The Measurement of Time

Time, Frequency and the Atomic Clock

Author: Claude Audoin,Bernard Guinot

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521003971

Category: Reference

Page: 335

View: 7732

A unique insight into the measurement of time and its applications, at an introductory level.
Posted in Reference

The Quantum Beat

The Physical Principles of Atomic Clocks

Author: F. G. Major

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1475729235

Category: Science

Page: 475

View: 9696

This work reviews the principles underlying quantum-based atomic clocks, with introductory chapters placing them in context with the development of mechanical clocks and electronic quartz-controlled clocks. The book details design principles of the rubidium, cesium, hydrogen maser, and mercury ion standards; changes enabled by the advent of the laser; and the time-based global navigation systems, Loran-C and the Global Positioning System. The new edition includes such recent developments as clocks based on quantum resonance at optical frequency in individual ions confined in miniature electromagnetic traps. The Quantum Beat explores the subject with a minimum of mathematical formalism.
Posted in Science

From Sundials to Atomic Clocks

Understanding Time and Frequency

Author: James Jespersen,Jane Fitz-Randolph

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486409139

Category: Science

Page: 345

View: 7719

Clear and accessible introduction to the concept of time examines measurement, historic timekeeping methods, uses of time information, role of time in science and technology, and much more. Over 300 illustrations.
Posted in Science

Frequency Standards

Basics and Applications

Author: Fritz Riehle

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527605959

Category: Science

Page: 540

View: 871

Of all measurement units, frequency is the one that may be determined with the highest degree of accuracy. It equally allows precise measurements of other physical and technical quantities, whenever they can be measured in terms of frequency. This volume covers the central methods and techniques relevant for frequency standards developed in physics, electronics, quantum electronics, and statistics. After a review of the basic principles, the book looks at the realisation of commonly used components. It then continues with the description and characterisation of important frequency standards from atomic clocks, to frequency stabilised lasers. The whole is rounded of with a discussion of topical applications in engineering, telecommunications, and metrology.
Posted in Science

Frequency Measurement and Control

Author: Chronos Group

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461525020

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 340

View: 5663

Periodical phenomena or, more precisely, quasiperiodical phenomena, occupy a central position in physics. For a long time, their most important parameter has been their period. However, nowadays, we are much more interested in their frequency, and the many reasons for this are discussed in this book. Throughout history, evaluations of time have been based on periodical phenomena such as the apparent motion of the Sun. Indeed, the oldest unit of time is the day. The apparent motion of the Moon and of the celestial sphere, including changes in the appearance of the former, provided longer units, namely, week, month and year. All these periodical phenomen- the natural clocks - were obviously well suited to the observation and prediction of the evolution of nature with its seasonal rhythm. The gnomon and the clepsydra gave reasonably precise subdivisions of the day that could be used in timing human activities, so long as they were mostly agricultural. The invention of the pendulum and of balance wheel clocks marked the dawn of industrial civilisation, which soon de manded measurements of time with ever increasing precision over shorter and shorter periods.
Posted in Technology & Engineering

Metrology: from Physics Fundamentals to Quality of Life

Author: P. Tavella,M.J.T. Milton,M. Inguscio

Publisher: IOS Press

ISBN: 1614998183

Category: Science

Page: 528

View: 3993

Metrology is a constantly evolving field, and one which has developed in many ways in the last four decades. This book presents the proceedings of the Enrico Fermi Summer School on the topic of Metrology, held in Varenna, Italy, from 26 June to 6 July 2017. This was the 6th Enrico Fermi summer school devoted to metrology, the first having been held in 1976. The 2017 program addressed two major new directions for metrology: the work done in preparation for a possible re-definition of four of the base units of the SI in 2018, and the impact of the application of metrology to issues addressing quality of life – such as global climate change and clinical and food analysis – on science, citizens and society. The lectures were grouped into three modules: metrology for quality of life; fundamentals of metrology; and physical metrology and fundamental constants, and topics covered included food supply and safety; biomarkers; monitoring climate and air quality; new IS units; measurement uncertainty; fundamental constants; electrical metrology; optical frequency standards; and photometry and light metrology. The book provides an overview of the topics and changes relevant to metrology today, and will be of interest to both academics and all those whose work involves any of the various aspects of this field.
Posted in Science

Metrology at the Frontiers of Physics and Technology

Author: L. Crovini,T.J. Quinn

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0444597832

Category: Science

Page: 673

View: 2084

The spectroscopy of trapped ions or laser-cooled atoms offers the prospect of visible frequency standards to match or even exceed the accuracy of the caesium standard. The development of satellite methods for time comparisons has improved by more than an order of magnitude the accuracy with which national laboratories can routinely compare their clocks. Mechanical metrology has not been left behind. Driven by the need to improve manufacturing technology, major advances have taken place in computer control machining and mechanical measuring systems. These, and many other fascinating developments in the field of metrology are presented in this book.
Posted in Science

