"Slavery is the status or condition of a person over whom any or all of the powers attaching to the right of ownership are exercised." So reads the legal definition of slavery agreed by the League of Nations in 1926. Further enshrined in law during international negotiations in 1956 and 1998, this definition has been interpreted in different ways by the international courts in the intervening years. What can be considered slavery? Should forced labour be considered slavery? Debt-bondage? Child soldiering? Or forced marriage? This book explores the limits of how slavery is understood in law. It shows how the definition of slavery in law and the contemporary understanding of slavery has continually evolved and continues to be contentious. It traces the evolution of concepts of slavery, from Roman law through the Middle Ages, the 18th and 19th centuries, up to the modern day manifestations, including manifestations of forced labour and trafficking in persons, and considers how the 1926 definition can distinguish slavery from lesser servitudes. Together the contributors have put together a set of guidelines intended to clarify the law where slavery is concerned. The Bellagio-Harvard Guidelines on the Legal Parameters of Slavery, reproduced here for the first time, takes their shared understanding of both the past and present to project a consistent interpretation of the legal definition of slavery for the future.
From the Historical to the Contemporary
Author: Jean Allain
Publisher: OUP Oxford
It is commonly assumed that slavery came to an end in the nineteenth century. While slavery in the Americas officially ended in 1888, millions of slaves remained in bondage across Africa, Asia, and the Middle East well into the first half of the twentieth century. Wherever laws against slavery were introduced, governments found ways of continuing similar forms of coercion and exploitation, such as forced, bonded, and indentured labor. Every country in the world has now abolished slavery, yet millions of people continue to find themselves subject to contemporary forms of slavery, such as human trafficking, wartime enslavement, and the worst forms of child labor. The Anti-Slavery Project: From the Slave Trade to Human Trafficking offers an innovative study in the attempt to understand and eradicate these ongoing human rights abuses. In The Anti-Slavery Project, historian and human rights expert Joel Quirk examines the evolution of political opposition to slavery from the mid-eighteenth century to the present day. Beginning with the abolitionist movement in the British Empire, Quirk analyzes the philosophical, economic, and cultural shifts that eventually resulted in the legal abolition of slavery. By viewing the legal abolition of slavery as a cautious first step—rather than the end of the story—he demonstrates that modern anti-slavery activism can be best understood as the latest phase in an evolving response to the historical shortcomings of earlier forms of political activism. By exposing the historical and cultural roots of contemporary slavery, The Anti-Slavery Project presents an original diagnosis of the underlying causes driving one of the most pressing human rights problems in the world today. It offers valuable insights for historians, political scientists, policy makers, and activists seeking to combat slavery in all its forms.
From the Slave Trade to Human Trafficking
Author: Joel Quirk
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press
Category: Political Science
Trevor Noah kam 1984 im Township Soweto als Sohn einer Xhosa und eines Schweizers zur Welt. Zu einer Zeit, da das südafrikanische Apartheidsregime „gemischtrassige“ Beziehungen weiterhin unter Strafe stellte. Als Kind, das es nicht geben durfte, erlebte er Armut und systematischen Rassismus, aber auch die mutige Auflehnung seiner "farbenblinden" Eltern, die einfallsreich versuchten, Trennungen zwischen Ethnien und Geschlechtern zu überwinden. Heute ist er ein international gefeierter Comedian, der die legendäre "The Daily Show" in den USA leitet und weltweit – ob Sydney, Dubai, Toronto, San Francisco oder Berlin – in ausverkauften Sälen auftritt. In "Farbenblind" erzählt Trevor Noah ebenso feinsinnig wie komisch in achtzehn Geschichten von seinem Aufwachsen in Südafrika, das den ganzen Aberwitz der Apartheid bündelt: warum ihn seine Mutter aus einem fahrenden Minibus warf, um Gottes Willen zu erfüllen, welche Musik er für einen tanzenden Hitler aufzulegen pflegte, um sein erstes Geld zu verdienen, und wie ihn eine Überwachungskamera, die nicht einmal zwischen Schwarz und Weiß unterscheiden konnte, vor dem Gefängnis bewahrte.
