The Global Commons

An Introduction

Author: Susan J. Buck

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351544020

Category: Nature

Page: 240

View: 9729

Antarctica, the high seas and deep seabed, the atmosphere, and space are increasingly accessible - and exploited - resource domains. Collectively known as the global commons, they represent a new and profound challenge for international law and institutions. In The Global Commons, Susan Buck considers the unique physical, legal, management, and policy problems associated with these areas. The book is a clear, useful introduction to the subject that will be of interest to general readers as well as to students in international relations, international law, and environmental law and policy.
Posted in Nature

Global Commons, Domestic Decisions

The Comparative Politics of Climate Change

Author: Kathryn Harrison,Lisa McIntosh Sundstrom

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262014262

Category: Political Science

Page: 312

View: 9577

Comparative case studies and analyses of the influence of domestic politics on countries' climate change policies and Kyoto ratification decisions.
Posted in Political Science

The Global Idea of 'the Commons'

Author: Donald Macon Nonini

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 9781845454852

Category: Social Science

Page: 138

View: 1396

During the last three decades, corporations allied with scientists and universities, national and regional governments, and international financial institutions have, through a variety of mechanisms associated with neo-liberal globalization, acted to dispossess large proportions of the world's population of their commons' resources and enclose them for profit making. In response, throughout the global South and in the cities of the global North, large numbers of people have formed movements to defend the commons in all their variety. The idea of the commons has thus emerged as a global idea, and commons have emerged as sites of conflict around the world. The essays in this forum assess strategically the situations of selected commons in a variety of diagnostic sites where they exist, the ways in which they are being transformed by the incursions of capital and state, and the ways in which they are becoming the locus of struggle for those who depend on them to survive.
Posted in Social Science

Space, Power and the Commons

The struggle for alternative futures

Author: Samuel Kirwan,Leila Dawney,Julian Brigstocke

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317553640

Category: Science

Page: 232

View: 6497

Across the globe, political movements opposing privatisation, enclosures, and other spatial controls are coalescing towards the idea of the ‘commons’. As a result, struggles over the commons and common life are now coming to the forefront of both political activism and scholarly enquiry. This book advances academic debates concerning the spatialities of the commons and draws out the diverse materialities, temporalities, and experiences of practices of commoning. Part one, "Materialising the Commons" focuses on the?performance of new geographical imaginations in spatial and material practices of commoning. Part two, "Spaces of Commoning", explores the importance of the turn from ‘commons’ to ‘commoning’, bringing together chapters focusing on the "doing" of commons, and how spaces, materials, bodies and abstract flows are intertwined in these complex and excessive processes. Part three, "An Expanded Commons", explores the broader registers and spaces in which the concept of the commons is at stake and highlights how and where the commons can open new areas of action and research.?Part four, "The Capture of the Commons", questions the particular interdependence of ‘the commons’ and ‘enclosure’ assumed within commons literature framed by the concept of neoliberalism. Providing a comprehensive introduction to the diverse ways in which ideas of the commons are being conceptualised and enacted both throughout the social sciences and in practical action, this book foregrounds the commons as an arena for political thought and?sets an agenda for future research.?
Posted in Science

The Political Uncommons

The Cross-cultural Logic of the Global Commons

Author: Kathryn Milun

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

ISBN: 9780754671398

Category: Law

Page: 231

View: 684

This book presents a cultural history of the global commons, connecting the logic of legal institutions governing global commons to colonial doctrines that dispossessed indigenous peoples of their land. It demonstrates how global commons regimes might benefit from the cross-cultural logics found where indigenous peoples have gained recognition of their common tenure systems in Western courts.
Posted in Law

Governing the Commons

Author: Elinor Ostrom

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107569788

Category: Political Science

Page: 298

View: 3175

Tackles one of the most enduring and contentious issues of positive political economy: common pool resource management.
Posted in Political Science

