The Geometry of René Descartes

with a Facsimile of the First Edition

Author: René Descartes

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486158179

Category: Mathematics

Page: 272

View: 8470

The great work that founded analytical geometry. Includes the original French text, Descartes' own diagrams, and the definitive Smith-Latham translation. "The greatest single step ever made in the progress of the exact sciences." — John Stuart Mill.
Posted in Mathematics

The Tangled Origins of the Leibnizian Calculus

A Case Study of a Mathematical Revolution

Author: Richard C Brown

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814401617

Category: Mathematics

Page: 332

View: 9806

This book is a detailed study of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz's creation of calculus from 1673 to the 1680s. We examine and analyze the mathematics in several of his early manuscripts as well as various articles published in the Acta Eruditorum. It studies some of the other lesser known “calculi” Leibniz created such as the Analysis Situs, delves into aspects of his logic, and gives an overview of his efforts to construct a Universal Characteristic, a goal that has its distant origin in the Ars Magna of the 13th century Catalan philosopher Raymond Llull, whose work enjoyed a renewed popularity in the century and a half prior to Leibniz. This book also touches upon a new look at the priority controversy with Newton and a Kuhnian interpretation of the nature of mathematical change. This book may be the only integrated treatment based on recent research and should be a thought-provoking contribution to the history of mathematics for scholars and students, interested in either Leibniz's mathematical achievement or general issues in the field. Contents:Evolution or Revolution in MathematicsIssues in Seventeenth Century MathematicsIsaac Barrow: A Foil to LeibnizA Young Central European PolymathFirst Steps in MathematicsThe Creation of CalculusLogicThe Universal CharacteristicThe Baroque Cultural ContextEpilogueSome Concluding Remarks on Mathematical ChangeAppendices:A: A Transmutation Theorem of LeibnizB: Leibniz's Series Quadrature of a ConicC: Syllogistic LogicD: The Vis Viva DisputeE: Some Applications of Curves and Neusis in Greek GeometryF: InfinitesimalsA Note on the Author Readership: Advanced undergraduate students, graduate students and researchers in mathematics, history of mathematics or history of science. Keywords:Leibniz;Calculus;Geometry;17th Century MathematicsKey Features:The thoroughness and comprehensiveness of the treatment of this book are based on recent researchTechnical details of the mathematics are carefully dealt with instead of just being summarized for the general readerNo other work on the development of calculus includes a description and analysis of the Baroque/Renaissance atmosphere of fascination with symbols, emblems, Real Characters and philosophical languages which motivated both Leibniz's mathematics and his search for the Universal Characteristic
Posted in Mathematics

The Real Numbers

An Introduction to Set Theory and Analysis

Author: John Stillwell

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 331901577X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 244

View: 7623

While most texts on real analysis are content to assume the real numbers, or to treat them only briefly, this text makes a serious study of the real number system and the issues it brings to light. Analysis needs the real numbers to model the line, and to support the concepts of continuity and measure. But these seemingly simple requirements lead to deep issues of set theory—uncountability, the axiom of choice, and large cardinals. In fact, virtually all the concepts of infinite set theory are needed for a proper understanding of the real numbers, and hence of analysis itself. By focusing on the set-theoretic aspects of analysis, this text makes the best of two worlds: it combines a down-to-earth introduction to set theory with an exposition of the essence of analysis—the study of infinite processes on the real numbers. It is intended for senior undergraduates, but it will also be attractive to graduate students and professional mathematicians who, until now, have been content to "assume" the real numbers. Its prerequisites are calculus and basic mathematics. Mathematical history is woven into the text, explaining how the concepts of real number and infinity developed to meet the needs of analysis from ancient times to the late twentieth century. This rich presentation of history, along with a background of proofs, examples, exercises, and explanatory remarks, will help motivate the reader. The material covered includes classic topics from both set theory and real analysis courses, such as countable and uncountable sets, countable ordinals, the continuum problem, the Cantor–Schröder–Bernstein theorem, continuous functions, uniform convergence, Zorn's lemma, Borel sets, Baire functions, Lebesgue measure, and Riemann integrable functions.
Posted in Mathematics

Descartes on Polyhedra

A Study of the "De Solidorum Elementis"

Author: P. J. Federico

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387907604

Category: Mathematics

Page: 145

View: 7660

The present essay stems from a history of polyhedra from 1750 to 1866 written several years ago (as part of a more general work, not published). So many contradictory statements regarding a Descartes manuscript and Euler, by various mathematicians and historians of mathematics, were encountered that it was decided to write a separate study of the relevant part of the Descartes manuscript on polyhedra. The contemplated short paper grew in size, as only a detailed treatment could be of any value. After it was completed it became evident that the entire manuscript should be treated and the work grew some more. The result presented here is, I hope, a complete, accurate, and fair treatment of the entire manuscript. While some views and conclusions are expressed, this is only done with the facts before the reader, who may draw his or her own conclusions. I would like to express my appreciation to Professors H. S. M. Coxeter, Branko Griinbaum, Morris Kline, and Dr. Heinz-Jiirgen Hess for reading the manuscript and for their encouragement and suggestions. I am especially indebted to Dr. Hess, of the Leibniz-Archiv, for his assistance in connection with the manuscript. I have been greatly helped in preparing the translation ofthe manuscript by the collaboration of a Latin scholar, Mr. Alfredo DeBarbieri. The aid of librarians is indispensable, and I am indebted to a number of them, in this country and abroad, for locating material and supplying copies.
Posted in Mathematics