Author: Trevor Noah
Publisher: Karl Blessing Verlag
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Der globale Kapitalismus hat seit seiner Entstehung immer schon nicht nur Waren, sondern auch »Rassen« und »Spezies« produziert. Ihm liegt ein rassistisches Denken, eine »schwarze Vernunft« zugrunde, wie der große afrikanische Philosoph und Vordenker des Postkolonialismus Achille Mbembe in seinem brillanten und mitreißenden neuen Buch zeigt. In kraftvollen Linien zeichnet Mbembe die Genese unserer Gegenwart nach, indem er darstellt, wie sich der globale Kapitalismus seit dem Beginn der Neuzeit aus dem transatlantischen Sklavenhandel entwickelt hat. In dieser Zeit steigt Europa zum Zentrum der Welt auf und kreiert die Figur des »Negers«, des »Menschen-Materials«, der »Menschen-Ware«, die über den »schwarzen Atlantik« gehandelt wird. Mit dem Abolitionismus, der Revolution in Haiti, dem Antikolonialismus oder der amerikanischen Bürgerrechtsbewegung kommt zwar seit der Aufklärung eine erste globale Welle der Kritik an der Sklaverei und der »schwarzen Vernunft« des Kapitalismus auf. Dieser breitet sich jedoch in seiner neoliberalen Spielart unaufhaltsam weiter aus und überträgt die Figur des »Negers« nun auf die gesamte »subalterne Menschheit«. In diesem Prozess des »Schwarzwerdens der Welt«, so die radikale Kritik Mbembes, bilden auch Europa und seine Bürger mittlerweile nur noch eine weitere Provinz im weltumspannenden Imperium des neoliberalen Kapitalismus.
Author: Achille Mbembe
Publisher: Suhrkamp Verlag
Category: Political Science
The accession by the European Union to the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) has opened up new possibilities in terms of the constitutional recognition of fundamental rights in the EU. In the field of employment law it heralds a new procedure for workers and trade unions to challenge EU law against the background of the ECHR. In theoretical terms this means that EU law now goes beyond recognition of fundamental rights as mere general principles of EU law, making the ECHR the 'gold standard' for fundamental (social) rights. This publication of the Transnational Trade Union Rights Working Group focuses on the EU and the interplay between the Strasbourg case law and the case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU), analysing the relevance of the ECHR for the protection of workers' rights and for the effective enjoyment of civil and political rights in the employment relation. Each chapter is written by a prominent European human rights expert and analyses the case law of the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), and also looks at the equivalent international labour standards within the Council of Europe (in particular the (Revised) European Social Charter), the International Labour Organization (ILO) (in particular the fundamental rights conventions) and the UN Covenants (in particular the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights) and the interpretation of these instruments by competent organs. The authors also analyse the ways in which the CJEU has acknowledged the respective ECHR articles as 'general principles' of EU law and asks whether the Lisbon Treaty will also warrant a reassessment of the way it has treated conflicts between these 'general principles' and the so-called 'fundamental freedoms'.
Author: Filip Dorssemont,Klaus Lörcher,Isabelle Schömann
Publisher: A&C Black
Although slavery is illegal throughout the world, we learned from Kevin Bales's highly praised exposé, Disposable People: New Slavery in the Global Economy, that more than twenty-seven million people—in countries from Pakistan to Thailand to the United States--are still trapped in bondage. With this new volume, Bales, the leading authority on modern slavery, looks beyond the specific instances of slavery described in his last book to explore broader themes about slavery's causes, its continuation, and how it might be ended. Written to raise awareness and deepen understanding, and touching again on individual lives around the world, this book tackles head-on one of the most urgent and difficult problems facing us today. Each of the chapters in Understanding Global Slavery explores a different facet of global slavery. Bales investigates slavery's historical roots to illuminate today's puzzles. He explores our basic ideas about what slavery is and how the phenomenon fits into our moral, political, and economic worlds. He seeks to explain how human trafficking brings people into our cities and how the demand for trafficked workers, servants, and prostitutes shapes modern slavery. And he asks how we can study and measure this mostly hidden crime. Throughout, Bales emphasizes that to end global slavery, we must first understand it. This book is a step in that direction.
