The Indus

Lost Civilizations

Author: Andrew Robinson

Publisher: Reaktion Books

ISBN: 1780235410

Category: History

Page: 192

View: 4258

When Alexander the Great invaded the Indus Valley in the fourth century BCE, he was completely unaware that it had once been the center of a civilization that could have challenged ancient Egypt and neighboring Mesopotamia in size and sophistication. In this accessible introduction, Andrew Robinson tells the story—so far as we know it—of this enigmatic people, who lay forgotten for around 4,000 years. Going back to 2600 BCE, Robinson investigates a civilization that flourished over half a millennium, until 1900 BCE, when it mysteriously declined and eventually vanished. Only in the 1920s, did British and Indian archaeologists in search of Alexander stumble upon the ruins of a civilization in what is now northwest India and eastern Pakistan. Robinson surveys a network of settlements—more than 1,000—that covered over 800,000 square kilometers. He examines the technically advanced features of some of the civilization’s ancient cities, such as Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, where archaeologists have found finely crafted gemstone jewelry, an exquisite part-pictographic writing system (still requiring decipherment), apparently Hindu symbolism, plumbing systems that would not be bettered until the Roman empire, and street planning worthy of our modern world. He also notes what is missing: any evidence of warfare, notwithstanding an adventurous maritime trade between the Indus cities and Mesopotamia via the Persian Gulf. A fascinating look at a tantalizingly “lost” civilization, this book is a testament to its artistic excellence, technological progress, economic vigor, and social tolerance, not to mention the Indus legacy to modern South Asia and the wider world.
Posted in History

The Ancient Indus Valley

New Perspectives

Author: Jane McIntosh

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 1576079074

Category: History

Page: 441

View: 8640

This work is a revealing study of the enigmatic Indus civilization and how a rich repertoire of archaeological tools is being used to probe its puzzles. * A chronological overview that establishes the important phases of the Indus civilization and places Indus society in the historical context of the development of South Asia * Illustrations showing speculative reconstructions of the Indus civilization's magnificent cities and photographs of artifacts from exquisite jewelry to beautiful carved seals
Posted in History

Ancient Cities of the Indus Valley Civilization

Author: Jonathan M. Kenoyer

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: N.A

Category: Social Science

Page: 260

View: 5756

Offers a variety of perspectives on the Indus Valley civilization, covering important objects recovered during recent excavations at Harappa, and recent archaeological discoveries on South Asian societies and ancient technologies.
Posted in Social Science

A Peaceful Realm

The Rise and Fall of the Indus Civilization

Author: Jane McIntosh

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780813335322

Category: History

Page: 224

View: 7134

Looks at the rise and fall of the Indus civilization covering such topics as religion, farming, language, trade, crafts, and society.
Posted in History

The Roots of Hinduism

The Early Aryans and the Indus Civilization

Author: Asko Parpola

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190226935

Category: History

Page: 432

View: 4923

Hinduism has two major roots. The more familiar is the religion brought to South Asia in the second millennium BCE by speakers of Aryan or Indo-Iranian languages, a branch of the Indo-European language family. Another, more enigmatic, root is the Indus civilization of the third millennium BCE, which left behind exquisitely carved seals and thousands of short inscriptions in a long-forgotten pictographic script. Discovered in the valley of the Indus River in the early 1920s, the Indus civilization had a population estimated at one million people, in more than 1000 settlements, several of which were cities of some 50,000 inhabitants. With an area of nearly a million square kilometers, the Indus civilization was more extensive than the contemporaneous urban cultures of Mesopotamia and Egypt. Yet, after almost a century of excavation and research the Indus civilization remains little understood. How might we decipher the Indus inscriptions? What language did the Indus people speak? What deities did they worship? Asko Parpola has spent fifty years researching the roots of Hinduism to answer these fundamental questions, which have been debated with increasing animosity since the rise of Hindu nationalist politics in the 1980s. In this pioneering book, he traces the archaeological route of the Indo-Iranian languages from the Aryan homeland north of the Black Sea to Central, West, and South Asia. His new ideas on the formation of the Vedic literature and rites and the great Hindu epics hinge on the profound impact that the invention of the horse-drawn chariot had on Indo-Aryan religion. Parpola's comprehensive assessment of the Indus language and religion is based on all available textual, linguistic and archaeological evidence, including West Asian sources and the Indus script. The results affirm cultural and religious continuity to the present day and, among many other things, shed new light on the prehistory of the key Hindu goddess Durga and her Tantric cult.
Posted in History

