The Oxford Handbook of Probability and Philosophy

Author: Alan Hájek,Christopher Hitchcock

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780199607617

Category:

Page: 880

View: 794

Probability theory is a key tool of the physical, mathematical, and social sciences. It has also been playing an increasingly significant role in philosophy: in epistemology, philosophy of science, ethics, social philosophy, philosophy of religion, and elsewhere. A case can be made that probability is as vital a part of the philosopher's toolkit as logic. Moreover, there is a fruitful two-way street between probability theory and philosophy: the theory informs much of the work of philosophers, and philosophical inquiry, in turn, has shed considerable light on the theory. This Handbook encapsulates and furthers the influence of philosophy on probability, and of probability on philosophy. Nearly forty articles summarise the state of play and present new insights in various areas of research at the intersection of these two fields. The articles will be of special interest to practitioners of probability who seek a greater understanding of its mathematical and conceptual foundations, and to philosophers who want to get up to speed on the cutting edge of research in this area. There is plenty here to entice philosophical readers who don't work especially on probability but who want to learn more about it and its applications. Indeed, this volume should appeal to the intellectually curious generally; after all, there is much here to be curious about. We do not expect all of this volume's audience to have a thorough training in probability theory. And while probability is relevant to the work of many philosophers, they often do not have much of a background in its formalism. With this in mind, we begin with 'Probability for Everyone--Even Philosophers', a primer on those parts of probability theory that we believe are most important for philosophers to know. The rest of the volume is divided into seven main sections: History; Formalism; Alternatives to Standard Probability Theory; Interpretations and Interpretive Issues; Probabilistic Judgment and Its Applications; Applications of Probability: Science; and Applications of Probability: Philosophy.
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The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Science

Author: Paul Humphreys

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190630701

Category: Science

Page: 960

View: 2476

This handbook provides both an overview of state-of-the-art scholarship in philosophy of science, as well as a guide to new directions in the discipline. Section I contains broad overviews of the main lines of research and the state of established knowledge in six principal areas of the discipline, including computational, physical, biological, psychological and social sciences, as well as general philosophy of science. Section II covers what are considered to be the traditional topics in the philosophy of science, such as causation, probability, models, ethics and values, and explanation. Section III identifies new areas of investigation that show promise of becoming important areas of research, including the philosophy of astronomy and astrophysics, data, complexity theory, neuroscience, simulations, post-Kuhnian philosophy, post-empiricist epistemology, and emergence. Most chapters are accessible to scientifically educated non-philosophers as well as to professional philosophers, and the contributors - all leading researchers in their field -- bring diverse perspectives from the North American, European, and Australasian research communities. This volume is an essential resource for scholars and students.
Posted in Science

The Oxford Handbook of Causation

Author: Helen Beebee,Christopher Hitchcock,Peter Menzies

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191629464

Category: Philosophy

Page: 816

View: 6301

Causation is a central topic in many areas of philosophy. In metaphysics, philosophers want to know what causation is, and how it is related to laws of nature, probability, action, and freedom of the will. In epistemology, philosophers investigate how causal claims can be inferred from statistical data, and how causation is related to perception, knowledge and explanation. In the philosophy of mind, philosophers want to know whether and how the mind can be said to have causal efficacy, and in ethics, whether there is a moral distinction between acts and omissions and whether the moral value of an act can be judged according to its consequences. And causation is a contested concept in other fields of enquiry, such as biology, physics, and the law. This book provides an in-depth and comprehensive overview of these and other topics, as well as the history of the causation debate from the ancient Greeks to the logical empiricists. The chapters provide surveys of contemporary debates, while often also advancing novel and controversial claims; and each includes a comprehensive bibliography and suggestions for further reading. The book is thus the most comprehensive source of information about causation currently available, and will be invaluable for upper-level undergraduates through to professional philosophers.
Posted in Philosophy

The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Social Science

Author: Harold Kincaid

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0195392752

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 657

View: 8994

The philosophy of the social sciences considers the underlying explanatory powers of the social (or human) sciences, such as history, economics, anthropology, politics, and sociology. The type of questions covered includes the methodological (the nature of observations, laws, theories, and explanations) to the ontological — whether or not these sciences can explain human nature in a way consistent with common-sense beliefs. This Handbook is a major, comprehensive look at the key ideas in the field, is guided by several principles. The first is that the philosophy of social science should be closely connected to, and informed by, developments in the sciences themselves. The second is that the volume should appeal to practicing social scientists as well as philosophers, with the contributors being both drawn from both ranks, and speaking to ongoing controversial issues in the field. Finally, the volume promotes connections across the social sciences, with greater internal discussion and interaction across disciplinary boundaries.
Posted in Business & Economics

