The Oxford Handbook of Probability and Philosophy

Author: Alan Hájek,Christopher Hitchcock

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780199607617

Category:

Page: 880

View: 8939

Probability theory is a key tool of the physical, mathematical, and social sciences. It has also been playing an increasingly significant role in philosophy: in epistemology, philosophy of science, ethics, social philosophy, philosophy of religion, and elsewhere. A case can be made that probability is as vital a part of the philosopher's toolkit as logic. Moreover, there is a fruitful two-way street between probability theory and philosophy: the theory informs much of the work of philosophers, and philosophical inquiry, in turn, has shed considerable light on the theory. This Handbook encapsulates and furthers the influence of philosophy on probability, and of probability on philosophy. Nearly forty articles summarise the state of play and present new insights in various areas of research at the intersection of these two fields. The articles will be of special interest to practitioners of probability who seek a greater understanding of its mathematical and conceptual foundations, and to philosophers who want to get up to speed on the cutting edge of research in this area. There is plenty here to entice philosophical readers who don't work especially on probability but who want to learn more about it and its applications. Indeed, this volume should appeal to the intellectually curious generally; after all, there is much here to be curious about. We do not expect all of this volume's audience to have a thorough training in probability theory. And while probability is relevant to the work of many philosophers, they often do not have much of a background in its formalism. With this in mind, we begin with 'Probability for Everyone--Even Philosophers', a primer on those parts of probability theory that we believe are most important for philosophers to know. The rest of the volume is divided into seven main sections: History; Formalism; Alternatives to Standard Probability Theory; Interpretations and Interpretive Issues; Probabilistic Judgment and Its Applications; Applications of Probability: Science; and Applications of Probability: Philosophy.
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The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Science

Author: Paul Humphreys

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190630701

Category: Science

Page: 960

View: 5380

This handbook provides both an overview of state-of-the-art scholarship in philosophy of science, as well as a guide to new directions in the discipline. Section I contains broad overviews of the main lines of research and the state of established knowledge in six principal areas of the discipline, including computational, physical, biological, psychological and social sciences, as well as general philosophy of science. Section II covers what are considered to be the traditional topics in the philosophy of science, such as causation, probability, models, ethics and values, and explanation. Section III identifies new areas of investigation that show promise of becoming important areas of research, including the philosophy of astronomy and astrophysics, data, complexity theory, neuroscience, simulations, post-Kuhnian philosophy, post-empiricist epistemology, and emergence. Most chapters are accessible to scientifically educated non-philosophers as well as to professional philosophers, and the contributors - all leading researchers in their field -- bring diverse perspectives from the North American, European, and Australasian research communities. This volume is an essential resource for scholars and students.
Posted in Science

The Oxford Handbook of Causation

Author: Helen Beebee,Christopher Hitchcock,Peter Menzies

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191629464

Category: Philosophy

Page: 816

View: 1643

Causation is a central topic in many areas of philosophy. In metaphysics, philosophers want to know what causation is, and how it is related to laws of nature, probability, action, and freedom of the will. In epistemology, philosophers investigate how causal claims can be inferred from statistical data, and how causation is related to perception, knowledge and explanation. In the philosophy of mind, philosophers want to know whether and how the mind can be said to have causal efficacy, and in ethics, whether there is a moral distinction between acts and omissions and whether the moral value of an act can be judged according to its consequences. And causation is a contested concept in other fields of enquiry, such as biology, physics, and the law. This book provides an in-depth and comprehensive overview of these and other topics, as well as the history of the causation debate from the ancient Greeks to the logical empiricists. The chapters provide surveys of contemporary debates, while often also advancing novel and controversial claims; and each includes a comprehensive bibliography and suggestions for further reading. The book is thus the most comprehensive source of information about causation currently available, and will be invaluable for upper-level undergraduates through to professional philosophers.
Posted in Philosophy

