the background of Christianity
Author: William Oscar Emil Oesterley,Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge (Great Britain)
Publisher: Associated Faculty Pr Inc
The History of the Jews in the Greco-Roman World examines Judaism in Palestine throughout the Hellenistic period, from Alexander the Great's conquest in 334BC to its capture by the Arabs in AD 636. Under the Greek, Roman and finally Christian supremacy which Hellenism brought, Judaism developed far beyond its biblical origins into a form which was to influence European history from the Middle Ages to the present day. The book focuses particularly on the social, economic and religious concerns of this period, and the political status of the Jews as both active agents and passive victims of history. The author provides a straightforward chronological survey of this important period through analysis and interpretation of the existing sources. With its accessible style and explanation of technical terms, the book provides a useful introduction to students and anybody with an interest in post-biblical Judaism.
Author: Peter Schäfer
Publisher: Psychology Press
Author: Johannes Geffcken
Category: Oracula Sibyllina
Relations between Jews and non-Jews in the Hellenistic-Roman period were marked by suspicion and hate, maintain most studies of that topic. But if such conjectures are true, asks Louis Feldman, how did Jews succeed in winning so many adherents, whether full-fledged proselytes or "sympathizers" who adopted one or more Jewish practices? Systematically evaluating attitudes toward Jews from the time of Alexander the Great to the fifth century A.D., Feldman finds that Judaism elicited strongly positive and not merely unfavorable responses from the non-Jewish population. Jews were a vigorous presence in the ancient world, and Judaism was strengthened substantially by the development of the Talmud. Although Jews in the Diaspora were deeply Hellenized, those who remained in Israel were able to resist the cultural inroads of Hellenism and even to initiate intellectual counterattacks. Feldman draws on a wide variety of material, from Philo, Josephus, and other Graeco-Jewish writers through the Apocrypha, the Pseudepigrapha, the Church Councils, Church Fathers, and imperial decrees to Talmudic and Midrashic writings and inscriptions and papyri. What emerges is a rich description of a long era to which conceptions of Jewish history as uninterrupted weakness and suffering do not apply.
Attitudes and Interactions from Alexander to Justinian
Author: Louis H. Feldman
Publisher: Princeton University Press
This is the second volume of the projected four-volume history of the Second Temple period. It is axiomatic that there are large gaps in the history of the Persian period, but the early Greek period is possibly even less known. This volume brings together all we know about the Jews during the period from Alexander's conquest to the eve of the Maccabaean revolt, including the Jews in Egypt as well as the situation in Judah. Based directly on the primary sources, which are surveyed, the study addresses questions such as administration, society, religion, economy, jurisprudence, Hellenism and Jewish identity. These are discussed in the context of the wider Hellenistic world and its history. A strength of the study is its extensive up-to-date secondary bibliography (approximately one thousand items).
The Coming of the Greeks: The Early Hellenistic Period (335-175 BCE)
Author: Lester L. Grabbe
Publisher: A&C Black
ein autobiographischer Bericht
Author: Primo Levi
In the first of four volumes on A History of the Jews and Judaism in the Second Temple Period, Lester Grabbe presents a comprehensive history of Yehud - the Aramaic name for Judah - during the Persian Period. Among the many crucial questions he addresses are: What are the sources for this period and how do we evaluate them? And how do we make them 'speak' to us through the fog of centuries? This first volume, Yehud: A History of the Persian Province of Judah offers the most up to date and comprehensive examination of the political and administrative structures; the society and economy; the religion, temple and cult; the developments in thought and literature; and the major political events of Judah at the time.
The Persian Period (539-331BCE)
Author: Lester L. Grabbe
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
The essays deal with developments during the period from the liquidation of the Judean state to the conquests of Alexander the Great. This was a critical time in the Near East and the Mediterranean world in general. It marked the end of the great Semitic empires until the rise of Islam in the seventh century A.D.,decisive changes in religion, with appeal to a creator-deity in Deutero-Isaiah, Babylonian Marduk cult, and Zoroastrianism.For the survivors of the Babylonian conquest in a post-collapse society the issue of continuity, with different groups claiming continuity with the past and possession of the traditions, there developed a situation favourable to the emergence of sects. The most pressing question, however, was what to do faced with the overwhelming power of empire, first Babylonian, then Persian. Finally, with the extinction of the native dynasty and the entire apparatus of a nation-state, the temple became the focus and emblem of group identity.
Author: Joseph Blenkinsopp
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
Martin Hengel gathers an encyclopedic amount of material, ancient and modern, to present an exhaustive survey of the early course of Hellenistic civilization as it related to developing Judaism. The result is a highly readable account of a largely unfamiliar world which is indispensable for those interested in Judaism and the birth of Christianity alike. An extensive section of notes and bibliography is included.