Laser-Based Measurements for Time and Frequency Domain Applications

A Handbook

Author: Pasquale Maddaloni,Marco Bellini,Paolo De Natale

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1439841535

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 764

View: 6236

Foreword by Nobel laureate Professor Theodor W. Hänsch of Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München Based on the authors’ experimental work over the last 25 years, Laser-Based Measurements for Time and Frequency Domain Applications: A Handbook presents basic concepts, state-of-the-art applications, and future trends in optical, atomic, and molecular physics. It provides all the background information on the main kinds of laser sources and techniques, offers a detailed account of the most recent results obtained for time- and frequency-domain applications of lasers, and develops the theoretical framework necessary for understanding the experimental applications. After a historical introduction, the book describes the basic concepts and mathematical tools required for studying the physics of oscillators. It then discusses microwave and optical resonators, crucial aspects of operation and fundamental properties of lasers, and precision spectroscopy and absolute frequency metrology. It also focuses on microwave and optical frequency standards and explores current and potential research directions. Accessible to scientists, postdoc researchers, and advanced undergraduate students, this self-contained book gives a wide-ranging, balanced overview of the areas—including frequency standards and clocks, ultra-high-precision spectroscopy, quantum information, and environmental metrology—revolutionized by the recent advent of optical frequency comb synthesizers (OFCSs) based on femtosecond mode-locked lasers. The book is also a useful guide to cutting-edge research for manufacturers of advanced laser systems and optical devices.
Posted in Technology & Engineering

The Measure of Manhattan: The Tumultuous Career and Surprising Legacy of John Randel, Jr., Cartographer, Surveyor, Inventor

Author: Marguerite Holloway

Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company

ISBN: 0393089800

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 336

View: 9735

“Randel is endlessly fascinating, and Holloway’s biography tells his life with great skill.”—Steve Weinberg, USA Today John Randel Jr. (1787–1865) was an eccentric and flamboyant surveyor. Renowned for his inventiveness as well as for his bombast and irascibility, Randel was central to Manhattan’s development but died in financial ruin. Telling Randel’s engrossing and dramatic life story for the first time, this eye-opening biography introduces an unheralded pioneer of American engineering and mapmaking. Charged with “gridding” what was then an undeveloped, hilly island, Randel recorded the contours of Manhattan down to the rocks on its shores. He was obsessed with accuracy and steeped in the values of the Enlightenment, in which math and science promised dominion over nature. The result was a series of maps, astonishing in their detail and precision, which undergird our knowledge about the island today. During his varied career Randel created surveying devices, designed an early elevated subway, and proposed a controversial alternative route for the Erie Canal—winning him admirers and enemies. The Measure of Manhattan is more than just the life of an unrecognized engineer. It is about the ways in which surveying and cartography changed the ground beneath our feet. Bringing Randel’s story into the present, Holloway travels with contemporary surveyors and scientists trying to envision Manhattan as a wild island once again. Illustrated with dozens of historical images and antique maps, The Measure of Manhattan is an absorbing story of a fascinating man that captures the era when Manhattan—indeed, the entire country—still seemed new, the moment before canals and railroads helped draw a grid across the American landscape.
Posted in Biography & Autobiography

About Time

Author: Adam Frank

Publisher: Oneworld Publications

ISBN: 1780740603

Category: Science

Page: 432

View: 4215

From Stonehenge to beyond the Big Bang, an exhilarating scientific exploration of how we make time Time is the grandest conception of the universe that we humans have been able to imagine – and its most intimate, the very frame of human life. In About Time, astrophysicist and award-winning writer Adam Frank tells the scientific story of this wonderful and tyrannical invention. A Palaeolithic farmer moved through the sun-fuelled day and star-steered night in a radically different way than the Elizabethan merchants who set their pace to the clocks newly installed in their town squares. Since then, science has swept time into increasingly minute and standardized units – the industrial efficiency of ironworks’ punch clocks; the space-age precision of atomic fountains and GPS satellites; the fifteen-minute increments of Outlook’s digital revolution. And in the past decade, string-theory branes, multiverses, and “clockless” physics have begun to overturn our ideas about how the universe began – the Big Bang – in ways that will completely rewrite time and our experience of it. Weaving cosmology with day-to-day chronicles and a down-to-earth style, About Time is both dazzling and riveting as it confronts what comes next.
Posted in Science