The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Physics

Author: Robert Batterman

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0195392043

Category: Philosophy

Page: 688

View: 3340

This Oxford Handbook provides an overview of many of the topics that currently engage philosophers of physics. It surveys new issues and the problems that have become a focus of attention in recent years. It also provides up-to-date discussions of the still very important problems that dominated the field in the past. In the late 20th Century, the philosophy of physics was largely focused on orthodox Quantum Mechanics and Relativity Theory. The measurement problem, the question of the possibility of hidden variables, and the nature of quantum locality dominated the literature on the quantum mechanics, whereas questions about relationalism vs. substantivalism, and issues about underdetermination of theories dominated the literature on spacetime. These issues still receive considerable attention from philosophers, but many have shifted their attentions to other questions related to quantum mechanics and to spacetime theories. Quantum field theory has become a major focus, particularly from the point of view of algebraic foundations. Concurrent with these trends, there has been a focus on understanding gauge invariance and symmetries. The philosophy of physics has evolved even further in recent years with attention being paid to theories that, for the most part, were largely ignored in the past. For example, the relationship between thermodynamics and statistical mechanics—-once thought to be a paradigm instance of unproblematic theory reduction—-is now a hotly debated topic. The implicit, and sometimes explicit, reductionist methodology of both philosophers and physicists has been severely criticized and attention has now turned to the explanatory and descriptive roles of "non-fundamental,'' phenomenological theories. This shift of attention includes "old'' theories such as classical mechanics, once deemed to be of little philosophical interest. Furthermore, some philosophers have become more interested in "less fundamental'' contemporary physics such as condensed matter theory. Questions abound with implications for the nature of models, idealizations, and explanation in physics. This Handbook showcases all these aspects of this complex and dynamic discipline.
Posted in Philosophy

The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Time

Author: Craig Callender

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0199298203

Category: Science

Page: 704

View: 768

This is the first comprehensive book on the philosophy of time. Leading philosophers discuss the metaphysics of time, our experience and representation of time, the role of time in ethics and action, and philosophical issues in the sciences of time, especially quantum mechanics and relativity theory.
Posted in Science

The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Social Science

Author: Harold Kincaid

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0195392752

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 657

View: 924

The philosophy of the social sciences considers the underlying explanatory powers of the social (or human) sciences, such as history, economics, anthropology, politics, and sociology. The type of questions covered includes the methodological (the nature of observations, laws, theories, and explanations) to the ontological — whether or not these sciences can explain human nature in a way consistent with common-sense beliefs. This Handbook is a major, comprehensive look at the key ideas in the field, is guided by several principles. The first is that the philosophy of social science should be closely connected to, and informed by, developments in the sciences themselves. The second is that the volume should appeal to practicing social scientists as well as philosophers, with the contributors being both drawn from both ranks, and speaking to ongoing controversial issues in the field. Finally, the volume promotes connections across the social sciences, with greater internal discussion and interaction across disciplinary boundaries.
Posted in Business & Economics

The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Religion

Author: William Wainwright

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199881359

Category: Reference

Page: 560

View: 8656

The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Religion contains newly commissioned chapters by 21 prominent experts who cover the field in a comprehensive but accessible manner. Each chapter is expository, critical, and representative of a distinctive viewpoint.
Posted in Reference

The Oxford Handbook of Rationality

Author: Alfred R. Mele

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0195145399

Category: Philosophy

Page: 477

View: 7300

Rationality has long been a central topic in philosophy, crossing standard divisions and categories. 'The Oxford Handbook of Rationality' is a reference to the current state of play in this vital and interdisciplinary area of study.
Posted in Philosophy

The Oxford Handbook of Leibniz

Author: Maria Rosa Antognazza

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0199744726

Category: Philosophy

Page: 824

View: 9593

"This handbook is currently in development, with individual articles publishing online in advance of print publication. At this time, we cannot add information about unpublished articles in this handbook, however the table of contents will continue to grow as additional articles pass through the review process and are added to the site. Please note that the online publication date for this handbook is the date that the first article in the title was published online. For more information, please read the site FAQs." -- website
Posted in Philosophy

The Oxford Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning

Author: Keith J. Holyoak,Robert G. Morrison

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199313792

Category: Psychology

Page: 864

View: 1349

The Oxford Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning brings together the contributions of many of the leading researchers in thinking and reasoning to create the most comprehensive overview of research on thinking and reasoning that has ever been available.
Posted in Psychology