Studies in their Encounter in Palestine during the Early Hellenistic Period
Author: Martin Hengel
Publisher: Wipf and Stock Publishers
Jesus was a Jew. That simple statement carries with it a millennia of cultural bias, persecution, and ignorance. David Ray Bourquin attempts to shed some light on what it meant to be a Jew during the Roman Period with this detailed, annotated bibliography of works in English. Following a brief introduction and guide on how to use the book, Bourquin divides his work into three major sections: A. Primary Sources; B. Books; and C. Periodical and Serial Articles. In each section, materials are arranged by subject, and in each sub-section in alphabetical order by main entry. Entries include complete bibliographical data, plus concise, descriptive, and analytical annotations. A glossary and four detailed indexes, all correlated to entry numbers, complete the volume. Every student of the period will want a copy of this carefully compiled bibliography.
An Annotated Guide to Works in English
Author: David Ray Bourquin,Michael Burgess
Publisher: Wildside Press LLC
Die von Georg Fohrer angeregte Fortsetzung seiner „Geschichte der israelitischen Religion" (1969) durch eine Geschichte der jüdischen Religion stellte Autor und Verlag vor nicht geringe Probleme. Es handelt sich um den ersten Versuch einer Darstellung der jüdischen Religionsgeschichte in Gestalt eines solchen Lehrbuches. Die Bewältigung des umfangreichen Stoffes erwies sich nicht zuletzt darum als schwierig, weil die Auswahl der anzuführenden Literaturhinweise nicht zu eng getroffen werden durfte, da ja nicht vorausgesetzt werden konnte, dass jeder Leser Zugang zu den entsprechenden judaistischen Bibliographien und Nachschlagewerken hat, und weil selbst unter den Studierenden der Judaistik eine lebhafte Nachfrage nach einer möglichst umfassenden und thematisch geordneten Bibliographie zur Geschichte der jüdischen Religion besteht.
Von der Zeit Alexander des Großen bis zur Aufklärung mit einem Ausblick auf das 19./20. Jahrhundert
Author: Johann Maier
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
This landmark contribution to ongoing debates about perceptions of the Jews in antiquity examines the attitudes of Greek writers of the Hellenistic period toward the Jewish people. Among the leading Greek intellectuals who devoted special attention to the Jews were Theophrastus (the successor of Aristotle), Hecataeus of Abdera (the father of "scientific" ethnography), and Apollonius Molon (probably the greatest rhetorician of the Hellenistic world). Bezalel Bar-Kochva examines the references of these writers and others to the Jews in light of their literary output and personal background; their religious, social, and political views; their literary and stylistic methods; ethnographic stereotypes current at the time; and more.
The Hellenistic Period
Author: Bezalel Bar-Kochva
Publisher: Univ of California Press
Art and Judaism During the Greco-Roman Period explores the Jewish experience with art during the Greco-Roman period-from the Hellenistic period through the rise of Islam. It starts from with the premise that Jewish art in antiquity was a "minority" or "ethnic" art and surveys ways that Jews fully participated in, transformed, and at times rejected the art of their general environment. Art and Judaism focuses upon the politics of identity during the Greco-Roman period, even as it discusses ways that modern identity issues have sometimes distorted and at other times refined scholarly discussion of ancient Jewish material culture. Art and Judaism, the first historical monograph on ancient Jewish art in forty years, evaluates earlier scholarship even as it sets out in new directions. Placing literary sources in careful dialogue with archaeological discoveries, this "New Jewish Archaeology" is an important contribution to Judaic Studies, Religious Studies, Art History, and Classics. The Revised Edition includes a new introduction, additional images, and color plates.
Toward a New Jewish Archaeology
Author: Steven Fine,Prof Steven Fine
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
This work includes essays on aspects of Judaism in the Greco-Roman world.They derive from the author's long-standing interests in the analysis of texts as documents of cultural and religious interaction.
Studies in Cultural and Social Interaction
Author: Tessa Rajak
What was life like for Jews settled throughout the Mediterranean world of Classical antiquity--and what place did Jewish communities have in the diverse civilization dominated by Greeks and Romans? In a probing account of the Jewish diaspora in the four centuries from Alexander the Great's conquest of the Near East to the Roman destruction of the Jewish Temple in 70 C.E., Erich Gruen reaches often surprising conclusions. By the first century of our era, Jews living abroad far outnumbered those living in Palestine and had done so for generations. Substantial Jewish communities were found throughout the Greek mainland and Aegean islands, Asia Minor, the Tigris-Euphrates valley, Egypt, and Italy. Focusing especially on Alexandria, Greek cities in Asia Minor, and Rome, Gruen explores the lives of these Jews: the obstacles they encountered, the institutions they established, and their strategies for adjustment. He also delves into Jewish writing in this period, teasing out how Jews in the diaspora saw themselves. There emerges a picture of a Jewish minority that was at home in Greco-Roman cities: subject to only sporadic harassment; its intellectuals immersed in Greco-Roman culture while refashioning it for their own purposes; exhibiting little sign of insecurity in an alien society; and demonstrating both a respect for the Holy Land and a commitment to the local community and Gentile government. Gruen's innovative analysis of the historical and literary record alters our understanding of the way this vibrant minority culture engaged with the dominant Classical civilization.
Jews Amidst Greeks and Romans
Author: Erich S. Gruen
Publisher: Harvard University Press
von den Anfängen bis zur Gegenwart
Author: Ḥayim Hilel Ben-Śaśon