Author: Kevin Bales
Publisher: Univ of California Press
Category: Political Science
Django Unchained is certainly Quentin Tarantino's most commercially-successful film and is arguably also his most controversial. Fellow director Spike Lee has denounced the representation of race and slavery in the film, while many African American writers have defended the white auteur. The use of extremely graphic violence in the film, even by Tarantino's standards, at a time when gun control is being hotly debated, has sparked further controversy and has led to angry outbursts by the director himself. Moreover, Django Unchained has become a popular culture phenomenon, with t-shirts, highly contentious action figures, posters, and strong DVD/BluRay sales. The topic (slavery and revenge), the setting (a few years before the Civil War), the intentionally provocative generic roots (Spaghetti Western and Blaxploitation) and the many intertexts and references (to German and French culture) demand a thorough examination. Befitting such a complex film, the essays collected here represent a diverse group of scholars who examine Django Unchained from many perspectives.
The Continuation of Metacinema
Author: Oliver C. Speck
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing USA
Category: Performing Arts
This book provides an in-depth analysis of the emergence of a racially divided society in pre-industrial Southern Africa.
The Making of the Colonial Order in the Eastern Cape, 1770-1865
Author: Clifton C. Crais
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ein Rückblick über 200 Jahre
Author: Hermann Wellenreuther,Claudia Schnurmann
Publisher: Berg Pub Ltd
"Most societies in the past have had slaves, and almost all peoples have at some time in their pasts been both slaves as well as owners of slaves. Recent decades have seen a significant increase in our understanding of the historical role played by slavery and wide interest across a range of academic disciplines in the evolution of the institution. Exciting and innovative research methodologies have been developed, and numerous fruitful debates generated. Further, the study of slavery has come to providestrong connections between academic research and the wider public interest at a time when such links have in general been weak. The CambridgeWorld History of Slavery responds to these trends by providing for the first time, in four volumes, a comprehensive global history of this widespread phenomenon from the ancient world to the present day. Volume I surveys the history of slavery in the ancient Mediterranean world. Although chapters are devoted to the ancient Near East and the Jews, its principal concern is with the societies of ancient Greece and Rome. These are often considered as the first examples in world history of genuine slave societies because of the widespread prevalence of chattel slavery, which is argued to have been a cultural manifestation of the ubiquitous violence in societies typified by incessant warfare"--Provided by publisher.
Author: Keith Bradley,Paul Cartledge
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
This introductory survey provides a rich understanding of the African experience which, until recently, either had been omitted from the curriculum of institutions of higher learning or was distorted in written and oral literature. The book identifies the post-World War II civil rights movement in America and the independence revolution in Africa as the most decisive forces that generated interest in the study of the African/black experience. Includes four theoretical models for interpreting the black experience. The author discusses the place and role of Africa in the development of human civilization, focusing on Africa's Nile Valley civilizations and Western Sudanic empires. It probes aspects of traditional African culture, including the family, traditional political institutions and religion, and analyzes the impact on Africa and its peoples of such historical traumas as slavery, colonialism, and decolonization.
