This book analyses the current and future viability of the Northern Sea Route as a stable transport route for the international transit traffic between Europe and the Far East. It includes the present conditions, defining and evaluating viability factors for using the Northern Sea Route (NSR). The book makes a projection for NSR in the future, taking into account the climatic change in the Arctic findings presented in the IPCC report. This study, based on the author’s PhD thesis, analyses meteorological, hydrologic, bathymetric and other data for the evaluation of the navigation criteria. It is intended for a wide spectrum of readers, from students and scientists of Earth sciences and polar geography, navigation, political science researchers and politicians interested in Arctic affairs.
Expectations and Reality
Author: Tadeusz Pastusiak
Governance of Arctic Shipping: Balancing Rights and Interests of Arctic States and User States examines potential cooperative mechanisms for balancing rights and interests of Arctic States and user States in light of experiences with Southeast Asian cooperative mechanisms.
Balancing Rights and Interests of Arctic States and User States
Author: Robert C. Beckman,Tore Henriksen,Christine Dalaker Kraabel,Erik J. Molenaar,J. Ashley Roach
This unusual encyclopedia brings together in-depth information on more than 450 natural geographic features from around the world and offers an array of creative tools to promote critical thinking and classroom discussion. • Provides a one-stop reference for students of geography and environmental and earth sciences • Offers global coverage of diverse features, whether terrestrial, aquatic, geological, ecological, or physiographic • Includes an overview of the various kinds of landforms of the world, how they are formed, and how they continue to change over time • Explains each feature's origins and significance, as well as major environmental issues in which it's involved • Indicates the importance of features to the development of Western science and contemporary scientific thought in fields such as evolutionary biology, paleontology, plate tectonics, and climate change • Features a "Top 10s Appendix" to provoke student interest through statistics such as the tallest mountains, largest lakes, and longest rivers
An Encyclopedia of the World's Geographic Features
Author: Joyce A. Quinn,Susan L. Woodward
Over the last few years Asian governments have taken a stronger approach to the Arctic, culminating with permanent-observer status to the Arctic Council for China, India, Japan, Singapore and South-Korea in May 2013. This groundbreaking book brings together the latest research in emerging Asian interests for the Arctic region, and the implications thereof this change has for the future. This book covers Arctic shipping, fisheries and mineral extraction. It analyzes key Asian countries' policies, positions and activities. The book also demonstrates that there are common aspects which attract Asian countries to the Arctic, such as a concern for climate change, but there are also important national differences. From the Arctic Council to UNCLOS, Arctic governance mechanisms are thoroughly presented and analyzed. Contributed by scholars from both Asia — China, India, Japan, Singapore and South-Korea — as well as Arctic countries — Norway and USA, this book is an essential source of reference for both academics and government professionals, as well for the readers keen on understanding the dynamic change in the Arctic region. Contents:Governance and Cooperation:Adaptive Governance for a Changing Arctic (Oran R Young)The Arctic Governance and the Interactions between Arctic and Non-Arctic Countries (YANG Jian)Can Asian Involvement Strengthen Arctic Governance? (Olav Schram Stokke)High North: High Politics or Low Tension? Cooperation and Conflict in the Arctic (Jo Inge Bekkevold)Analysis of International Arctic Cooperation Mechanisms among the Nordic Countries (CHENG Baozhi)Economic Development:International Use of the Northern Sea Route — Trends and Prospects (Arild Moe)A Comparative Study of the Administration of the Canadian Northwest Passage and the Russian Northern Sea Route (ZOU Leilei and HUANG Shuolin)Governance and Ownership of the Arctic Ocean: Living Resources and the Continental Shelf (Njord Wegge)Arctic Mining: Asian Interests and Opportunities (Iselin Stensdal)Asia in the Arctic:Japan's Arctic Policy Development: From Engagement to a Strategy (Fujio Ohnishi)India's Arctic Attention (Uttam Sinha)Asian Economic Interests in the Arctic — Singapore's Perspective (CHEN Gang)Changes in the Arctic and China's Participation in Arctic Governance (ZHANG Pei and YANG Jian)The Cooperation and Competition between China, Japan, and South Korea in the Arctic (GONG Keyu)Findings and Challenges of the North Pacific Arctic Conference (Jong-Deog Kim)The Future of the Arctic and the Asian Countries: Concluding Remarks (Iselin Stensdal) Readership: Academics, undergraduate and graduate students, professionals, and policy makers interested in major Asian countries' Arctic interests, Arctic governance, economic development in the Arctic regions, Northern Sea Route and Northwestern Passage. Key Features:Addresses a topic which has been previously little covered, but is of growing global interestRepresents one of the first efforts to bring all relevant Asian countries together to discuss Arctic issuesContributed by Scholars from Asia and Arctic CountriesKeywords:Arctic;Asia;China;India;Japan;Singapore;South Korea;Governance;Regional Politics;Cooperation;Conflict;Economy;Shipping;Mining;Fishery;Northern Sea Route;Northwestern Passage
Author: Leiv Lunde,Jian Yang,Iselin Stensdal
Publisher: World Scientific
Category: Political Science
The most comprehensive and richest study undertaken so far of the factors and conditions that will determine the scope and range of shipping and shipping activities in Arctic waters now and in the future. Furthermore, it is the first study comparing the three Arctic transportation corridors, covering a variety of interacting and interdependent factors such as: - geopolitics, military affairs, global warming, sea ice melting, international economic trends, resources, competing modes of transportation, environmental challenges, logistics, ocean law and regulations, corporate governance, jurisdictional matters and rights of indigenous peoples, arctic cruise tourism and marine insurance.