The Greeks

Lost Civilizations

Author: Philip Matyszak

Publisher: Reaktion Books

ISBN: 1780239432

Category: History

Page: 208

View: 6191

This book is a portrait of Ancient Greece—but not as we know it. Few people today appreciate that Greek civilization was spread across the Middle East, or that there were Greek cities in the foothills of the Himalayas. Philip Matyszak tells the lost stories of the Greeks outside Greece, compatriots of luminaries like Sappho, the poet from Lesbos; Archimedes, a native of Syracuse; and Herodotus, who was born in Asia Minor as a subject of the Persian Empire. Stretching from the earliest prehistoric Greek colonies around the Black Sea to Greek settlements in Spain and Italy, through the conquests of Alexander and the glories of the Hellenistic era, to the fall of Byzantium, The Greeks illuminates the lives of the Greek soldiers, statesmen, scientists, and philosophers who laid the foundations of what we call “Greek culture” today—though they seldom, if ever, set foot on the Greek mainland. Instead of following the well-worn path of examining the rise of Athenian democracy and Spartan militarism, this book offers a fresh look at what it meant to be Greek by instead telling the story of the Greeks abroad, from modern-day India to Spain.
Posted in History

The Persians

Lost Civilizations

Author: Geoffrey Parker,Brenda Parker

Publisher: Reaktion Books

ISBN: 1780236980

Category: History

Page: 224

View: 8520

During the first and second millennia BCE a swathe of nomadic peoples migrated outward from Central Asia into the Eurasian periphery. One group of these people would find themselves encamped in an unpromising, arid region just south of the Caspian Sea. From these modest and uncertain beginnings, they would go on to form one of the most powerful empires in history: the Persian Empire. In this book, Geoffrey and Brenda Parker tell the captivating story of this ancient civilization and its enduring legacy to the world. The authors examine the unique features of Persian life and trace their influence throughout the centuries. They examine the environmental difficulties the early Persians encountered and how, in overcoming them, they were able to develop a unique culture that would culminate in the massive, first empire, the Achaemenid Empire. Extending their influence into the maritime west, they fought the Greeks for mastery of the eastern Mediterranean—one of the most significant geopolitical contests of the ancient world. And the authors paint vivid portraits of Persian cities and their spectacular achievements: intricate and far-reaching roadways, an astonishing irrigation system that created desert paradises, and, above all, an extraordinary reflection of the diverse peoples that inhabited them. Informed and original, this is a history of an incomparable culture whose influence can still be seen, millennia later, in modern-day Iran and the wider Middle East.
Posted in History

The Lost River

On the Trail of the Sarasvatī

Author: Michel Danino

Publisher: Penguin Books India

ISBN: 0143068644

Category: India

Page: 357

View: 7255

The Indian subcontinent was the scene of dramatic upheavals a few thousand years ago. The Northwest region entered an arid phase, and erosion coupled with tectonic events played havoc with river courses. One of them disappeared. Celebrated as Sarasvati in the Rig Veda and the Mahabharata, this river was rediscovered in the early nineteenth century through topographic explorations by British officials. Recently, geological and climatological studies have probed its evolution and disappearance, while satellite imagery has traced the river s buried courses and isotope analyses have dated ancient waters still stored under the Thar Desert. In the same Northwest, the subcontinent s first urban society the Indus civilization flourished and declined. But it was not watered by the Indus alone: since Aurel Stein s expedition in the 1940s, hundreds of Harappan sites have been identified in the now dry Sarasvati s basin. The rich Harappan legacy in technologies, arts and culture sowed the seeds of Indian civilization as we know it now. Drawing from recent research in a wide range of disciplines, this book discusses differing viewpoints and proposes a harmonious synthesis a fascinating tale of exploration that brings to life the vital role the lost river of the Indian desert played before its waters gurgled to a stop.
Posted in India

Deciphering the Indus Script

Author: Asko Parpola

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521795661

Category: Social Science

Page: 400

View: 6441

Of the writing systems of the ancient world which still await deciphering, the Indus script is the most important. It developed in the Indus or Harappan Civilization, which flourished c. 2500-1900 BC in and around modern Pakistan, collapsing before the earliest historical records of South Asia were composed. Nearly 4,000 samples of the writing survive, mainly on stamp seals and amulets, but no translations. Professor Parpola is the chief editor of the Corpus of Indus Seals and Inscriptions. His ideas about the script, the linguistic affinity of the Harappan language, and the nature of the Indus religion are informed by a remarkable command of Aryan, Dravidian, and Mesopotamian sources, archaeological materials, and linguistic methodology. His fascinating study confirms that the Indus script was logo-syllabic, and that the Indus language belonged to the Dravidian family.
Posted in Social Science

