This book analyses the current and future viability of the Northern Sea Route as a stable transport route for the international transit traffic between Europe and the Far East. It includes the present conditions, defining and evaluating viability factors for using the Northern Sea Route (NSR). The book makes a projection for NSR in the future, taking into account the climatic change in the Arctic findings presented in the IPCC report. This study, based on the author’s PhD thesis, analyses meteorological, hydrologic, bathymetric and other data for the evaluation of the navigation criteria. It is intended for a wide spectrum of readers, from students and scientists of Earth sciences and polar geography, navigation, political science researchers and politicians interested in Arctic affairs.
Expectations and Reality
Author: Tadeusz Pastusiak
Governance of Arctic Shipping: Balancing Rights and Interests of Arctic States and User States examines potential cooperative mechanisms for balancing rights and interests of Arctic States and user States in light of experiences with Southeast Asian cooperative mechanisms.
Balancing Rights and Interests of Arctic States and User States
Author: Robert C. Beckman,Tore Henriksen,Christine Dalaker Kraabel,Erik J. Molenaar,J. Ashley Roach
The topic, "Northern Sea Route" has become a highly relevant point on the strategic radar screen of many business and military leaders, since global climate change now opens up a hitherto impassable sea route and positions it as a strategic alternative to the Suez route. Add to this the discovery of many easily extractable commodities and metals in the arctic area. For entrepreneurs, this setting offers new opportunities and risks; for academics, a new research context emerges. The book discusses the strategic, economic, logistic, judicial and military challenges of the future great game in the arctic sea.
A Comprehensive Analysis
Author: Marcus Matthias Keupp
Category: Business & Economics
This unusual encyclopedia brings together in-depth information on more than 450 natural geographic features from around the world and offers an array of creative tools to promote critical thinking and classroom discussion. • Provides a one-stop reference for students of geography and environmental and earth sciences • Offers global coverage of diverse features, whether terrestrial, aquatic, geological, ecological, or physiographic • Includes an overview of the various kinds of landforms of the world, how they are formed, and how they continue to change over time • Explains each feature's origins and significance, as well as major environmental issues in which it's involved • Indicates the importance of features to the development of Western science and contemporary scientific thought in fields such as evolutionary biology, paleontology, plate tectonics, and climate change • Features a "Top 10s Appendix" to provoke student interest through statistics such as the tallest mountains, largest lakes, and longest rivers
An Encyclopedia of the World's Geographic Features
Author: Joyce A. Quinn,Susan L. Woodward
This expanded and revised fourth edition of The Geography of Transport Systems provides a comprehensive and accessible introduction to the field with a broad overview of its concepts, methods and areas of application. Aimed mainly at an undergraduate audience, it provides an overview of the spatial aspects of transportation and focuses on how the mobility of passengers and freight is linked with geography. The book is divided in ten chapters, each covering a specific conceptual dimension, including networks, modes, terminals, freight transportation, urban transportation and environmental impacts, and updated with the latest information available. The fourth edition offers new material on the issues of transport and the economy, city logistics, supply chains, security, energy, the environment, as well as a revised content structure. With over 160 updated photographs, figures and maps, The Geography of Transport Systems presents transportation systems at different scales ranging from global to local and focuses on different contexts such as North America, Europe and East Asia. This volume is an essential resource for undergraduates studying transport geography, as well as those interested in economic and urban geography, transport planning and engineering. A companion web site, which contains additional material, has been developed for the book and can be found here: http://people.hofstra.edu/geotrans/
Author: Jean-Paul Rodrigue,Claude Comtois,Brian Slack
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
The most comprehensive and richest study undertaken so far of the factors and conditions that will determine the scope and range of shipping and shipping activities in Arctic waters now and in the future. Furthermore, it is the first study comparing the three Arctic transportation corridors, covering a variety of interacting and interdependent factors such as: - geopolitics, military affairs, global warming, sea ice melting, international economic trends, resources, competing modes of transportation, environmental challenges, logistics, ocean law and regulations, corporate governance, jurisdictional matters and rights of indigenous peoples, arctic cruise tourism and marine insurance.