A comparison of the Northeast, Northwest and Trans Polar Passages
Author: Willy Østreng,Karl Magnus Eger,Brit Fløistad,Arnfinn Jørgensen-Dahl,Lars Lothe,Morten Mejlaender-Larsen,Tor Wergeland
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This book discusses the expansion of new activities carried out in Antarctica and the focus among treaty parties on the perceived challenges posed by adventure tourism in the region. Shedding light on the latest trends and the modus operandi of all parties involved, it draws attention to new elements in the debate on how tourism and environmental protection can best be reconciled, with tourism in Antarctica rapidly increasing in recent decades. As far as technical practice and visitor guidance are concerned, the challenge facing tour operators lies in determining whether tourism has a negative or positive impact on the environment. The individual chapters address the development of polar tourism in terms of numbers, types and activities. The International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators, which advocates and promotes the practice of safe and environmentally responsible travel to the Antarctic, is also part of this study. In this context, special attention is paid to its strategies relating to adventure tourism – including both deep-field activities and those additional or new activities launched from traditional ship or yacht-based platforms. The analysis includes aspects of risk management and environmental considerations, as well as views on the cultural perspectives of Antarctica.
A Multidisciplinary View of New Activities Carried Out on the White Continent
Author: Monika Schillat,Marie Jensen,Marisol Vereda,Rodolfo A. Sánchez,Ricardo Roura
The Second Edition of The Drift of Sea Ice presents the fundamental laws of sea ice drift which come from the material properties of sea ice and the basic laws of mechanics. The resulting system of equations is analysed for the general properties of sea ice drift, the free drift model and analytical models for ice drift in the presence of internal friction, and the construction of numerical ice drift models is detailed. This second edition of a much lauded work, unique on this topic in the English language, has been revised, updated and expanded with much new information and outlines recent results, in particular in relation to the climate problem, mathematical modelling and ice engineering applications. The current book presents the theory, observations, mathematical modelling techniques, and applications of sea ice drift science. The theory is presented from the beginning on a graduate student level, so that students and researchers coming from other fields such as physical oceanography, meteorology, physics, engineering, environmental sciences or geography can use the book as a source book or self-study material. First the drift ice material is presented ending with the concept of ‘ice state’ – the relevant properties in sea ice dynamics. Ice kinematics observations are widely presented with the mathematical analysis methods, and thereafter come drift ice rheology – to close the triangle material – kinematics – stress. The momentum equation of sea ice is derived in detail and its general properties are carefully analysed. Then follow two chapters on analytical models: free drift and drift in the presence of internal friction: These are very important tools in understanding the dynamical behaviour of sea ice. The last topical chapter is numerical models, which are the modern tool to solve ice dynamics problem in short term and long term problems. The closing chapter summarises sea ice dynamics applications and the need of sea ice dynamic knowledge and gives some final remarks on the future of this branch of science.
Author: Matti Leppäranta
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
China has emerged as a member of the elite club of nations who are powerful at both global poles. Polar states are global giants, strong in military, scientific, and economic terms. The concept of a polar great power is relatively unknown in international relations studies; yet China, a rising power globally, is now widely using this term to categorize its aspirations and emphasize the significance of the polar regions to their national interests. China's focus on becoming a polar great power represents a fundamental re-orientation - a completely new way of imagining the world. China's push into these regions encompasses maritime and nuclear security, the frontlines of climate change research, and the possibility of a resources bonanza. As shown in this book, China's growing strength at the poles will be a game-changer for a number of strategic vulnerabilities that could shift the global balance of power in significant and unexpected ways.
