily improving over the past 20 years, and they have now reached near commercial efficiency levels (10%). These achievements prove that CZTS–based solar cells have the potential to be used for large–scale deployment of photovoltaics. With contributions from leading researchers from academia and industry, many of these authors have contributed to the improvement of its efficiency, and have rich experience in preparing a variety of semiconducting thin films for solar cells.
Posted in Science

Physics of Amorphous Semiconductors

Author: Kazuo Morigaki

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789810213817

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 418

View: 7516

This is a useful textbook for graduate students in the fields of solid state physics and chemistry as well as electronic engineering. Presenting the fundamentals of amorphous semiconductors clearly, it will be essential reading for young scientists intending to develop new preparation techniques for more ideal amorphous semiconductors e.g. a-Si: H, to fabricate stable and efficient solar cells and thin film transistors and new artificial amorphous materials such as multilayers for quantum devices.A large portion is devoted to the latest developments of amorphous semiconductors including electronic properties of a-Si: H, nature of weak bonds and gap states in a-Si: H, mechanisms for light-induced defect creation in a-Si: H and chalcogenides, quantum phenomena in multilayer fi
Posted in Technology & Engineering

Organic Photovoltaics

Materials, Device Physics, and Manufacturing Technologies

Author: Christoph Brabec,Ullrich Scherf,Vladimir Dyakonov

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527623205

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 597

View: 1983

Providing complementary viewpoints from academia as well as technology companies, this book covers the three most important aspects of successful device design: materials, device physics, and manufacturing technologies. It also offers an insight into commercialization concerns, such as packaging technologies, system integration, reel-to-reel large scale manufacturing issues and production costs. With an introduction by Nobel Laureate Alan Heeger.
Posted in Technology & Engineering