A comparison of the Northeast, Northwest and Trans Polar Passages
Author: Willy Østreng,Karl Magnus Eger,Brit Fløistad,Arnfinn Jørgensen-Dahl,Lars Lothe,Morten Mejlaender-Larsen,Tor Wergeland
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Over the last few years Asian governments have taken a stronger approach to the Arctic, culminating with permanent-observer status to the Arctic Council for China, India, Japan, Singapore and South-Korea in May 2013. This groundbreaking book brings together the latest research in emerging Asian interests for the Arctic region, and the implications thereof this change has for the future. This book covers Arctic shipping, fisheries and mineral extraction. It analyzes key Asian countries' policies, positions and activities. The book also demonstrates that there are common aspects which attract Asian countries to the Arctic, such as a concern for climate change, but there are also important national differences. From the Arctic Council to UNCLOS, Arctic governance mechanisms are thoroughly presented and analyzed. Contributed by scholars from both Asia — China, India, Japan, Singapore and South-Korea — as well as Arctic countries — Norway and USA, this book is an essential source of reference for both academics and government professionals, as well for the readers keen on understanding the dynamic change in the Arctic region. Contents:Governance and Cooperation:Adaptive Governance for a Changing Arctic (Oran R Young)The Arctic Governance and the Interactions between Arctic and Non-Arctic Countries (YANG Jian)Can Asian Involvement Strengthen Arctic Governance? (Olav Schram Stokke)High North: High Politics or Low Tension? Cooperation and Conflict in the Arctic (Jo Inge Bekkevold)Analysis of International Arctic Cooperation Mechanisms among the Nordic Countries (CHENG Baozhi)Economic Development:International Use of the Northern Sea Route — Trends and Prospects (Arild Moe)A Comparative Study of the Administration of the Canadian Northwest Passage and the Russian Northern Sea Route (ZOU Leilei and HUANG Shuolin)Governance and Ownership of the Arctic Ocean: Living Resources and the Continental Shelf (Njord Wegge)Arctic Mining: Asian Interests and Opportunities (Iselin Stensdal)Asia in the Arctic:Japan's Arctic Policy Development: From Engagement to a Strategy (Fujio Ohnishi)India's Arctic Attention (Uttam Sinha)Asian Economic Interests in the Arctic — Singapore's Perspective (CHEN Gang)Changes in the Arctic and China's Participation in Arctic Governance (ZHANG Pei and YANG Jian)The Cooperation and Competition between China, Japan, and South Korea in the Arctic (GONG Keyu)Findings and Challenges of the North Pacific Arctic Conference (Jong-Deog Kim)The Future of the Arctic and the Asian Countries: Concluding Remarks (Iselin Stensdal) Readership: Academics, undergraduate and graduate students, professionals, and policy makers interested in major Asian countries' Arctic interests, Arctic governance, economic development in the Arctic regions, Northern Sea Route and Northwestern Passage. Key Features:Addresses a topic which has been previously little covered, but is of growing global interestRepresents one of the first efforts to bring all relevant Asian countries together to discuss Arctic issuesContributed by Scholars from Asia and Arctic CountriesKeywords:Arctic;Asia;China;India;Japan;Singapore;South Korea;Governance;Regional Politics;Cooperation;Conflict;Economy;Shipping;Mining;Fishery;Northern Sea Route;Northwestern Passage
Author: Leiv Lunde,Jian Yang,Iselin Stensdal
Publisher: World Scientific
Category: Political Science
China has emerged as a member of the elite club of nations who are powerful at both global poles. Polar states are global giants, strong in military, scientific, and economic terms. The concept of a polar great power is relatively unknown in international relations studies; yet China, a rising power globally, is now widely using this term to categorize its aspirations and emphasize the significance of the polar regions to their national interests. China's focus on becoming a polar great power represents a fundamental re-orientation - a completely new way of imagining the world. China's push into these regions encompasses maritime and nuclear security, the frontlines of climate change research, and the possibility of a resources bonanza. As shown in this book, China's growing strength at the poles will be a game-changer for a number of strategic vulnerabilities that could shift the global balance of power in significant and unexpected ways.