Author: Anne-Marie Brady
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Category: Political Science
This book and an accompanying atlas complete the first phase of the North Pacific Project. The Project seeks to identify and describe in detail the major marine policy problems of the North Pacific region. Divided into parts:- Living resources in the North Pacific; Marine transportation on the North Pacific; Marine scientific research in the North Pacific; Multiple use conditions and conflicts of the North Pacific.
The North Pacific : an Analysis of Issues Relating to Fisheries, Marine Transportation, Marine Scientific Research, and Multiple Use Conditions and Conflicts
Author: Edward L. Miles
Publisher: Univ of California Press
Category: Business & Economics
The topic, "Northern Sea Route" has become a highly relevant point on the strategic radar screen of many business and military leaders, since global climate change now opens up a hitherto impassable sea route and positions it as a strategic alternative to the Suez route. Add to this the discovery of many easily extractable commodities and metals in the arctic area. For entrepreneurs, this setting offers new opportunities and risks; for academics, a new research context emerges. The book discusses the strategic, economic, logistic, judicial and military challenges of the future great game in the arctic sea.
A Comprehensive Analysis
Author: Marcus Matthias Keupp
Category: Business & Economics
The history and future of geographic information (GI) in the context of big data creates new avenues of concern over its organization, access and use. In this book the authors explore both the background and present challenges facing the preservation of GI, focusing on the roles of librarians, archivists, data scientists, and other information professionals in the creation of GI records for its organization, access, and use.
Organization, Access, and Use
Author: Wade Bishop,Tony H. Grubesic
This expanded and revised fourth edition of The Geography of Transport Systems provides a comprehensive and accessible introduction to the field with a broad overview of its concepts, methods and areas of application. Aimed mainly at an undergraduate audience, it provides an overview of the spatial aspects of transportation and focuses on how the mobility of passengers and freight is linked with geography. The book is divided in ten chapters, each covering a specific conceptual dimension, including networks, modes, terminals, freight transportation, urban transportation and environmental impacts, and updated with the latest information available. The fourth edition offers new material on the issues of transport and the economy, city logistics, supply chains, security, energy, the environment, as well as a revised content structure. With over 160 updated photographs, figures and maps, The Geography of Transport Systems presents transportation systems at different scales ranging from global to local and focuses on different contexts such as North America, Europe and East Asia. This volume is an essential resource for undergraduates studying transport geography, as well as those interested in economic and urban geography, transport planning and engineering. A companion web site, which contains additional material, has been developed for the book and can be found here: http://people.hofstra.edu/geotrans/
Author: Jean-Paul Rodrigue,Claude Comtois,Brian Slack
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
1.1 Basic idea and main task of photogrammetry If you want to measure the size of an object, let’s say the length, width and height of a house, then normally you will carry this out directly at the object. Now imagine that the house didn’t exist anymore – it was destroyed, but some historic photos exist. Then, if you can determine the scale of the photos, it must be pos- ble to get the desired data. Of course you can use photos to get information about objects. This kind of - formation is different: So, for example, you may receive qualitative data (the house seems to be old, the walls are coloured light yellow) from photo interpre- tion, or quantitative data like mentioned before (the house has a base size of 8 by 6 meters) from photo measurement, or information in addition to your background knowledge (the house has elements of the “art nouveau” style, so may be c- th structed at the beginning of the 20 century), and so on.
A Practical Course
Author: Wilfried Linder
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
'Daddy's a sailor, why don't we sail around the world?' On board their 43-foot schooner Lucette, the Robertson family set sail from the south of England in January 1971 - and in June 1972 Lucette was holed by killer whales and sank in the Pacific Ocean. Four adults and two children survived the next 38 days adrift, first in a rubber life raft and then crammed into a 9-foot fibreglass dinghy, before being rescued by a passing Japanese fishing vessel. This is the story of how they survived, but it also tells of the 18-month voyage of the Lucette, across the Atlantic, around the Caribbean, through the panama Canal and out into the Pacific. It is a vivid and candid account of the delights and hardships, the excitements and the dangers, the emotional highs and lows experienced by the family both before and after the shipwreck.. Douglas Robertson has taken his father's classic book Survive the Savage Sea as his starting point, and has drawn upon a wealth of other sources, not least his own memories of a life-changing experience, to bring us this true story of adventure, of relationships strained to bursting point, of conflict and resolution - ultimately a very human and humbling tale.
Author: Douglas Robertson
Publisher: Seafarer Books
Category: Shipwreck survival
Author: Frederick Douglass
The Soviet Arctic is the first book to consider Soviet policy in this area from an historian's point of view. Horensma assesses the importance of historic legacies to current Soviet Arctic policy and their consequences on an international level. The book also discusses the significance of historic precedents in the determination of polar sovereignty.
Author: Pier Horensma
Category: Political Science