The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy and Literature

Author: Richard Eldridge

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199724105

Category: Philosophy

Page: 536

View: 1390

The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy and Literature contains twenty-three newly commissioned essays by major philosophers and literary scholars that investigate literature as a form of attention to human life. Various forms of attention are considered under the headings of Genres (from Ancient Epic to the Novel and Contemporary Experimental Writing), Periods (from Realism and Romanticism to Postcolonialism), Devices and Powers (Imagination, Plot, Character, Style, and Emotion), and Contexts and Uses (in relation to inquiry, morality, and politics). In each case, the effort is to track and evaluate how specific modes and works of imaginative literature answer to important needs of human subjects for orientation, the articulation of interest in life, and the working through of emotion, within situations that are both sociohistorical and human. Hence these essays show how and why literature matters in manifold ways in and for human cultural life, and they show how philosophers and imaginative literary writers have continually both engaged with and criticized each other.
Posted in Philosophy

The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Physics

Author: Robert Batterman

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0195392043

Category: Philosophy

Page: 688

View: 4213

This Oxford Handbook provides an overview of many of the topics that currently engage philosophers of physics. It surveys new issues and the problems that have become a focus of attention in recent years. It also provides up-to-date discussions of the still very important problems that dominated the field in the past. In the late 20th Century, the philosophy of physics was largely focused on orthodox Quantum Mechanics and Relativity Theory. The measurement problem, the question of the possibility of hidden variables, and the nature of quantum locality dominated the literature on the quantum mechanics, whereas questions about relationalism vs. substantivalism, and issues about underdetermination of theories dominated the literature on spacetime. These issues still receive considerable attention from philosophers, but many have shifted their attentions to other questions related to quantum mechanics and to spacetime theories. Quantum field theory has become a major focus, particularly from the point of view of algebraic foundations. Concurrent with these trends, there has been a focus on understanding gauge invariance and symmetries. The philosophy of physics has evolved even further in recent years with attention being paid to theories that, for the most part, were largely ignored in the past. For example, the relationship between thermodynamics and statistical mechanics—-once thought to be a paradigm instance of unproblematic theory reduction—-is now a hotly debated topic. The implicit, and sometimes explicit, reductionist methodology of both philosophers and physicists has been severely criticized and attention has now turned to the explanatory and descriptive roles of "non-fundamental,'' phenomenological theories. This shift of attention includes "old'' theories such as classical mechanics, once deemed to be of little philosophical interest. Furthermore, some philosophers have become more interested in "less fundamental'' contemporary physics such as condensed matter theory. Questions abound with implications for the nature of models, idealizations, and explanation in physics. This Handbook showcases all these aspects of this complex and dynamic discipline.
Posted in Philosophy

The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Religion

Author: William Wainwright

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199881359

Category: Reference

Page: 560

View: 1182

The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Religion contains newly commissioned chapters by 21 prominent experts who cover the field in a comprehensive but accessible manner. Each chapter is expository, critical, and representative of a distinctive viewpoint.
Posted in Reference

The Oxford Handbook of Leibniz

Author: Maria Rosa Antognazza

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0199744726

Category: Philosophy

Page: 824

View: 9068

"This handbook is currently in development, with individual articles publishing online in advance of print publication. At this time, we cannot add information about unpublished articles in this handbook, however the table of contents will continue to grow as additional articles pass through the review process and are added to the site. Please note that the online publication date for this handbook is the date that the first article in the title was published online. For more information, please read the site FAQs." -- website
Posted in Philosophy

The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Time

Author: Craig Callender

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0199298203

Category: Science

Page: 704

View: 6541

This is the first comprehensive book on the philosophy of time. Leading philosophers discuss the metaphysics of time, our experience and representation of time, the role of time in ethics and action, and philosophical issues in the sciences of time, especially quantum mechanics and relativity theory.
Posted in Science

The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Education

Author: Harvey Siegel

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0195312880

Category: Education

Page: 548

View: 7933

A general introduction to key issues in the philosophy of education. The chapters are accessible to readers with no prior exposure to philosophy of education, and provide both surveys of the general domain they address, and advance the discussion in those domains.
Posted in Education

The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Mathematics and Logic

Author: Stewart Shapiro

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190287535

Category: Mathematics

Page: 856

View: 7128

Mathematics and logic have been central topics of concern since the dawn of philosophy. Since logic is the study of correct reasoning, it is a fundamental branch of epistemology and a priority in any philosophical system. Philosophers have focused on mathematics as a case study for general philosophical issues and for its role in overall knowledge- gathering. Today, philosophy of mathematics and logic remain central disciplines in contemporary philosophy, as evidenced by the regular appearance of articles on these topics in the best mainstream philosophical journals; in fact, the last decade has seen an explosion of scholarly work in these areas. This volume covers these disciplines in a comprehensive and accessible manner, giving the reader an overview of the major problems, positions, and battle lines. The 26 contributed chapters are by established experts in the field, and their articles contain both exposition and criticism as well as substantial development of their own positions. The essays, which are substantially self-contained, serve both to introduce the reader to the subject and to engage in it at its frontiers. Certain major positions are represented by two chapters--one supportive and one critical. The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Math and Logic is a ground-breaking reference like no other in its field. It is a central resource to those wishing to learn about the philosophy of mathematics and the philosophy of logic, or some aspect thereof, and to those who actively engage in the discipline, from advanced undergraduates to professional philosophers, mathematicians, and historians.
Posted in Mathematics