Galileo's Pendulum

Author: Roger G. NEWTON

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674041488

Category: Science

Page: 176

View: 3279

Bored during Mass at the cathedral in Pisa, the seventeen-year-old Galileo regarded the chandelier swinging overhead--and remarked, to his great surprise, that the lamp took as many beats to complete an arc when hardly moving as when it was swinging widely. Galileo's Pendulum tells the story of what this observation meant, and of its profound consequences for science and technology. The principle of the pendulum's swing--a property called isochronism--marks a simple yet fundamental system in nature, one that ties the rhythm of time to the very existence of matter in the universe. Roger Newton sets the stage for Galileo's discovery with a look at biorhythms in living organisms and at early calendars and clocks--contrivances of nature and culture that, however adequate in their time, did not meet the precise requirements of seventeenth-century science and navigation. Galileo's Pendulum recounts the history of the newly evolving time pieces--from marine chronometers to atomic clocks--based on the pendulum as well as other mechanisms employing the same physical principles, and explains the Newtonian science underlying their function. The book ranges nimbly from the sciences of sound and light to the astonishing intersection of the pendulum's oscillations and quantum theory, resulting in new insight into the make-up of the material universe. Covering topics from the invention of time zones to Isaac Newton's equations of motion, from Pythagoras' theory of musical harmony to Michael Faraday's field theory and the development of quantum electrodynamics, Galileo's Pendulum is an authoritative and engaging tour through time of the most basic all-pervading system in the world. Table of Contents: Preface Introduction 1. Biological Timekeeping: The Body's Rhythms 2. The Calendar: Different Drummers 3. Early Clocks: Home-Made Beats 4. The Pendulum Clock: The Beat of Nature 5. Successors: Ubiquitous Timekeeping 6. Isaac Newton: The Physics of the Pendulum 7. Sound and Light: Oscillations Everywhere 8. The Quantum: Oscillators Make Particles Notes References Index Reviews of this book: The range of things that measure time, from living creatures to atomic clocks, brackets Newton's intriguing narrative of time's connections, in the middle of which stands Galileo's famous discovery about pendulums...Science buffs will delight in the links Newton makes in this readable tour of how humanity marks time. --Gilbert Taylor, Booklist
Posted in Science

Laser Physics at the Limits

Author: Hartmut Figger,Dieter Meschede,Claus Zimmermann

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3662048973

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 522

View: 6512

Published on the occasion of Theodor Hänsch's 60th Birthday emphasis is placed on precision related to results in a variety of fields, such as atomic clocks, frequency standards, and the measurement of physical constants in atomic physics. Furthermore, illustrations and engineering applications of the fundamentals of quantum mechanics are widely covered. It has contributions by Nobel prize winners Norman F. Ramsey, Steven Chu, and Carl E. Wieman.
Posted in Technology & Engineering

Frequency Measurement and Control

Advanced Techniques and Future Trends

Author: Andre N. Luiten

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540676942

Category: Science

Page: 394

View: 2893

With contributions by numerous experts
Posted in Science

Philosophical Problems of Space and Time

Second, enlarged edition

Author: Adolf Grünbaum

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 940102622X

Category: Science

Page: 884

View: 7994

It is ten years since Adolf Griinbaum published the first edition of this book. It was promptly recognized to be one of the few major works in the philosophy of the natural sciences of this generation. In part, this is so because Griinbaum has chosen a problem basic both to philosophy and to the natural sciences - the nature of space and time; and in part, this is so because he so admirably exemplifies that Aristotelian devotion to the intimate and mutual dependence of actual science and philosophical understanding. More than this, however, the quality of his work derives from his achievement in combining detail with scope. The problems of space and time have been among the most difficult in contemporary and classical thought, and Griinbaum has been responsible to the full depth and complexity of these difficulties. This revised and enlarged second edition is a work in progress, in the tradition of reflective analysis of modern science of such figures as Ehrenfest and Reichenbach. In publishing this work among the Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science, we hope to contribute to and encourage that broad tradition of natural philosophy which is marked by the close collaboration of philoso phers and scientists. To this end, we have published the proceedings of our Colloquia, of meetings and conferences here and abroad, as well as the works of single authors.
Posted in Science

Atomic Physics: Precise Measurements and Ultracold Matter

Author: Massimo Inguscio,Leonardo Fallani

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198525842

Category: Science

Page: 331

View: 6178

This book illustrates the frontiers of precise measurements in Atomic Physics. It is written in an introductory style, which makes it useful for advanced undergraduate and graduate students as well as for more experienced researchers who want to remain up-to-date with the most recent advances. The book focuses on experimental investigations, illustrating both milestone experiments and key experimental techniques, and discussing the results and perspectives ofcurrent research activities. Emphasis is put on the investigations of precision physics: from the determination of fundamental constants of Nature to tests of General Relativity and QuantumElectrodynamics, from the realization of ultra-stable atomic clocks to the precise simulation of condensed matter theories with ultracold gases.
Posted in Science

Lasers, Clocks and Drag-Free Control

Exploration of Relativistic Gravity in Space

Author: Hansjörg Dittus,Claus Lämmerzahl,Slava G. Turyshev

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540343776

Category: Science

Page: 642

View: 4213

Written by international experts, this book explores the possibilities for the next 20 years in conducting gravitational experiments in space that would make the most of the new and much-improved existing capabilities. They start from the premise that over the next decade the gravitational physics community will benefit from dramatic improvements in many technologies critical to the tests of gravity. This volume contains a comprehensive presentation of the theory, technology, missions and projects on relativistic gravity in space.
Posted in Science

Foundations of Electrodynamics

Author: Parry Hiram Moon,Domina Eberle Spencer

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486497038

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 314

View: 8093

Electrodynamics involves the study of electric charges and their interaction with magnetic and electric fields. This advanced undergraduate text presupposes some knowledge of electricity and magnetism, making substantial use of vector analysis. The authors define their goal as "a serious attempt to develop electrodynamics on a postulational basis and to define each concept in the most general way." 1960 edition.
Posted in Technology & Engineering