The Indus Civilization

A Contemporary Perspective

Author: Gregory L. Possehl

Publisher: Rowman Altamira

ISBN: 0759116423

Category: Social Science

Page: 288

View: 7422

A brief introduction to the history, archaeology, art, language, and culture of the Indus Valley civilization, written by the leading North American Indus archaeologist.
Posted in Social Science

Barbarians

Author: Peter Bogucki

Publisher: Reaktion Books

ISBN: 1780237650

Category: History

Page: 208

View: 9083

We often think of the civilizations of ancient Greece and Rome as discrete incubators of Western culture, places where ideas about everything from government to art to philosophy were free to develop and then be distributed outward into the wider Mediterranean world. But as Peter Bogucki reminds us in this book, Greece and Rome did not develop in isolation. All around them were rural communities who had remarkably different cultures, ones few of us know anything about. Telling the stories of these nearly forgotten people, he offers a long-overdue enrichment of how we think about classical antiquity. As Bogucki shows, the lands to the north of the Greek and Roman peninsulas were inhabited by non-literate communities that stretched across river valleys, mountains, plains, and shorelines from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Ural Mountains in the east. What we know about them is almost exclusively through archeological finds of settlements, offerings, monuments, and burials—but these remnants paint a portrait that is just as compelling as that of the great literate, urban civilizations of this time. Bogucki sketches the development of these groups’ cultures from the Stone Age through the collapse of the Roman Empire in the west, highlighting the increasing complexity of their societal structures, their technological accomplishments, and their distinct cultural practices. He shows that we are still learning much about them, as he examines new historical and archeological discoveries as well as the ways our knowledge about these groups has led to a vibrant tourist industry and even influenced politics. The result is a fascinating account of several nearly vanished cultures and the modern methods that have allowed us to rescue them from historical oblivion.
Posted in History

The Search of the Cradle of Civilization

New Light on Ancient India

Author: Georg Feuerstein,Subhash Kak,David Frawley

Publisher: Motilal Banarsidass Publishe

ISBN: 9788120820371

Category: India

Page: 341

View: 6369

The book shows that the ancient Indians were no primitives but possessed a high spiritual culture, which not only influenced the evolution of the Western world in decisive ways but which still has much to teach us today. India`s archaic spirituality is codified in the rich symbols, metaphors, and myths of the magnificent Rig-Veda, which is shown to be much older than has been widely assumed by scholars. The present book also unravels the astonishing mathematical and astronomical code hidden in the Vedic hymns. Anyone interested in ancient cultural history, India, archaeo-astronomy, or spirituality will find this well-researched and cross-cultural work spellbinding and enriching.
Posted in India

India: A Short History

Author: Andrew Robinson

Publisher: Thames & Hudson

ISBN: 0500771952

Category: History

Page: 248

View: 1175

India’s unfolding story, from the ancient Hindu dynasties to the coming of Islam, from the Mughal Empire to the present day India has always been a land of great contradictions. To Alexander the Great, the country was a place of clever naked philosophers and massive armies mounted on elephants – which eventually forced his army to retreat. To ancient Rome, it was a source of luxuries, mainly spices and textiles, paid for in gold—hence the enormous numbers of Roman gold coins excavated in India. At the height of the Mughal empire in 1700, India boasted 24 percent of the world economy—a share virtually equal to Europe’s 25 percent. But then its economy declined. Colonial India was known for its extremes of wealth and poverty, epitomized by the Taj Mahal and famines, maharajas and untouchables, and also for its spirituality: many-armed Hindu gods and Buddhist philosophy, Mahatma Gandhi and Rabindranath Tagore. India: A Short History places as much emphasis on individuals, ideas and cultures as on the rise and fall of kingdoms, political parties and economies. Anyone curious about a great civilization, and its future, will find this an ideal introduction, at times controversial, written by an author who has been strongly engaged with India for more than three decades.
Posted in History