Conflict and Cooperation in the Global Commons

A Comprehensive Approach for International Security

Author: Scott Jasper

Publisher: Georgetown University Press

ISBN: 1589019237

Category: Political Science

Page: 280

View: 6589

More than ever, international security and economic prosperity depend upon safe access to the shared domains that make up the global commons: maritime, air, space, and cyberspace. Together these domains serve as essential conduits through which international commerce, communication, and governance prosper. However, the global commons are congested, contested, and competitive. In the January 2012 defense strategic guidance, the United States confirmed its commitment “to continue to lead global efforts with capable allies and partners to assure access to and use of the global commons, both by strengthening international norms of responsible behavior and by maintaining relevant and interoperable military capabilities.” In the face of persistent threats, some hybrid in nature, and their consequences, Conflict and Cooperation in the Global Commons provides a forum where contributors identify ways to strengthen and maintain responsible use of the global commons. The result is a comprehensive approach that will enhance, align, and unify commercial industry, civil agency, and military perspectives and actions.
Posted in Political Science

Global Bioethics

An introduction

Author: Henk ten Have

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317300815

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 292

View: 6336

The panorama of bioethical problems is different today. Patients travel to Thailand for fast surgery; commercial surrogate mothers in India deliver babies to parents in rich countries; organs, body parts and tissues are trafficked from East to Western Europe; physicians and nurses migrating from Africa to the U.S; thousands of children or patients with malaria, tuberculosis and AIDS are dying each day because they cannot afford effective drugs that are too expensive. Mainstream bioethics as it has developed during the last 50 years in Western countries is evolving into a broader approach that is relevant for people across the world and is focused on new global problems. This book provides an introduction into the new field of global bioethics. Addressing these problems requires a broader vision of bioethics that not only goes beyond the current emphasis on individual autonomy, but that criticizes the social, economic and political context that is producing the problems at global level. This book argues that global bioethics is a necessity because the social, economic and environmental effects of globalization require critical responses. Global bioethics is not a finished product that can simply be applied to solve global problems, but it is the ongoing result of interaction and exchange between local practices and global discourse. It combines recognition of differences and respect for cultural diversity with convergence towards common perspectives and shared values. The book examines the nature of global problems as well as the type of responses that are needed, in order to exemplify the substance of global bioethics. It discusses the ethical frameworks that are available for global discourse and shows how these are transformed into global governance mechanisms and practices.
Posted in Business & Economics

Governing the Frozen Commons

The Antarctic Regime and Environmental Protection

Author: Christopher C. Joyner

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Nature

Page: 363

View: 4833

This volume examines the Antarctic Treaty System as a complex legal regime for managing resource activities in the Antarctic and assesses what innovative legal arrangements might be needed to regulate future political and economic developments there.
Posted in Nature

Educational Commons in Theory and Practice

Global Pedagogy and Politics

Author: Alexander J. Means,Derek R. Ford,Graham B. Slater

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137586419

Category: Education

Page: 274

View: 6480

In this volume, critical scholars and educational activists explore the intricate dynamics between the enclosure of global commons and radical visions of a common social future that breaks through the logics of privatization, ecological degradation, and dehumanizing social hierarchies in education. In its institutional and informal configurations alike, education has been identified as perhaps the key stake in this struggle. Insisting on the urgency of an education that breaks free of the bonds of enclosure, the essays included in this volume weave together bright threads of radical thought into a vivid tapestry illustrating a critical framework for enacting a global educational commons.
Posted in Education

Green Governance

Ecological Survival, Human Rights, and the Law of the Commons

Author: Burns H. Weston,David Bollier

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139620592

Category: Law

Page: N.A

View: 5779

The vast majority of the world's scientists agree: we have reached a point in history where we are in grave danger of destroying Earth's life-sustaining capacity. But our attempts to protect natural ecosystems are increasingly ineffective because our very conception of the problem is limited; we treat 'the environment' as its own separate realm, taking for granted prevailing but outmoded conceptions of economics, national sovereignty and international law. Green Governance is a direct response to the mounting calls for a paradigm shift in the way humans relate to the natural environment. It opens the door to a new set of solutions by proposing a compelling new synthesis of environmental protection based on broader notions of economics and human rights and on commons-based governance. Going beyond speculative abstractions, the book proposes a new architecture of environmental law and public policy that is as practical as it is theoretically sound.
Posted in Law