The Oxford Handbook of Causal Reasoning

Author: Michael Waldmann

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199399557

Category: Psychology

Page: 768

View: 8088

Causal reasoning is one of our most central cognitive competencies, enabling us to adapt to our world. Causal knowledge allows us to predict future events, or diagnose the causes of observed facts. We plan actions and solve problems using knowledge about cause-effect relations. Although causal reasoning is a component of most of our cognitive functions, it has been neglected in cognitive psychology for many decades. The Oxford Handbook of Causal Reasoning offers a state-of-the-art review of the growing field, and its contribution to the world of cognitive science. The Handbook begins with an introduction of competing theories of causal learning and reasoning. In the next section, it presents research about basic cognitive functions involved in causal cognition, such as perception, categorization, argumentation, decision-making, and induction. The following section examines research on domains that embody causal relations, including intuitive physics, legal and moral reasoning, psychopathology, language, social cognition, and the roles of space and time. The final section presents research from neighboring fields that study developmental, phylogenetic, and cultural differences in causal cognition. The chapters, each written by renowned researchers in their field, fill in the gaps of many cognitive psychology textbooks, emphasizing the crucial role of causal structures in our everyday lives. This Handbook is an essential read for students and researchers of the cognitive sciences, including cognitive, developmental, social, comparative, and cross-cultural psychology; philosophy; methodology; statistics; artificial intelligence; and machine learning.
Posted in Psychology

The Oxford Handbook of Rationality

Author: Alfred R. Mele

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0195145399

Category: Philosophy

Page: 477

View: 3639

Rationality has long been a central topic in philosophy, crossing standard divisions and categories. 'The Oxford Handbook of Rationality' is a reference to the current state of play in this vital and interdisciplinary area of study.
Posted in Philosophy

The Oxford Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning

Author: Keith J. Holyoak,Robert G. Morrison

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199313792

Category: Psychology

Page: 864

View: 3929

The Oxford Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning brings together the contributions of many of the leading researchers in thinking and reasoning to create the most comprehensive overview of research on thinking and reasoning that has ever been available.
Posted in Psychology

The Oxford Handbook of British Philosophy in the Seventeenth Century

Author: Peter R. Anstey

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199549990

Category: History

Page: 651

View: 1618

The Oxford Handbook of British Philosophy in the Seventeenth Century comprises twenty-six new essays by leading experts in the field. This unique scholarly resource provides advanced students and scholars with a comprehensive overview of the current issues that are informing research on the subject, while at the same time offering new lines of research. The volume is ambitious in scope and far reaching in impact. It covers the whole of the seventeenthcentury, ranging from Francis Bacon, who flourished early in the century, to John Locke and Isaac Newton, who rose to prominence as the century drew to a close. In addition to dealing with canonical authors and celebrated texts, such as Thomas Hobbes and his Leviathan, the Handbook discusses many lesser knownfigures and debates from the period, whose importance is only now being appreciated.
Posted in History

Philosophy of Probability

Contemporary Readings

Author: Antony Eagle

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780415483872

Category: Mathematics

Page: 543

View: 6071

`The philosophy of probability has had a venerable history, but recently it has especially stepped into the limelight, and it is flourishing nowadays. This volume brings together both classics and cutting-edge contributions to its literature. Antony Eagle does an excellent job of orienting the reader by grouping these articles thematically, and by providing a panoramic and incisive introduction to each of the themes. A terrific resource --- that's a certainty'. Alan Hajek, The Australian National University, Australia The book features a useful primer on the mathematics of probability, and each section includes an introduction by the editor, as well as a guide to further reading. A broad-ranging and highly accessible exploration of the subject, Philosophy of Probability is ideal for any student of formal epistemology, philosophy of science, metaphysics, or philosophy of mathematics.
Posted in Mathematics

Probability in the Philosophy of Religion

Author: Jake Chandler,Victoria S. Harrison

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199604762

Category: Philosophy

Page: 253

View: 8466

These specially written essays show that philosophy of religion is fertile ground for the application of probabilistic thinking. The authors examine central topics in the field: the status of evidence relating to the question of the existence of God; the rationality of religious belief; and the epistemic significance of religious disagreement.
Posted in Philosophy

Oxford Handbook of Medical Statistics

Author: Janet Peacock,Janet L. Peacock,Philip Peacock

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199551286

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 544

View: 8659

The majority of medical research involves quantitative methods and so it is essential to be able to understand and interpret statistics. This book shows readers how to develop the skills required to critically appraise research evidence effectively, and how to conduct research and communicate their findings.
Posted in Language Arts & Disciplines

The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Language

Author: Ernest Lepore,Barry C. Smith

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780199552238

Category: Philosophy

Page: 1104

View: 3529

The definitive reference work for this diverse and fertile field: an outstanding international team contribute 41 new essays covering topics from the nature of language to meaning, truth, and reference, and the interfaces of philosophy of language with linguistics, psychology, logic, epistemology, and metaphysics.
Posted in Philosophy

Decision Theory as Philosophy

Author: Mark Kaplan

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521624961

Category: Philosophy

Page: 248

View: 5166

Kaplan presents an accessible new variant on Bayesian decision theory.
Posted in Philosophy