The Rules of Algebra

Ars Magna

Author: Girolamo Cardano,T. Richard Witmer,Oystein Ore

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486458733

Category: Mathematics

Page: 267

View: 6418

First published in 1545, this cornerstone in the history of mathematics contains the first revelation of the principles for solving cubic and biquadratic equations. T. Richard Witmer's excellent translation from the Latin, adapted to modern mathematical syntax, will appeal to both mathematicians and historians. Foreword by Oystein Ore.
Posted in Mathematics

The Neglected Science of Motion

The Kinematic Origins of Relativity

Author: Alberto Antonio Martínez

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category:

Page: 507

View: 3314

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Finite Projective Geometries

A Historical Approach with Emphasis on Finite Projective Planes

Author: Lucille M. McKillop

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Geometry, Projective

Page: 315

View: 4172

Posted in Geometry, Projective

Great Feuds in Mathematics

Ten of the Liveliest Disputes Ever

Author: Hal Hellman

Publisher: Wiley

ISBN: N.A

Category: Mathematics

Page: 256

View: 2579

Praise for Hal Hellman Great Feuds in Mathematics "Those who think that mathematicians are cold, mechanical proving machines will do well to read Hellman's book on conflicts in mathematics. The main characters are as excitable and touchy as the next man. But Hellman's stories also show how scientific fights bring out sharper formulations and better arguments." -Professor Dirk van Dalen, Philosophy Department, Utrecht University Great Feuds in Technology "There's nothing like a good feud to grab your attention. And when it comes to describing the battle, Hal Hellman is a master." -New Scientist Great Feuds in Science "Unusual insight into the development of science . . . I was excited by this book and enthusiastically recommend it to general as well as scientific audiences." -American Scientist "Hellman has assembled a series of entertaining tales . . . many fine examples of heady invective without parallel in our time." -Nature Great Feuds in Medicine "This engaging book documents [the] reactions in ten of the most heated controversies and rivalries in medical history. . . . The disputes detailed are . . . fascinating. . . . It is delicious stuff here." -The New York Times "Stimulating." -Journal of the American Medical Association
Posted in Mathematics

Modern principles of mathematics

Author: Robert Thomas Craig

Publisher: Prentice Hall

ISBN: N.A

Category: Mathematics

Page: 400

View: 3441

Posted in Mathematics

The Stanford Mathematics Problem Book

With Hints and Solutions

Author: George Polya,Jeremy Kilpatrick

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 048631832X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 80

View: 4783

Based on Stanford University's well-known competitive exam, this excellent mathematics workbook offers students at both high school and college levels a complete set of problems, hints, and solutions. 1974 edition.
Posted in Mathematics

Omar Khayyam, the mathematician

Author: Rushdī Rāshid,Bijan Vahabzadeh

Publisher: Eisenbrauns

ISBN: N.A

Category: Mathematics

Page: 268

View: 5090

Posted in Mathematics

Journal of the Franklin Institute

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Meteorology

Page: N.A

View: 4470

Vols. 1-69 include more or less complete patent reports of the U. S. Patent Office for years 1825-1859. cf. Index to v. 1-120 of the Journal, p. [415]
Posted in Meteorology

Mathematics and the medieval ancestry of physics

Author: George Molland

Publisher: Variorum Publishing

ISBN: 9780860784708

Category: Mathematics

Page: 336

View: 5848

The central theme of this volume lies in the medieval consciousness of mathematics, and the variety of strategies adopted to apply it in other areas, notably natural philosophy. In diachromic terms, Dr Molland considers ways in which ancient mathematics (particularly geometry) was assimilated in the Middle Ages, and how it was radically transformed in the 17th century, especially by Descartes. A pervasive concern is with ideas of scientific progress: the author argues that medieval commentatorial and disputational modes encouraged probing attitudes to existing knowledge, aimed at deepening individual understanding, rather than more aggressive endeavours to advance public knowledge characteristic of later periods. What brought about this change is the subject of several studies here; others form more specifically on individual scholars, in particular the important figure of Roger Bacon.
Posted in Mathematics

Science progress

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category:

Page: N.A

View: 892

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The Works of Archimedes

Author: Archimedes

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Geometry

Page: 326

View: 7403

Posted in Geometry