Der Liebe Tun

etliche christliche Erwägungen in Form von Reden

Author: Søren Kierkegaard

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783936762242

Category: Love

Page: 459

View: 567

Posted in Love

The Oxford Handbook of Causal Reasoning

Author: Michael Waldmann

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199399557

Category: Psychology

Page: 768

View: 8073

Causal reasoning is one of our most central cognitive competencies, enabling us to adapt to our world. Causal knowledge allows us to predict future events, or diagnose the causes of observed facts. We plan actions and solve problems using knowledge about cause-effect relations. Although causal reasoning is a component of most of our cognitive functions, it has been neglected in cognitive psychology for many decades. The Oxford Handbook of Causal Reasoning offers a state-of-the-art review of the growing field, and its contribution to the world of cognitive science. The Handbook begins with an introduction of competing theories of causal learning and reasoning. In the next section, it presents research about basic cognitive functions involved in causal cognition, such as perception, categorization, argumentation, decision-making, and induction. The following section examines research on domains that embody causal relations, including intuitive physics, legal and moral reasoning, psychopathology, language, social cognition, and the roles of space and time. The final section presents research from neighboring fields that study developmental, phylogenetic, and cultural differences in causal cognition. The chapters, each written by renowned researchers in their field, fill in the gaps of many cognitive psychology textbooks, emphasizing the crucial role of causal structures in our everyday lives. This Handbook is an essential read for students and researchers of the cognitive sciences, including cognitive, developmental, social, comparative, and cross-cultural psychology; philosophy; methodology; statistics; artificial intelligence; and machine learning.
Posted in Psychology

The Oxford Handbook of Political Methodology

Author: Janet M. Box-Steffensmeier,Henry E. Brady,David Collier

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780199286546

Category: Political Science

Page: 880

View: 3500

The Oxford Handbooks of Political Science are the essential guide to the state of political science today. With engaging contributions from major international scholars The Oxford Handbook of Political Methodology provides the key point of reference for anyone working throughout the discipline.
Posted in Political Science

Elicitation

The Science and Art of Structuring Judgement

Author: Luis C. Dias,Alec Morton,John Quigley

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319650521

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 542

View: 6612

This book is about elicitation: the facilitation of the quantitative expression of subjective judgement about matters of fact, interacting with subject experts, or about matters of value, interacting with decision makers or stakeholders. It offers an integrated presentation of procedures and processes that allow analysts and experts to think clearly about numbers, particularly the inputs for decision support systems and models. This presentation encompasses research originating in the communities of structured probability elicitation/calibration and multi-criteria decision analysis, often unaware of each other’s developments. Chapters 2 through 9 focus on processes to elicit uncertainty from experts, including the Classical Method for aggregating judgements from multiple experts concerning probability distributions; the issue of validation in the Classical Method; the Sheffield elicitation framework; the IDEA protocol; approaches following the Bayesian perspective; the main elements of structured expert processes for dependence elicitation; and how mathematical methods can incorporate correlations between experts. Chapters 10 through 14 focus on processes to elicit preferences from stakeholders or decision makers, including two chapters on problems under uncertainty (utility functions), and three chapters that address elicitation of preferences independently of, or in absence of, any uncertainty elicitation (value functions and ELECTRE). Two chapters then focus on cross-cutting issues for elicitation of uncertainties and elicitation of preferences: biases and selection of experts. Finally, the last group of chapters illustrates how some of the presented approaches are applied in practice, including a food security case in the UK; expert elicitation in health care decision making; an expert judgement based method to elicit nuclear threat risks in US ports; risk assessment in a pulp and paper manufacturer in the Nordic countries; and elicitation of preferences for crop planning in a Greek region.
Posted in Business & Economics

