The Evolutionary Psychology Behind Politics

How Conservatism and Liberalism Evolved Within Humans

Author: Anonymous Conservative

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780982947944

Category: Philosophy

Page: 234

View: 4740

Why do people adopt different political ideologies? How can seemingly equal intellects, presented with the same facts and circumstances disagree so vehemently over how society should be structured? What psychological undercurrents guide people to adopt Conservative or Liberal political beliefs, and where did they come from? The answer lies in a well known concept in biology, termed r/K Selection Theory. r/K Theory examines how all populations tend to adopt one of two psychologies as a means of adapting their behavior to the presence or absence of environmental resources. The two strategies, termed r and K, each correlate perfectly with the psychologies underlying Liberalism and Conservatism. One strategy, named the r-strategy, imbues those who are programmed with it to be averse to all peer on peer competition, embrace promiscuity, embrace single parenting, and support early onset sexual activity in youth. Obviously, this mirrors the Liberal philosophy's aversion to individual Darwinian competitions such as capitalism and self defense with firearms, as well as group competitions such as war. Likewise, Liberalism is tolerant of promiscuity, tolerant of single parenting, and more prone to support early sex education for children and the sexualization of cultural influences. Designed to exploit a plethora of resources, one will often find this r-type strategy embodied within prey species, where predation has lowered the population's numbers, and thereby increased the resources available to it's individuals. The other strategy, termed the K-strategy, imbues those who pursue it with a fierce competitiveness, as well as tendencies towards abstinence until monogamy, two-parent parenting, and delaying sexual activity until later in life. Obviously, this mirrors Conservatism's acceptance of all sorts of competitive social schemes, from free market capitalism, to war, to individuals owning and carrying private weapons for self defense. Conservatives also tend to favor abstinence until monogamy, two parent parenting with an emphasis upon "family values," and children being shielded from any sexualized stimuli until later in life. This strategy is found most commonly in species which lack predation, and whose population's have grown to the point individuals must compete with each other for the limited environmental resources that they are rapidly running out of. Meticulously substantiated with the latest research in fields from neurobiology to human behavioral ecology, this work offers an unprecedented view into not just what governs our political battles, but why these battles have arisen within our species in the first place. From showing how these two strategies adapt in other more complex species in nature, to examining what genetic and neurostructural mechanisms may produce these divergences between individuals, to showing what this theory indicates our future may hold, this work is the most thorough analysis to date of just why we have two political ideologies, why they will never agree, and why we will tend to become even more partisan in the future.
Posted in Philosophy

The Evolutionary Psychology Behind Politics

How Conservatism and Liberalism Evolved Within Humans

Author: Anonymous Conservative

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780982947937

Category: Philosophy

Page: 280

View: 9317

Why do people adopt different political ideologies? How can seemingly equal intellects, presented with the same facts and circumstances disagree so vehemently over how society should be structured? What psychological undercurrents guide people to adopt Conservative or Liberal political beliefs, and where did they come from? The answer lies in a well known concept in biology, termed r/K Selection Theory. r/K Theory examines how all populations tend to adopt one of two psychologies as a means of adapting their behavior to the presence or absence of environmental resources. The two strategies, termed r and K, each correlate perfectly with the psychologies underlying Liberalism and Conservatism. One strategy, named the r-strategy, imbues those who are programmed with it to be averse to all peer on peer competition, embrace promiscuity, embrace single parenting, and support early onset sexual activity in youth. Obviously, this mirrors the Liberal philosophy's aversion to individual Darwinian competitions such as capitalism and self defense with firearms, as well as group competitions such as war. Likewise, Liberalism is tolerant of promiscuity, tolerant of single parenting, and more prone to support early sex education for children and the sexualization of cultural influences. Designed to exploit a plethora of resources, one will often find this r-type strategy embodied within prey species, where predation has lowered the population's numbers, and thereby increased the resources available to it's individuals. The other strategy, termed the K-strategy, imbues those who pursue it with a fierce competitiveness, as well as tendencies towards abstinence until monogamy, two-parent parenting, and delaying sexual activity until later in life. Obviously, this mirrors Conservatism's acceptance of all sorts of competitive social schemes, from free market capitalism, to war, to individuals owning and carrying private weapons for self defense. Conservatives also tend to favor abstinence until monogamy, two parent parenting with an emphasis upon "family values," and children being shielded from any sexualized stimuli until later in life. This strategy is found most commonly in species which lack predation, and whose population's have grown to the point individuals must compete with each other for the limited environmental resources that they are rapidly running out of. Meticulously substantiated with the latest research in fields from neurobiology to human behavioral ecology, this work offers an unprecedented view into not just what governs our political battles, but why these battles have arisen within our species in the first place. From showing how these two strategies adapt in other more complex species in nature, to examining what genetic and neurostructural mechanisms may produce these divergences between individuals, to showing what this theory indicates our future may hold, this work is the most thorough analysis to date of just why we have two political ideologies, why they will never agree, and why we will tend to become even more partisan in the future.
Posted in Philosophy

Predisposed

Liberals, Conservatives, and the Biology of Political Differences

Author: John R. Hibbing,Kevin B. Smith,John R. Alford

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136281223

Category: Political Science

Page: 292

View: 2458

Buried in many people and operating largely outside the realm of conscious thought are forces inclining us toward liberal or conservative political convictions. Our biology predisposes us to see and understand the world in different ways, not always reason and the careful consideration of facts. These predispositions are in turn responsible for a significant portion of the political and ideological conflict that marks human history. With verve and wit, renowned social scientists John Hibbing, Kevin Smith, and John Alford—pioneers in the field of biopolitics—present overwhelming evidence that people differ politically not just because they grew up in different cultures or were presented with different information. Despite the oft-heard longing for consensus, unity, and peace, the universal rift between conservatives and liberals endures because people have diverse psychological, physiological, and genetic traits. These biological differences influence much of what makes people who they are, including their orientations to politics. Political disputes typically spring from the assumption that those who do not agree with us are shallow, misguided, uninformed, and ignorant. Predisposed suggests instead that political opponents simply experience, process, and respond to the world differently. It follows, then, that the key to getting along politically is not the ability of one side to persuade the other side to see the error of its ways but rather the ability of each side to see that the other is different, not just politically, but physically. Predisposed will change the way you think about politics and partisan conflict. As a bonus, the book includes a "Left/Right 20 Questions" game to test whether your predispositions lean liberal or conservative.
Posted in Political Science

The Righteous Mind

Why Good People are Divided by Politics and Religion

Author: Jonathan Haidt

Publisher: Vintage

ISBN: 0307455777

Category: Philosophy

Page: 500

View: 7507

Presents a groundbreaking investigation into the origins of morality at the core of religion and politics, offering scholarly insight into the motivations behind cultural clashes that are polarizing America.
Posted in Philosophy

The Republican War on Science

Author: Chris Mooney

Publisher: Hachette UK

ISBN: 0465003869

Category: Science

Page: 376

View: 971

Science has never been more crucial to deciding the political issues facing the country. Yet science and scientists have less influence with the federal government than at any time since Richard Nixon fired his science advisors. In the White House and Congress today, findings are reported in a politicized manner; spun or distorted to fit the speaker's agenda; or, when they're too inconvenient, ignored entirely. On a broad array of issues-stem cell research, climate change, evolution, sex education, product safety, environmental regulation, and many others-the Bush administration's positions fly in the face of overwhelming scientific consensus. Federal science agencies-once fiercely independent under both Republican and Democratic presidents-are increasingly staffed by political appointees who know industry lobbyists and evangelical activists far better than they know the science. This is not unique to the Bush administration, but it is largely a Republican phenomenon, born of a conservative dislike of environmental, health, and safety regulation, and at the extremes, of evolution and legalized abortion. In The Republican War on Science, Chris Mooney ties together the disparate strands of the attack on science into a compelling and frightening account of our government's increasing unwillingness to distinguish between legitimate research and ideologically driven pseudoscience.
Posted in Science

Biohistory

Author: Jim Penman

Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Pub

ISBN: 9781443871655

Category: History

Page: 670

View: 2604

Biohistory is a revolutionary new theory that explores the biological and behavioural underpinnings of social change, including the rise and fall of civilisations. Informed by significant research into the physiological basis of behaviour conducted by author Dr Jim Penman and a team of scientists at RMIT University and the Florey Institute in Melbourne, Australia, Biohistory examines how a complex interplay between culture and biology has shaped civilisations from the Roman Empire to the modern West. Penman proposes that historical changes are driven by changes in the prevailing temperament of populations, based on physiological mechanisms that adapt animal behaviour to changing food conditions. It details the history of human society by mapping the effects of these epigenetic changes on cultures, and on historical tipping points including wars and revolutions. It shows how laboratory studies can be used to explain broad social and economic changes, including the fortunes of entire civilizations. The author's shocking conclusion is that the West is in terminal and inevitable decline, and that its only hope may lie with the biological sciences. Drawing on the disciplines of history, biology, anthropology and economics, Biohistory is the first theory of society that can be tested with some rigour in the laboratory. It explains how environment, cultural values and childrearing patterns determine whether societies prosper or collapse, and how social change can be both predicted and potentially modified through biochemistry.
Posted in History

Conjectures and Refutations

The Growth of Scientific Knowledge

Author: Karl Popper

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135971307

Category: Philosophy

Page: 608

View: 1304

Conjectures and Refutations is one of Karl Popper's most wide-ranging and popular works, notable not only for its acute insight into the way scientific knowledge grows, but also for applying those insights to politics and to history. It provides one of the clearest and most accessible statements of the fundamental idea that guided his work: not only our knowledge, but our aims and our standards, grow through an unending process of trial and error.
Posted in Philosophy

The Republican Brain

The Science of Why They Deny Science--and Reality

Author: Chris Mooney

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118094514

Category: Political Science

Page: 327

View: 8648

Looks at the Republican Party in the United States and the psychological science behind why conservatives believe what they believe.
Posted in Political Science

The Moral Animal: Why We Are the Way We Are

Author: Abacus (uk),Robert Wright

Publisher: Abacus (uk)

ISBN: 0349107041

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 466

View: 1853

In this work, Robert Wright examines a science that has emerged from the work of evolutionary biologists and social scientists. Taking the life and work of the evolutionist Charles Darwin as his context, Wright seeks to demonstrate how Darwin's ideas have stood the test of time and retells - from the perspective of evolutionary psychology - the stories of Darwin's marriage, family, life and career. From this paradigm, Wright draws conclusions about the structure of our most basic preoccupations - sex, ambition, politics, justice - aiming to throw light on the background of these fundamental instincts, and to show why they are so important to us. The work poses questions about not only the biological bases for morality, but also the biological bases for amorality. ------------------------------------------------------------------- About this author: ROBERT WRIGHT is the author of The Moral Animal, Nonzero, and Three Scientists and Their Gods. The New York Times selected The Moral Animal as one of the ten best books of the year and the other two as notable books of the year. Wright is a recipient of the National Magazine Award for Essay and Criticism and has been a finalist for the National Book Critics Circle Award. A contributing editor at The New Republic, he has also written for Time, Slate, The Atlantic Monthly, and The New Yorker. Wright has taught in the philosophy department at Princeton and the psychology department at the University of Pennsylvania, and is now a senior fellow at the New America Foundation and editor in chief of Bloggingheads.tv.
Posted in Business & Economics

Sapiens

A Brief History of Humankind

Author: Yuval Noah Harari

Publisher: Signal

ISBN: 9780771038518

Category:

Page: 464

View: 2412

Destined to become a modern classic in the vein of Guns, Germs, and Steel, Sapiens is a lively, groundbreaking history of humankind told from a unique perspective. 100,000 years ago, at least six species of human inhabited the earth. Today there is just one. Us. Homo Sapiens. How did our species succeed in the battle for dominance? Why did our foraging ancestors come together to create cities and kingdoms? How did we come to believe in gods, nations, and human rights; to trust money, books, and laws; and to be enslaved by bureaucracy, timetables, and consumerism? And what will our world be like in the millennia to come? In Sapiens, Dr. Yuval Noah Harari spans the whole of human history, from the very first humans to walk the earth to the radical -- and sometimes devastating -- breakthroughs of the Cognitive, Agricultural, and Scientific Revolutions. Drawing on insights from biology, anthropology, palaeontology, and economics, he explores how the currents of history have shaped our human societies, the animals and plants around us, and even our personalities. Have we become happier as history has unfolded? Can we ever free our behaviour from the heritage of our ancestors? And what, if anything, can we do to influence the course of the centuries to come? Bold, wide-ranging and provocative, Sapiens challenges everything we thought we knew about being human: our thoughts, our actions, our power...and our future.
Posted in

Behave

The Biology of Humans at Our Best and Worst

Author: Robert M Sapolsky

Publisher: Random House

ISBN: 1448129788

Category: Science

Page: 800

View: 6733

***'Awe-inspiring... You will learn more about human nature than in any other book I can think of' Henry Marsh THE NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER / WINNER OF THE 2017 LA TIMES BOOK PRIZE 'One of the best scientist-writers of our time' Oliver Sacks Why do human beings behave as they do? We are capable of savage acts of violence but also spectacular feats of kindness: is one side of our nature destined to win out over the other? Every act of human behaviour has multiple layers of causation, spiralling back seconds, minutes, hours, days, months, years, even centuries, right back to the dawn of time and the origins of our species. In the epic sweep of history, how does our biology affect the arc of war and peace, justice and persecution? How have our brains evolved alongside our cultures? This is the exhilarating story of human morality and the science underpinning the biggest question of all: what makes us human?
Posted in Science

Radical Evolution

The Promise and Peril of Enhancing Our Minds, Our Bodies--and what it Means to be Human

Author: Joel Garreau

Publisher: Broadway

ISBN: 0767915038

Category: Science

Page: 384

View: 8836

Arguing that the acceleration of technological innovation is setting the course for the next stage of human evolution, the author of Edge City raises thought-provoking questions about human culture, society, and the very nature of humankind. Reprint. 15,000 first printing.
Posted in Science

The Evolution of Human Sexuality

Author: Donald Symons

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199878471

Category: Psychology

Page: 368

View: 966

Anthropology, Sexual Studies, Psychology, Sociology, Gender and Cultural Studies
Posted in Psychology

On Human Nature

Author: Edward O. Wilson

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674076559

Category: Science

Page: 284

View: 405

In his new preface E. O. Wilson reflects on how he came to write this book: how The Insect Societies led him to write Sociobiology, and how the political and religious uproar that engulfed that book persuaded him to write another book that would better explain the relevance of biology to the understanding of human behavior.
Posted in Science

Wired for Culture

Origins of the Human Social Mind

Author: Mark Pagel

Publisher: W. W. Norton

ISBN: 9780393344202

Category: Science

Page: 416

View: 7770

Explores the concept of culture and how it influenced collective human behaviors from the beginning of evolution through modern times, and offers new insights on how art, morality, and self-interest define being human.
Posted in Science

The Militia Battle Manual

Author: Thomas Koch

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780879471514

Category: Political Science

Page: 206

View: 7918

The Militia Battle Manual When the time comes that your really need the information in this book, it will no longer be for sale. The author has written it for the reasonable person who feels the need to prepare for the future. Whether you feel the need to defend yourself from our government, foreign occupation, or youre damned neighbors, this book is for you. It contains chapters on organization, combat operations and all aspects related to a militia operation.
Posted in Political Science

Democracy - the God That Failed

The Economics and Politics of Monarchy, Democracy, and Natural Order

Author: Hans-Hermann Hoppe

Publisher: Transaction Publishers

ISBN: 0765808684

Category: Political Science

Page: 304

View: 2996

The core of this book is a systematic treatment of the historic transformation of the West from monarchy to democracy. Revisionist in nature, it reaches the conclusion that monarchy is a lesser evil than democracy, but outlines deficiencies in both. Its methodology is axiomatic-deductive, allowing the writer to derive economic and sociological theorems, and then apply them to interpret historical events. A compelling chapter on time preference describes the progress of civilization as lowering time preferences as capital structure is built, and explains how the interaction between people can lower time all around, with interesting parallels to the Ricardian Law of Association. By focusing on this transformation, the author is able to interpret many historical phenomena, such as rising levels of crime, degeneration of standards of conduct and morality, and the growth of the mega-state. In underscoring the deficiencies of both monarchy and democracy, the author demonstrates how these systems are both inferior to a natural order based on private-property. Hoppe deconstructs the classical liberal belief in the possibility of limited government and calls for an alignment of conservatism and libertarianism as natural allies with common goals. He defends the proper role of the production of defense as undertaken by insurance companies on a free market, and describes the emergence of private law among competing insurers. Having established a natural order as superior on utilitarian grounds, the author goes on to assess the prospects for achieving a natural order. Informed by his analysis of the deficiencies of social democracy, and armed with the social theory of legitimation, he forsees secession as the likely future of the US and Europe, resulting in a multitude of region and city-states. This book complements the author's previous work defending the ethics of private property and natural order. "Democracy"--"The God that Failed "will be of interest to scholars and students of history, political economy, and political philosophy.
Posted in Political Science

The Psychology of Conservatism (Routledge Revivals)

Author: Glenn Wilson

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135094454

Category: Psychology

Page: 278

View: 5571

First published in 1973, The Psychology of Conservatism explores attitudes, their measurement, their structure and dynamics, and the personality traits apparently underlying attitude patterns. It examines the link between differing attitudes and discusses characteristic patterns and syndromes. The book focuses on the origins and dynamics of a major factor called "liberalism – conservatism" which is found to account for much of the variance in attitudes amongst different people. Contributors review previous studies relating to personality and attitude before engaging in new studies and proposing their own theories to explain the conservative attitude. The book introduces provocative theoretical ideas and provides a valuable examination of an important psychological and social attitude syndrome. This book will be of interest to researchers in personality and social psychology, sociology and political science and education.
Posted in Psychology

The Evolution of Beauty

How Darwin's Forgotten Theory of Mate Choice Shapes the Animal World - and Us

Author: Richard O. Prum

Publisher: Doubleday

ISBN: 9780385537216

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 448

View: 3039

A major reimagining of how evolutionary forces work, revealing how mating preferences--what Darwin termed "the taste for the beautiful"--create the extraordinary range of ornament in the animal world. In the great halls of science, dogma holds that Darwin's theory of natural selection explains every branch on the tree of life: which species thrive, which wither away to extinction, and what features each evolves. But can adaptation by natural selection really account for everything we see in nature? Yale University ornithologist Richard Prum--reviving Darwin's own views--thinks not. Deep in tropical jungles around the world are birds with a dizzying array of appearances and mating displays: Club-winged Manakins who sing with their wings, Great Argus Pheasants who dazzle prospective mates with a four-foot-wide cone of feathers covered in golden 3D spheres, Red-capped Manakins who moonwalk. In thirty years of fieldwork, Prum has seen numerous display traits that seem disconnected from, if not outright contrary to, selection for individual survival. To explain this, he dusts off Darwin's long-neglected theory of sexual selection in which the act of choosing a mate for purely aesthetic reasons--for the mere pleasure of it--is an independent engine of evolutionary change. Mate choice can drive ornamental traits from the constraints of adaptive evolution, allowing them to grow ever more elaborate. It also sets the stakes for sexual conflict, in which the sexual autonomy of the female evolves in response to male sexual control. Most crucially, this framework provides important insights into the evolution of human sexuality, particularly the ways in which female preferences have changed male bodies, and even maleness itself, through evolutionary time. The Evolution of Beauty presents a unique scientific vision for how nature's splendor contributes to a more complete understanding of evolution and of ourselves.
Posted in Health & Fitness

How to Deal with Narcissists: Why They Became Evil, How They Think, and Strategies and Techniques to Take Control

Author: Michael Trust

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780982947968

Category: Psychology

Page: 234

View: 2404

A comprehensive guide to dealing with the narcissistic personality, How to Deal with Narcissists offers valuable insight into how narcissists are formed, what effects these developmental experiences have on the narcissist's brain, and how this information can be put to practical use in dealing with narcissists. It begins with a fascinating case study of one narcissist, and the childhood experiences which conditioned his brain to exhibit the narcissistic personality. It examines how these events altered the functioning of a specific brain structure designed to process and manage stress responses, and how the altered functioning produced by these events went on to alter his behavior into adulthood. It also examines how these precipitating events inculcated the hostile worldview common to the narcissist. The work goes on to examine how this altered brain function produces the forces which are behind every aberrant narcissist behavior, from the creation of a false reality, to the nonsensical narcissistic rage. It examines how a knowledge of this motive force can be used to precipitate specific reactions in the narcissist, and how this can be used to manage social interactions. The book then goes on to examine specific scenarios in dealing with narcissists, and the dangers and risks inherent to operating within their sphere. From coping with narcissist in-laws, to raising narcissist children, to the risks which have claimed the lives of past narcissist victims, this book touches upon it all. It was created as a one-stop volume for the narcissist victim who wishes to once again live, and enjoy freedom. In that vein, it is unique within the field. Based on extensive real world experience, the latest scientific information, and rigorous examinations of previous academic work in the field, How to Deal With Narcissists is the one guide you cannot be without when confronted with this noxious psychology. Given the rapidly rising prevalence of Narcissistic Personality Disorder, it will be the must have survival guide to navigating the social currents of our modern world. This book contains some explanatory examples of narcissistic worldviews which political liberals will find disquieting and unpleasant to read. For that reason, it will prove most useful to those of a neutral or conservative political bent.
Posted in Psychology