An Introduction to Global Studies

Author: Patricia J. Campbell,Aran MacKinnon,Christy R. Stevens

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1444329588

Category: Political Science

Page: 440

View: 8390

Taking an interdisciplinary approach, An Introduction to Global Studies presents readers with a solid introduction to the complex, interconnected forces and issues confronting today's globalized world. Introduces readers to major theories, key terms, concepts, and notable theorists Equips readers with the basic knowledge and conceptual tools necessary for thinking critically about the complex issues facing the global community Includes a variety of supplemental features to facilitate learning and enhance readers' understanding of the material
Posted in Political Science

An Inconvenient Truth

The Planetary Emergency of Global Warming and What We Can Do About It

Author: Al Gore

Publisher: Rodale

ISBN: 9781594865671

Category: Science

Page: 325

View: 6486

The former vice-president details the factors contributing to the growing climate crisis, describes changes to the environment caused by global warming, and discusses the shift in environmental policy that is needed to avert disaster.
Posted in Science

On Global Justice

Author: Mathias Risse

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400845505

Category: Philosophy

Page: 480

View: 8421

Debates about global justice have traditionally fallen into two camps. Statists believe that principles of justice can only be held among those who share a state. Those who fall outside this realm are merely owed charity. Cosmopolitans, on the other hand, believe that justice applies equally among all human beings. On Global Justice shifts the terms of this debate and shows how both views are unsatisfactory. Stressing humanity's collective ownership of the earth, Mathias Risse offers a new theory of global distributive justice--what he calls pluralist internationalism--where in different contexts, different principles of justice apply. Arguing that statists and cosmopolitans seek overarching answers to problems that vary too widely for one single justice relationship, Risse explores who should have how much of what we all need and care about, ranging from income and rights to spaces and resources of the earth. He acknowledges that especially demanding redistributive principles apply among those who share a country, but those who share a country also have obligations of justice to those who do not because of a universal humanity, common political and economic orders, and a linked global trading system. Risse's inquiries about ownership of the earth give insights into immigration, obligations to future generations, and obligations arising from climate change. He considers issues such as fairness in trade, responsibilities of the WTO, intellectual property rights, labor rights, whether there ought to be states at all, and global inequality, and he develops a new foundational theory of human rights.
Posted in Philosophy

An Introduction to Ecological Economics

Author: Robert Costanza,John H Cumberland,Herman Daly,Robert Goodland,Richard B Norgaard

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420048353

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 5366

Ecological economics is a way of rethinking the relationship between humans and the environment and working out the implications of how we manage our lives and the planet. An Introduction to Ecological Economics offers a starting point for undergraduate and graduate students and environmental professionals interested in this transdisciplinary field. Beginning in Section 1 with a description of some current problems in society and their underlying causes, Section 2 then takes a historical perspective to explain how world views regarding economics and ecology have evolved. Section 3 presents the fundamental principles of ecological economics, and Part 4 outlines and discusses a set of policies for creating a sustainable society as well as instruments that could be used to implement those policies. A conclusions section summarizes the main points of the book and proposes prospects for the future. Let An Introduction to Ecological Economics introduce you to important issues affecting our ecology, our economy, our world.
Posted in Science

Conflict and Cooperation in the Global Commons

A Comprehensive Approach for International Security

Author: Scott Jasper

Publisher: Georgetown University Press

ISBN: 1589019237

Category: Political Science

Page: 280

View: 8384

More than ever, international security and economic prosperity depend upon safe access to the shared domains that make up the global commons: maritime, air, space, and cyberspace. Together these domains serve as essential conduits through which international commerce, communication, and governance prosper. However, the global commons are congested, contested, and competitive. In the January 2012 defense strategic guidance, the United States confirmed its commitment “to continue to lead global efforts with capable allies and partners to assure access to and use of the global commons, both by strengthening international norms of responsible behavior and by maintaining relevant and interoperable military capabilities.” In the face of persistent threats, some hybrid in nature, and their consequences, Conflict and Cooperation in the Global Commons provides a forum where contributors identify ways to strengthen and maintain responsible use of the global commons. The result is a comprehensive approach that will enhance, align, and unify commercial industry, civil agency, and military perspectives and actions.
Posted in Political Science

The Drama of the Commons

Author: National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Board on Environmental Change and Society,Committee on the Human Dimensions of Global Change