Galileos Finger

die zehn großen Ideen der Naturwissenschaft

Author: Peter W. Atkins

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783608941258

Category: Discoveries in science

Page: 526

View: 6769

Posted in Discoveries in science

Why Philosophy Matters for the Study of Religion—and Vice Versa

Author: Thomas A. Lewis

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0191062162

Category: Religion

Page: 224

View: 8700

Work in philosophy of religion is still strongly marked by an excessive focus on Christianity and, to a lesser extent, Judaism — almost to the exclusion of other religious traditions. Moreover, in many cases it has been confined to a narrow set of intellectual problems, without embedding these in their larger social, historical, and practical contexts. Why Philosophy Matters for the Study of Religion—and Vice Versa addresses this situation through a series of interventions intended to work against the gap that exists between much scholarship in philosophy of religion and important recent developments that speak to religious studies as a whole. This volume takes up what, in recent years, has often been seen as a fundamental reason for excluding religious ethics and philosophy of religion from religious studies: their explicit normativity. Against this presupposition, Thomas A. Lewis argues that normativity is pervasive—not unique to ethics and philosophy of religion—and therefore not a reason to exclude them from religious studies. Lewis bridges more philosophical and historical subfields by arguing for the importance of history to the philosophy of religion. He considers the future of religious ethics, explaining that the field as whole should learn from the methodological developments associated with recent work in comparative religious ethics and 'comparative religious ethics' should no longer be conceived as a distinct subfield. The concluding chapter engages broader, post-9/11 arguments about the importance of studying religion arguing, that prominent contemporary notions of 'religious literacy' actually hinder our ability to grasp religion's significance and impact in the world today.
Posted in Religion

Free Will, Causality and the Self

Author: Atle Ottesen Søvik

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 3110474468

Category: Philosophy

Page: 190

View: 3584

Søvik argues that since there is some indeterminism in the world, agents can be fundamental sources of their actions and thus freer than what compatibilists think without having to appeal to mysterious causation. The theory presupposes a plausible understanding of causation and the self, and shows that in an indetermined world it will sometimes be right to select persons as fundamental causes of their choices.
Posted in Philosophy

The Oxford Handbook of Quantitative Methods in Psychology

Foundations

Author: Todd D. Little

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 019937015X

Category: Psychology

Page: 515

View: 7116

This two-volume handbook on current best-practices in quantitative methods as practiced in the social, behavioral, and educational sciences covers philosophical and ethical issues, theory construction, model building and types of models, survey and experiment design, measurement issues, observational methods, statistical methods, types of analysis, types of data, and common research fallacies.
Posted in Psychology

Gerechte Freiheit

Ein moralischer Kompass für eine komplexe Welt

Author: Philip Pettit

Publisher: Suhrkamp Verlag

ISBN: 3518740989

Category: Philosophy

Page: 350

View: 5388

Was heißt Freiheit heute – jenseits einer auf persönliche Interessendurchsetzung zielenden neoliberalen Marktfreiheit? Können wir noch ein Freiheitsverständnis entwickeln, das uns moralische Orientierung in einer immer komplexer werdenden Welt bietet? Philip Pettit, einer der meistdiskutierten Philosophen der Gegenwart, entwickelt in seinem mitreißenden Buch einen Freiheitsbegriff, der die Idee eines nichtbeherrschten Lebens in sein Zentrum stellt. Freiheit heißt ihm zufolge: sein eigener Herr sein, allen auf Augenhöhe begegnen können und den Einfluss anderer Menschen nicht fürchten müssen. Das hat weitreichende soziale, ökonomische und politische Konsequenzen. Ein unverzichtbarer Kompass für die Navigation im 21. Jahrhundert.
Posted in Philosophy

The Handbook of Rational and Social Choice

Author: Paul Anand,Prasanta Pattanaik,Clemens Puppe

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191608769

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 608

View: 880

The Handbook of Rational and Social Choice provides an overview of issues arising in work on the foundations of decision theory and social choice over the past three decades. Drawing on work by economic theorists mainly, but also with contributions from political science, philosophy and psychology, the collection shows how the related areas of decision theory and social choice have developed in their applications and moved well beyond the basic models of expected utility and utilitarian approaches to welfare economics. Containing twenty-three contributions, in many cases by leading figures in their fields, the handbook shows how the normative foundations of economics have changed dramatically as more general and explicit models of utility and group choice have been developed. This is perhaps the first time these developments have been brought together in a manner that seeks to identify and make accessible the recent themes and developments that have been of particular interest to researchers in recent years. The collection will be of particular value to researchers in economics with interests in utility or welfare but it will also be of interest to any social scientist or philosopher interested in theories of rationality or group decision-making.
Posted in Business & Economics