Author: Anne-Marie Brady
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Category: Political Science
The editors as well as the authors of these essays should be commended for bringing together and discussing within this volume many of the important issues facing globalized freight movements. Robert Martin, The Professional Geographer . . . Leinbach and Capineri have produced an interesting and useful addition to the literature on this massive subject. . . Anthony Beresfore, International Journal of Maritime History Globalization is a fashionable issue. But solid research on the conditions and implications for freight transport is badly missing. This volume contains a unique set of high-quality contributions on freight transport in the age of globalization. It offers a wealth of original insights to both the research and policy-making community. Peter Nijkamp, VU University Amsterdam, The Netherlands The worldwide movement of freight has emerged as one of the most critical and dynamic aspects of the transport sector. The contributors to this study examine the current state of global freight transport, with an emphasis on Europe and North America and their extra-regional linkages. These original contributions synthesize existing knowledge, highlight new developments, problems and possible solutions, and underscore the need for further research. The book s starting point is the fact that freight transport is the main element supporting global supply and commodity chains, from the transformation of raw materials to market distribution and after-market services. However, as the authors point out, the rising costs associated with security and various other constraints, as well as the complexity of getting goods delivered, is adding to profit pressures faced by manufacturers around the globe. Despite the application of technology and increasingly efficient solutions to the movement of freight, constraint points and conditions obstructing smooth operations and sustainability have developed. These difficulties affect both the environment and economic growth. Examining the issues from four critical perspectives intermodality, e-commerce and technology, logistics, and sustainability Globalized Freight Transport captures the concern for the viability of freight systems and the ways they are impacting the global economy. This cutting-edge study will be of great interest to students and scholars of transportation, as well as to public sector policymakers and private sector managers.
Intermodality, E-commerce, Logistics and Sustainability
Author: T. R. Leinbach
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
Category: Business & Economics
Cooperation in the Malacca Straits
Author: Heather Gilmartin
This book provides an overview of the current state of knowledge of Arctic ice shelves, ice islands and related features. Ice shelves are permanent areas of ice which float on the ocean surface while attached to the coast, and typically occur in very cold environments where perennial sea ice builds up to great thickness, and/or where glaciers flow off the land and are preserved on the ocean surface. These landscape features are relatively poorly studied in the Arctic, yet they are potentially highly sensitive indicators of climate change because they respond to changes in atmospheric, oceanic and glaciological conditions. Recent fracturing and breakup events of ice shelves in the Canadian High Arctic have attracted significant scientific and public attention, and produced large ice islands which may pose a risk to Arctic shipping and offshore infrastructure. Much has been published about Antarctic ice shelves, but to date there has not been a dedicated book about Arctic ice shelves or ice islands. This book fills that gap.
Author: Luke Copland,Derek Mueller
The Arctic is now experiencing some of the most rapid and severe climate change on earth. Over the next 100 years, climate change is expected to accelerate, contributing to major physical, ecological, social, and economic changes, many of which have already begun. Changes in arctic climate will also affect the rest of the world through increased global warming and rising sea levels. The volume addresses the following major topics: - Research results in observing aspects of the Arctic climate system and its processes across a range of time and space scales - Representation of cryospheric, atmospheric, and oceanic processes in models, including simulation of their interaction with coupled models - Our understanding of the role of the Arctic in the global climate system, its response to large-scale climate variations, and the processes involved.