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309169981

Category: Social Science

Page: 534

View: 7829

The "tragedy of the commons" is a central concept in human ecology and the study of the environment. It has had tremendous value for stimulating research, but it only describes the reality of human-environment interactions in special situations. Research over the past thirty years has helped clarify how human motivations, rules governing access to resources, the structure of social organizations, and the resource systems themselves interact to determine whether or not the many dramas of the commons end happily. In this book, leaders in the field review the evidence from several disciplines and many lines of research and present a state-of-the-art assessment. They summarize lessons learned and identify the major challenges facing any system of governance for resource management. They also highlight the major challenges for the next decade: making knowledge development more systematic; understanding institutions dynamically; considering a broader range of resources (such as global and technological commons); and taking into account the effects of social and historical context. This book will be a valuable and accessible introduction to the field for students and a resource for advanced researchers.
Posted in Social Science

The Wealth of the Commons

A World Beyond Market and State

Author: David Bollier,Silke Helfrich

Publisher: Levellers Press

ISBN: 1937146146

Category: Political Science

Page: 462

View: 2726

We are poised between an old world that no longer works and a new one struggling to be born. Surrounded by centralized hierarchies on the one hand and predatory markets on the other, people around the world are searching for alternatives. The Wealth of the Commons explains how millions of commoners have organized to defend their forests and fisheries, reinvent local food systems, organize productive online communities, reclaim public spaces, improve environmental stewardship and re-imagine the very meaning of "progress" and governance. In short, how they've built their commons. In 73 timely essays by a remarkable international roster of activists, academics and project leaders, this book chronicles ongoing struggles against the private com­moditization of shared resources - often known as market enclosures - while docu­menting the immense generative power of the commons. The Wealth of the Commons is about history, political change, public policy and cultural transformation on a global scale - but most of all, it's about individual commoners taking charge of their lives and their endangered resources. "This fine collection makes clear that the idea of the Commons is fully international, and increasingly fully worked-out. If you find yourself wondering what Occupy wants, or if some other world is possible, this pragmatic, down-to-earth, and unsentimental book will provide many of the answers." - Bill McKibben, author of Deep Economy: The Wealth of Communities and The Durable Future
Posted in Political Science

The Challenge of Global Commons and Flows for US Power

The Perils of Missing the Human Domain

Author: Mika Aaltola,Juha Käpylä

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317039211

Category: Political Science

Page: 182

View: 1191

Global commons are domains that fall outside the direct jurisdiction of sovereign states - the high seas, air, space, and most recently man-made cyberspace - and thus should be usable by anyone. These domains, even if outside the direct responsibility and governance of sovereign entities, are of crucial interest for the contemporary world order. This book elaborates a practice-based approach to the global commons and flows to examine critically the evolving geopolitical strategy and vision of United States. The study starts with the observation that the nature of US power is evolving increasingly towards the recognition that command over the flows of global interdependence is a central dimension of national power. The study then highlights the emerging security and governance of these flows. In this context, the flows and the underlying global critical infrastructure are emerging as objects of high-level strategic importance. The book pays special attention to one of the least recognized but perhaps most fundamental challenges related to the global commons, namely the conceptual and practical challenge of inter-domain relationships-between maritime, air, space, and cyber-flows that bring about not only opportunities but also new vulnerabilities. These complexities cannot be understood through technological means alone but rather the issues need to be clarified by bringing in the human domain of security.
Posted in Political Science

Local Commons and Global Interdependence

Author: Robert O Keohane,Elinor Ostrom

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 144626517X

Category: Social Science

Page: 272

View: 8209

This volume offers a synthesis of what is known about very large and very small common-pool resources. Individuals using commons at the global or local level may find themselves in a similar situation. At an international level, states cannot appeal to authoritative hierarchies to enforce agreements they make to cooperate with one another. In some small-scale settings, participants may be just as helpless in calling on distant public officials to monitor and enforce their agreements. Scholars have independently discovered self-organizing regimes which rely on implicit or explicit principles, norms, rules and procedures rather than the command and control of a central authority. The contributors discuss the possibilities and dangers of scaling up and scaling down. They explore the impact of the number of actors and the degree of heterogeneity among actors on the likelihood of cooperative behaviour.
Posted in Social Science