Egypt

Author: Christina Riggs

Publisher: Reaktion Books

ISBN: 178023774X

Category: History

Page: 208

View: 7529

From Roman villas to Hollywood films, ancient Egypt has been a source of fascination and inspiration in many other cultures. But why, exactly, has this been the case? In this book, Christina Riggs examines the history, art, and religion of ancient Egypt to illuminate why it has been so influential throughout the centuries. In doing so, she shows how the ancient past has always been used to serve contemporary purposes. Often characterized as a lost civilization that was discovered by adventurers and archeologists, Egypt has meant many things to many different people. Ancient Greek and Roman writers admired ancient Egyptian philosophy, and this admiration would influence ideas about Egypt in Renaissance Europe as well as the Arabic-speaking world. By the eighteenth century, secret societies like the Freemasons looked to ancient Egypt as a source of wisdom, but as modern Egypt became the focus of Western military strategy and economic exploitation in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, its ancient remains came to be seen as exotic, primitive, or even dangerous, tangled in the politics of racial science and archaeology. The curse of the pharaohs or the seductiveness of Cleopatra were myths that took on new meanings in the colonial era, while ancient Egypt also inspired modernist, anti-colonial movements in the arts, such as in the Harlem Renaissance and Egyptian Pharaonism. Today, ancient Egypt—whether through actual relics or through cultural homage—can be found from museum galleries to tattoo parlors. Riggs helps us understand why this “lost civilization” continues to be a touchpoint for defining—and debating—who we are today.
Posted in History

The Goths

Lost Civilizations

Author: David M. Gwynn

Publisher: Reaktion Books

ISBN: 1780238924

Category: History

Page: 208

View: 9903

The Goths are truly a “lost civilization.” Sweeping down from the north, ancient Gothic tribes sacked the imperial city of Rome and set in motion the decline and fall of the western Roman empire. Ostrogothic and Visigothic kings ruled over Italy and Spain, dominating early medieval Europe. Yet after the last Gothic kingdom fell more than a thousand years ago, the Goths disappeared as an independent people. Over the centuries that followed, as traces of Gothic civilization vanished, its people came to be remembered as both barbaric destroyers and heroic champions of liberty. In this engaging history, David M. Gwynn brings together the interwoven stories of the original Goths and the diverse Gothic heritage, a heritage that continues to shape our modern world. From the ancient migrations to contemporary Goth culture, through debates over democratic freedom and European nationalism, and drawing on writers from Shakespeare to Bram Stoker, Gwynn explores the ever-widening gulf between the Goths of history and the popular imagination. Historians, students of architecture and literature, and general readers alike will learn something new about this great lost civilization.
Posted in History

Finding Forgotten Cities

How the Indus Civilization was discovered

Author: Nayanjot Lahiri

Publisher: Hachette UK

ISBN: 9350094193

Category: History

Page: 456

View: 7218

In the autumn of 1924, the archaeologist John Marshall made an announcement that dramatically altered existing perceptions of South Asia's antiquity: the discovery of 'the civilization of the Indus valley'. Marshall's news conveyed one of the most monumental discoveries in the history of civilization, on the same scale as the findings of Heinrich Schliemann (who unearthed Troy) and Arthur Evans (who dug out Minoan Crete). The Troy and Crete stories have been well told. But a detailed, archivally rich and accessible narrative of the people, processes, places and puzzles that led up to Marshall's proclamation on the Indus civilization has, like the civilization itself, long remained buried. Now, for the first time in this book, we have the whole story, enchantingly told. Finding Forgotten Cities comprises a powerful narrative history of how India's antiquity was unexpectedly unearthed, it will interest every serious reader of history and anyone who likes to read an utterly fascinating story.
Posted in History

Empires of the Indus: The Story of a River

Author: Alice Albinia

Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company

ISBN: 0393063224

Category: History

Page: 368

View: 5657

“Alice Albinia is the most extraordinary traveler of her generation. . . . A journey of astonishing confidence and courage.”—Rory Stewart One of the largest rivers in the world, the Indus rises in the Tibetan mountains and flows west across northern India and south through Pakistan. It has been worshipped as a god, used as a tool of imperial expansion, and today is the cement of Pakistan’s fractious union. Alice Albinia follows the river upstream, through two thousand miles of geography and back to a time five thousand years ago when a string of sophisticated cities grew on its banks. “This turbulent history, entwined with a superlative travel narrative” (The Guardian) leads us from the ruins of elaborate metropolises, to the bitter divisions of today. Like Rory Stewart’s The Places In Between, Empires of the Indus is an engrossing personal journey and a deeply moving portrait of a river and its people.
Posted in History

The Indus Civilization

Author: Mortimer Wheeler

Publisher: CUP Archive

ISBN: 9780521069588

Category: Social Science

Page: 143

View: 4368

This book discusses climate and dating of the Indus Valley civilization and Sir Mortimer Wheeler summarizes other contributions to the study.
Posted in Social Science

Daily Life in the Indus Valley Civilization

Author: Brian Williams

Publisher: Capstone

ISBN: 148462582X

Category: History

Page: 48

View: 8644

This book explores what life was really like for everyday people in the Indus Valley civilization. Using primary sources and information from archeological discoveries, it uncovers some fascinating insights and explodes some myths. Supported by timelines, maps, and references to important events and people, children will really feel they are on a time-traveling journey when reading this book.
Posted in History