The ACSYS Decade and Beyond
Author: Peter Lemke,Hans-Werner Jacobi
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This book presents narratives, perspectives and policies on the Arctic and brings to fore the strategies of five Asian countries - China, India, Japan, Republic of Korea and Singapore who were granted the status of Permanent Observers in the Arctic Council in 2013. The book also captures Arctic countries’ reactions to Asian approaches, and their expectations from these countries. The melting of the polar sea-ice induced by climate change has placed the Arctic region in the forefront of global scientific, economic, strategic and academic interest. The discourse involves a number of issues such as claims of the littoral countries to the continental shelves of the region, the management and exploitation of its living and non-living resources, the rights and interests of indigenous communities, and the prospects of new ice-free shipping routes. The contemporary discourse also suggests that the Arctic region presents challenges and offers opportunities for the international community. These issues have given rise to new geopolitical, geoeconomic, and geostrategic dynamics amongst the Arctic littorals, and led to the growing interest of non-Arctic states in the affairs of the Arctic. It is evident that the Asian countries have a variety of interests in the Arctic, and the grant of Permanent Observer status to these countries is an acknowledgement of their capabilities. These countries are keen to explore opportunities in the Arctic, and have begun to formulate appropriate long-term national strategies. The preliminary approach of the Asian Observer countries has rightly been to graduate from ‘involvement’ to ‘engagement’ in the Arctic, which seems to have generated significant interest amongst analysts. This book helps to understand the approaches of various Arctic and non-Arctic stakeholders, in light of the evolving dynamics in the region.
Narratives, Perspectives and Policies
Author: Vijay Sakhuja,Kapil Narula
The war in Georgia. Tensions with Ukraine and other nearby countries. Moscow's bid to consolidate its "zone of privileged interests" among the Commonwealth of Independent States. These volatile situations all raise questions about the nature of and prospects for Russia's relations with its neighbors. In this book, Carnegie scholar Dmitri Trenin argues that Moscow needs to drop the notion of creating an exclusive power center out of the post-Soviet space. Like other former European empires, Russia will need to reinvent itself as a global player and as part of a wider community. Trenin's vision of Russia is an open Euro-Pacific country that is savvy in its use of soft power and fully reconciled with its former borderlands and dependents. He acknowledges that this scenario may sound too optimistic but warns that the alternative is not a new version of the historic empire but instead is the ultimate marginalization of Russia.
A Eurasian Story
Author: Dmitri V. Trenin
Publisher: Brookings Institution Press
Category: Political Science
Yohei Sasakawa The Northern Sea Route is the shortest shipping route connecting the Far East and Europe. However, the route has been practically inaccessible to commercial vessels, due to the harsh natural conditions in the area, which make navigation possible for only a small part of the year, and then only with an icebreaker leading the way. Opening the Northern Sea Route would greatly facilitate international shipping, making two routes - a northbound one through the NSR, and a southbound one through Suez- available throughout all seasons. The Northern Sea Route would also help to boost economic development, including the exploitation of natural resources in Russian regions along the coast of the Arctic Ocean. Thanks to international cooperation, we have been able to set up and successfully conclude a special project to investigate the possibilities of developing the Northern Sea Route as a commercial route, while protecting the environment, wildlife and peoples of the Arctic Ocean region. This represents a highly significant step in terms of future global development.
A Reference Work
Author: Willy Østreng
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Category: Business & Economics
A vivid forecast of our planet in the year 2050 by a rising star in geoscience, distilling cutting-edge research into four global forces: demographic trends, natural resource demand, climate change, and globalization. The world's population is exploding, wild species are vanishing, our environment is degrading, and the costs of resources from oil to water are going nowhere but up. So what kind of world are we leaving for our children and grandchildren? Geoscientist and Guggenheim fellow Laurence Smith draws on the latest global modeling research to construct a sweeping thought experiment on what our world will be like in 2050. The result is both good news and bad: Eight nations of the Arctic Rim (including the United States) will become increasingly prosperous, powerful, and politically stable, while those closer to the equator will face water shortages, aging populations, and crowded megacities sapped by the rising costs of energy and coastal flooding. The World in 2050 combines the lessons of geography and history with state-of-the-art model projections and analytical data-everything from climate dynamics and resource stocks to age distributions and economic growth projections. But Smith offers more than a compendium of statistics and studies- he spent fifteen months traveling the Arctic Rim, collecting stories and insights that resonate throughout the book. It is an approach much like Jared Diamond took in Guns, Germs, and Steel and Collapse, a work of geoscientific investigation rich in the appreciation of human diversity. Packed with stunning photographs, original maps, and informative tables, this is the most authoritative, balanced, and compelling account available of the world of challenges and opportunities that we will leave for our children.
Four Forces Shaping Civilization's Northern Future
Author: Laurence C. Smith