Author: Festus Ugboaja Ohaegbulam
Publisher: University Press of America
In these original essays, America's leading historians and legal scholars reassess the ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment and its relevance to issues of liberty, justice, and equality. The Thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery in the United States, reasserting the radical, egalitarian dimensions of the Constitution. It also laid the foundations for future civil rights and social justice legislation. Yet subsequent reinterpretation and misappropriation have curbed more substantive change. With constitutional jurisprudence undergoing a revival, The Promises of Liberty provides a full portrait of the Thirteenth Amendment and its potential for ensuring liberty. The collection begins with Pulitzer Prize-winning historian David Brion Davis, who discusses the failure of the Thirteenth Amendment to achieve its framers' objectives. The next piece, by Alexander Tsesis, provides a detailed account of the Amendment's revolutionary character. James M. McPherson, another Pulitzer recipient, recounts the influence of abolitionists on the ratification process, and Paul Finkelman focuses on who freed the slaves and President Lincoln's commitment to ending slavery. Michael Vorenberg revisits the nineteenth century's understanding of freedom and citizenship and the Amendment's surprisingly small role in the Reconstruction and post-Reconstruction periods. William M. Wiecek shows how the Supreme Court's narrow interpretation once rendered the guarantee of freedom nearly illusory, and the collection's third Pulitzer Prize winner, David M. Oshinsky, explains how peonage undermined the prohibition against compulsory service. Subsequent essays relate the Thirteenth Amendment to congressional authority, hate crimes legislation, the labor movement, and immigrant rights. These chapters analyze unique features of the amendment along with its elusive meanings and affirm its power to reform criminal and immigration law, affirmative action policies, and the protection of civil liberties.
The History and Contemporary Relevance of the Thirteenth Amendment
Author: Alexander Tsesis
Publisher: Columbia University Press
This volume is the first comprehensive examination of one of the twentieth century's most distinctive iconoclasts. Aleister Crowley (1875-1947) was a study in contradictions. Born into a fundamentalist Christian family and educated at Cambridge, he was vilified as a traitor, drug addict, and debaucher, yet revered as perhaps the most influential thinker in contemporary esotericism. Moving beyond the influence of contemporary psychology and the modernist understanding of the occult, Crowley declared himself the revelator of a new age of individualism. Crowley's occult bricolage, Magick, was an eclectic combination of spiritual exercises drawn from Western European magical ceremonies and Indic sources for meditation and yoga. This journey of self-liberation culminated in harnessing sexual power as a magical discipline, a "sacrilization of the self" as practiced in Crowley's mixed masonic group, the Ordo Templi Orientis. The religion Crowley created, Thelema, legitimated his role as a charismatic revelator and herald of a new age of freedom. Aleister Crowley's lasting influence can be seen in the counter-culture movement of the late 1960s and early 1970s and in many forms of alternative spirituality and popular culture. The essays in this volume offer crucial insight into Crowley's foundational role in the study of Western esotericism, new religious movements, and sexuality.
Author: Henrik Bogdan,Martin P. Starr
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Today's world is post-colonial and post-Cold War. These twin characteristics explain why international society is also riddled with the two major forms of injustice which Nancy Fraser identified as afflicting national societies. First, the economic and social disparities between states caused outcry in the 1950s when the first steps were taken towards decolonisation. These inequalities, to which a number of emerging states now contribute, are still glaring and still pose the problem of the gap between formal equality and true equality. Second, international society is increasingly confronted with culture- and identity-related claims, stretching the dividing line between equality and difference. The less-favoured states, those that feel stigmatised, but also native peoples, ethnic groups, minorities and women now aspire to both legal recognition of their equal dignity and the protection of their identities and cultures. Some even seek reparation for injustices arising from the past violation of their identities and the confiscation of their property or land. In answer to these two forms of claim, the subjects of international society have come up with two types of remedy encapsulated in legal rules: the law of development and the law of recognition. These two sets of rights are neither wholly autonomous and individualised branches of law nor formalised sets of rules. They are imperfect and have their dark side. Yet they can be seen as the first milestones towards what might become a fairer international society; one that is both equitable (as an answer to socio-economic injustice) and decent (as an answer to cultural injustice). This book explores this evolution in international society, setting it in historical perspective and examining its presuppositions and implications.
International Law Between Development and Recognition
Author: Emmanuelle Tourme Jouannet
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing