The Death of the Big Men and the Rise of the Big Shots

Custom and Conflict in East New Britain

Author: Keir Martin

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 0857458736

Category: Social Science

Page: 272

View: 4510

In 1994, the Pacific island village of Matupit was partially destroyed by a volcanic eruption. This study focuses on the subsequent reconstruction and contests over the morality of exchanges that are generative of new forms of social stratification. Such new dynamics of stratification are central to contemporary processes of globalization in the Pacific, and more widely. Through detailed ethnography of the transactions that a displaced people entered into in seeking to rebuild their lives, this book analyses how people re-make sociality in an era of post-colonial neoliberalism without taking either the transformative power of globalization or the resilience of indigenous culture as its starting point. It also contributes to the understanding of the problems of post-disaster reconstruction and development projects.
Posted in Social Science

Engaging with Strangers

Love and Violence in the Rural Solomon Islands

Author: Debra McDougall

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 1785330217

Category: Social Science

Page: 308

View: 945

The civil conflict in Solomon Islands (1998-2003) is often blamed on the failure of the nation-state to encompass culturally diverse and politically fragmented communities. Writing of Ranongga Island, the author tracks engagements with strangers across many realms of life-pre-colonial warfare, Christian conversion, logging and conservation, even post-conflict state building. She describes startling reversals in which strangers become attached to local places, even as kinspeople are estranged from one another and from their homes. Against stereotypes of rural insularity, she argues that a distinctive cosmopolitan openness to others is evident in the rural Solomons in times of war and peace.
Posted in Social Science

Oceanic Encounters

Exchange, Desire, Violence

Author: Margaret Jolly,Serge Tcherkézoff,Darrell Tryon

Publisher: ANU E Press

ISBN: 1921536292

Category: History

Page: 344

View: 718

This volume, the result of ongoing collaborations between Australian and French anthropologists, historians and linguists, explores encounters between Pacific peoples and foreigners during the longue durée of European exploration, colonisation and settlement from the sixteenth century to the twentieth century. It deploys the concept of `encounter¿ rather than the more common idea of `first contact¿ for several reasons. Encounters with Europeans occurred in the context of extensive prior encounters and exchanges between Pacific peoples, manifest in the distribution of languages and objects and in patterns of human settlement and movement. The concept of encounter highlights the mutuality in such meetings of bodies and minds, whereby preconceptions from both sides were brought into confrontation, dialogue, mutual influence and ultimately mutual transformation. It stresses not so much prior visions of `strangers¿ or `others¿ but the contingencies in events of encounter and how senses other than vision were crucial in shaping reciprocal appraisals. But a stress on mutual meanings and interdependent agencies in such cross-cultural encounters should not occlude the tumultuous misunderstandings, political contests and extreme violence which also characterised Indigenous-European interactions over this period.
Posted in History

Darkness in El Dorado

How Scientists and Journalists Devastated the Amazon

Author: Patrick Tierney

Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company

ISBN: 9780393322750

Category: History

Page: 431

View: 318

Examines the destructive impact of journalists, anthropologists, and scientists on the Yamomami Indians, one of the Amazon basin's oldest tribes, whose internecine warfare was triggered by repeated visits by the world's leading anthropologists and by the Atomic Energy Commission's plans to use the tribe in radiation studies. Reprint.
Posted in History

The Races of Man

An Outline of Anthropology and Ethnography

Author: Joseph Deniker

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Anthropology

Page: 611

View: 4923

Posted in Anthropology

Historical Metaphors and Mythical Realities

Structure in the Early History of the Sandwich Islands Kingdom

Author: Marshall D. Sahlins

Publisher: University of Michigan Press

ISBN: 9780472022342

Category: Social Science

Page: 96

View: 4489

Hawaiian culture as it met foreign traders and settlers is the context for Sahlins's structuralist methodology of historical interpretation
Posted in Social Science

Slow Violence and the Environmentalism of the Poor

Author: Rob Nixon

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674049306

Category: Law

Page: 353

View: 1029

“Slow violence” from climate change, toxic drift, deforestation, oil spills, and the environmental aftermath of war takes place gradually and often invisibly. Rob Nixon focuses on the inattention we have paid to the lethality of many environmental crises, in contrast with the sensational, spectacle-driven messaging that impels public activism today.
Posted in Law

Mimesis and Pacific Transcultural Encounters

Making Likenesses in Time, Trade, and Ritual Reconfigurations

Author: Jeannette Mageo,Elfriede Hermann

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 1785336258

Category: Social Science

Page: 292

View: 9304

How do images circulating in Pacific cultures and exchanged between them and their many visitors transform meanings for all involved? This fascinating collection explores how through mimesis, wayfarers and locales alike borrow images from one another to expand their cultural repertoire of meanings or borrow images from their own past to validate their identities.
Posted in Social Science

Networked Governance of Freedom and Tyranny

Peace in Timor-Leste

Author: John Braithwaite,Hilary C. Charlesworth,Adérito Soares

Publisher: ANU E Press

ISBN: 1921862769

Category: History

Page: 365

View: 4737

This book offers a new approach to the extraordinary story of Timor-Leste. The Indonesian invasion of the former Portuguese colony in 1975 was widely considered to have permanently crushed the Timorese independence movement. Initial international condemnation of the invasion was quickly replaced by widespread acceptance of Indonesian sovereignty. But inside Timor-Leste various resistance networks maintained their struggle, against all odds. Twenty-four years later, the Timorese were allowed to choose their political future and the new country of Timor-Leste came into being in 2002. This book presents freedom in Timor-Leste as an accomplishment of networked governance, arguing that weak networks are capable of controlling strong tyrannies. Yet, as events in Timor-Leste since independence show, the nodes of networks of freedom can themselves become nodes of tyranny. The authors argue that constant renewal of liberation networks is critical for peace with justice - feminist networks for the liberation of women, preventive diplomacy networks for liberation of victims of war, village development networks, civil society networks. Constant renewal of the separation of powers is also necessary. A case is made for a different way of seeing the separation of powers as constitutive of the republican ideal of freedom as non-domination. The book is also a critique of realism as a theory of international affairs and of the limits of reforming tyranny through the centralised agency of a state sovereign. Reversal of Indonesia's 1975 invasion of Timor-Leste was an implausible accomplishment. Among the things that achieved it was principled engagement with Indonesia and its democracy movement by the Timor resistance. Unprincipled engagement by Australia and the United States in particular allowed the 1975 invasion to occur. The book argues that when the international community regulates tyranny responsively, with principled engagement, there is hope for a domestic politics of nonviolent transformation for freedom and justice.
Posted in History

Dreams Made Small

The Education of Papuan Highlanders in Indonesia

Author: Jenny Munro

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 1785337599

Category: Social Science

Page: 216

View: 4468

For the last five decades, the Dani of the central highlands of West Papua, along with other Papuans, have struggled with the oppressive conditions of Indonesian rule. Formal education holds the promise of escape from stigmatization and violence. Dreams Made Small offers an in-depth, ethnographic look at journeys of education among young Dani men and women, asking us to think differently about education as a trajectory for transformation and belonging, and ultimately revealing how dreams of equality are shaped and reshaped in the face of multiple constraints.
Posted in Social Science

Christian Politics in Oceania

Author: Matt Tomlinson,Debra L. McDougall

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 0857457462

Category: Religion

Page: 235

View: 9605

The phrase “Christian politics” evokes two meanings: political relations between denominations in one direction, and the contributions of Christian churches to debates about the governing of society. The contributors to this volume address Christian politics in both senses and argue that Christianity is always and inevitably political in the Pacific Islands. Drawing on ethnographic and historical research in Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, and Fiji, the authors argue that Christianity and politics have redefined each other in much of Oceania in ways that make the two categories inseparable at any level of analysis. The individual chapters vividly illuminate the ways in which Christian politics operate across a wide scale, from interpersonal relations to national and global interconnections.
Posted in Religion

The Dialectics of Citizenship

Exploring Privilege, Exclusion, and Racialization

Author: Bernd Reiter

Publisher: MSU Press

ISBN: 1628951621

Category: Social Science

Page: N.A

View: 4526

What does it mean to be a citizen? What impact does an active democracy have on its citizenry and why does it fail or succeed in fulfilling its promises? Most modern democracies seem unable to deliver the goods that citizens expect; many politicians seem to have given up on representing the wants and needs of those who elected them and are keener on representing themselves and their financial backers. What will it take to bring democracy back to its original promise of rule by the people? Bernd Reiter’s timely analysis reaches back to ancient Greece and the Roman Republic in search of answers. It examines the European medieval city republics, revolutionary France, and contemporary Brazil, Portugal, and Colombia. Through an innovative exploration of country cases, this study demonstrates that those who stand to lose something from true democracy tend to oppose it, making the genealogy of citizenship concurrent with that of exclusion. More often than not, exclusion leads to racialization, stigmatizing the excluded to justify their non-membership. Each case allows for different insights into the process of how citizenship is upheld and challenged. Together, the cases reveal how exclusive rights are constituted by contrasting members to non-members who in that very process become racialized others. The book provides an opportunity to understand the dynamics that weaken democracy so that they can be successfully addressed and overcome in the future.
Posted in Social Science

The Anthropology of Empathy

Experiencing the Lives of Others in Pacific Societies

Author: Douglas W. Hollan,C. Jason Throop

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 0857451030

Category: Social Science

Page: 252

View: 2291

Exploring the role of empathy in a variety of Pacific societies, this book is at the forefront of the latest anthropological research on empathy. It presents distinct articulations of many assumptions of contemporary philosophical, neurobiological, and social scientific treatments of the topic. The variations described in this book do not necessarily preclude the possibility of shared existential, biological, and social influences that give empathy a distinctly human cast, but they do provide an important ethnographic lens through which to examine the possibilities and limits of empathy in any given community of practice.
Posted in Social Science

Mortuary Dialogues

Death Ritual and the Reproduction of Moral Community in Pacific Modernities

Author: David Lipset,Eric K. Silverman

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 1785331728

Category: Social Science

Page: 262

View: 1089

Mortuary Dialogues presents fresh perspectives on death and mourning across the Pacific Islands. Through a set of rich ethnographies, the book examines how funerals and death rituals give rise to discourse and debate about sustaining moral personhood and community amid modernity and its enormous transformations. The book's key concept, "mortuary dialogue," describes the different genres of talk and expressive culture through which people struggle to restore individual and collective order in the aftermath of death in the contemporary Pacific.
Posted in Social Science

A Handbook of Economic Anthropology, Second Edition

Author: James G. Carrier

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 1849809291

Category: Social Science

Page: 662

View: 6442

Acclaim for the first edition: 'The volume is a remarkable contribution to economic anthropology and will no doubt be a fundamental tool for students, scholars, and experts in the sub-discipline.' – Mao Mollona, Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 'This excellent overview would serve as an excellent text for advanced undergraduate and graduate-level classroom use. . . Because of the clarity, conciseness, and accessibility of the writing, the chapters in this volume likely will be often cited and recommended to those who want the alternative and frequently culturally comparative perspective on economic topics that anthropology provides. Highly recommended. All academic levels/libraries.' – K.F. Rambo, Choice The first edition of this unique Handbook was praised for its substantial and invaluable summary discussions of work by anthropologists on economic processes and issues, on the relationship between economic and non-economic areas of life and on the conceptual orientations that are important among economic anthropologists. This thoroughly revised edition brings those discussions up to date, and includes an important new section exploring ways that leading anthropologists have approached the current economic crisis. Its scope and accessibility make it useful both to those who are interested in a particular topic and to those who want to see the breadth and fruitfulness of an anthropological study of economy. This comprehensive Handbook will strongly appeal to undergraduate and post-graduate students in anthropology, economists interested in social and cultural dimensions of economic life, and alternative approaches to economic life, political economists, political scientists and historians.
Posted in Social Science

First Contacts in Polynesia - the Samoan Case (1722-1848)

Western Misunderstandings about Sexuality and Divinity

Author: Serge Tcherkezoff

Publisher: ANU E Press

ISBN: 1921536020

Category: Electronic books

Page: 241

View: 4430

This book explores the first encounters between Samoans and Europeans up to the arrival of the missionaries, using all available sources for the years 1722 to the 1830s, paying special attention to the first encounter on land with the Laperouse expedition. Many of the sources used are French, and some of difficult accessibility, and thus they have not previously been thoroughly examined by historians. Adding some Polynesian comparisons from beyond Samoa, and reconsidering the so-called 'Sahlins-Obeyesekere debate' about the fate of Captain Cook, 'First Contacts' in Polynesia advances a hypothesis about the contemporary interpretations made by the Polynesians of the nature of the Europeans, and about the actions that the Polynesians devised for this encounter: wrapping Europeans up in 'cloth' and presenting 'young girls' for 'sexual contact'. It also discusses how we can go back two centuries and attempt to reconstitute, even if only partially, the point of view of those who had to discover for themselves these Europeans whom they call 'Papalagi'. The book also contributes an additional dimension to the much-touted 'Mead-Freeman debate' which bears on the rules and values regulating adolescent sexuality in 'Samoan culture'. Scholars have long considered the pre-missionary times as a period in which freedom in sexuality for adolescents predominated. It appears now that this erroneous view emerged from a deep misinterpretation of Laperouse's and Dumont d'Urville's narratives.
Posted in Electronic books

Creating a Nation with Cloth

Women, Wealth, and Tradition in the Tongan Diaspora

Author: Ping-Ann Addo

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 0857458965

Category: Social Science

Page: 252

View: 8389

Tongan women living outside of their island homeland create and use hand-made, sometimes hybridized, textiles to maintain and rework their cultural traditions in diaspora. Central to these traditions is an ancient concept of homeland or nation- fonua-which Tongans retain as an anchor for modern nation-building. Utilizing the concept of the "multi-territorial nation," the author questions the notion that living in diaspora is mutually exclusive with authentic cultural production and identity. The globalized nation the women build through gifting their barkcloth and fine mats, challenges the normative idea that nations are always geographically bounded or spatially contiguous. The work suggests that, contrary to prevalent understandings of globalization, global resource flows do not always primarily involve commodities. Focusing on first-generation Tongans in New Zealand and the relationships they forge across generations and throughout the diaspora, the book examines how these communities centralize the diaspora by innovating and adapting traditional cultural forms in unprecedented ways.
Posted in Social Science

Yes, Africa Can

Success Stories from a Dynamic Continent

Author: Punam Chuhan-Pole,Manka Angwafo

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 0821387456

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 477

View: 3699

Takes an in-depth look at twenty-six economic and social development successes in Sub-Saharan African countries, and addresses how these countries have overcome major developmental challenges.
Posted in Business & Economics

The Humane Metropolis

People and Nature in the 21st-century City

Author: Rutherford H. Platt

Publisher: Univ of Massachusetts Press

ISBN: 1558495541

Category: Architecture

Page: 326

View: 5519

Four-fifths of Americans now live in the nation's sprawling metropolitan areas, and half of the world's population is now classified as "urban." As cities become the dominant living evironment for humans, there is growing concern about how to make such places more habitable, more healthy and safe, more ecological, and more equitable -- in short, more "humane." This book explores the prospects for a more humane metropolis through a series of essays and case studies that consider why and how urban places can be made greener and more amenable. Its point of departure is the legacy of William H. Whyte (1917-1999), one of America's most admired urban thinkers. From his eyrie high above Manhattan in the offices of the Rockefeller Brothers Fund, Whyte laid the foundation for today's "smart growth" and "new urbanist" movements with books such as The Last Landscape (1968). His passion for improving the habitability of cities and suburbs is reflected in the diverse grassroots urban design and regreening strategies discussed in this volume. Topics examined in this book include urban and regional greenspaces, urban ecological restoration, social equity, and green design. Some of the contributors are recognized academic experts, while others offer direct practical knowledge of particular problems and initiatives. The editor's introduction and epilogue set the individual chapters in a broader context and suggest how the strategies described, if widely replicated, may help create more humane urban environments. In addition to Rutherford H. Platt, contributors to the volume include Carl Anthony, Thomas Balsley, Timothy Beatley, Eugenie L. Birch, Edward J. Blakely, Colin M. Cathcart, Steven E. Clemants, Christopher A. De Sousa, Steven N. Handel, Peter Harnik, Michael C. Houck, Jerold S. Kayden, Albert LaFarge, Andrew Light, Charles E. Little, Anne C. Lusk, Thalya Parilla, Deborah E. Popper, Frank J. Popper, Mary V. Rickel, Cynthia Rosenzweig, Robert L. Ryan, Laurin N. Sievert, Andrew G. Wiley-Schwartz, and Ann Louise Strong. Included in the back of the book is a DVD of a 22-minute film created by Ted White, which serves as a companion to the text.
Posted in Architecture

Tropic of Chaos

Climate Change and the New Geography of Violence

Author: Christian Parenti

Publisher: Nation Books

ISBN: 1568586000

Category: Nature

Page: 304

View: 5881

An investigative journalist visits the economically and politically battered post-colonial nations around the earth's mid-latitudes and reveals how extreme weather in the era of climate change is breeding banditry, humanitarian crises and state failure.
Posted in Nature