From 1929 until 1953, Iosif Stalin’s image became a central symbol in Soviet propaganda. Touched up images of an omniscient Stalin appeared everywhere: emblazoned across buildings and lining the streets; carried in parades and woven into carpets; and saturating the media of socialist realist painting, statuary, monumental architecture, friezes, banners, and posters. From the beginning of the Soviet regime, posters were seen as a vitally important medium for communicating with the population of the vast territories of the USSR. Stalin’s image became a symbol of Bolshevik values and the personification of a revolutionary new type of society. The persona created for Stalin in propaganda posters reflects how the state saw itself or, at the very least, how it wished to appear in the eyes of the people. The ‘Stalin’ who was celebrated in posters bore but scant resemblance to the man Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili, whose humble origins, criminal past, penchant for violent solutions and unprepossessing appearance made him an unlikely recipient of uncritical charismatic adulation. The Bolsheviks needed a wise, nurturing and authoritative figure to embody their revolutionary vision and to legitimate their hold on power. This leader would come to embody the sacred and archetypal qualities of the wise Teacher, the Father of the nation, the great Warrior and military strategist, and the Saviour of first the Russian land, and then the whole world. This book is the first dedicated study on the marketing of Stalin in Soviet propaganda posters. Drawing on the archives of libraries and museums throughout Russia, hundreds of previously unpublished posters are examined, with more than 130 reproduced in full colour. The personality cult of Stalin in Soviet posters, 1929–1953 is a unique and valuable contribution to the discourse in Stalinist studies across a number of disciplines.
Archetypes, inventions and fabrications
Author: Anita Pisch
Publisher: ANU Press
Focusing on a number of historical and literary personalities who were regarded with disdain in the aftermath of the 1917 revolution—figures such as Peter the Great, Ivan the Terrible, Alexander Pushkin, Leo Tolstoy, and Mikhail Lermontov—Epic Revisionism tells the fascinating story of these individuals’ return to canonical status during the darkest days of the Stalin era. An inherently interdisciplinary project, Epic Revisionism features pieces on literary and cultural history, film, opera, and theater. This volume pairs scholarly essays with selections drawn from Stalin-era primary sources—newspaper articles, unpublished archival documents, short stories—to provide students and specialists with the richest possible understanding of this understudied phenomenon in modern Russian history. “These scholars shed a great deal of light not only on Stalinist culture but on the politics of cultural production under the Soviet system.”—David L. Hoffmann, Slavic Review
Russian History and Literature as Stalinist Propaganda
Author: Kevin M. F. Platt,David Brandenberger
Publisher: Univ of Wisconsin Press
Konstruktionen des Anderen im Sozialismus
Author: Silke Satjukow,Rainer Gries
Publisher: Leipziger Universitätsverlag
Category: Cold War
The history of the Soviet Union has been charted in several studies over the decades. However, earlier examinations have failed to draw attention to the political and academic environment within which these histories were composed. Identifying the significant hallmarks of the production of Soviet history by Soviet as well as Western historians, this book attempts to fill this gap. It shows how the Russian Revolution of 1917 triggered a shift in official policy towards historians and the publication of history textbooks for schools and surveys the rich body of writing the Russian Revolution generated as well as the divergent approaches to the history of the period. The conditions for research in Soviet archives are described as an aspect of official monitoring of history writing, which continues to this day.
Making the Past Work
Author: Arup Banerji
Publisher: Berghahn Books
I have been working on this book since leaving Russia in April of 1972. It was my wish to write this book in English, and there were what seemed to me to be serious reasons for doing so. In recent years there has appeared a wealth of literature, in Russian, about Russia. As a rule, this literature has been published outside the USSR by authors who still live in the Soviet Union or who have only recently left it. A fair amount of important literature is being translated into English, but I believe it will be read main ly by specialists in Russian studies, or by those who have a great interest in the subject already. The majority of Russian authors write, of course, for the Russian reader or for an imagined Western public. It is my feeling that Russian authors have serious difficulties in understanding the men tality of Westerners, and that there still exists a gap between the visions of Russians and non-Russians. I have made my humble attempt to bridge ~his gap and I will be happy if I am even partly successful. The Russian world is indeed fascinating. Many people who visit Russia for a few days or weeks find it a country full of historical charm, fantastic architecture and infinite mystery. For many inside the country, especial ly for those in conflict with the Soviet authorities.
Author: Yuri Glazov
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Author: Oksana Bulgakowa
Publisher: Potemkin Press
Category: Motion picture producers and directors
In this, the third volume of collected essays by one of the most eminent students of East and West Europe, Walter Laqueur reveals a particularly deft touch at weaving the cultural and the political into a seamless whole. His familiarity with Soviet life and the Russian language gives him a unique insider's position in examining the Soviet Union and its remarkable changes in the decade of the 1980s. In chapters on glasnost and its limits to the Soviet Union in the 1990s, the reader is given a careful perspective on continuities as well as discontinuities in Soviet politics. And in studies of Nikolai Skoblin, Julian Semynov-with whom his western counterpart, John Le Carre is compared in a fine coupling-we are given a sense of the darker side of things Soviet. Soviet Realities reveals Laqueur's appreciation of the painful dialectic inherent in the grand sweet of Soviet life: underneath the faade of an imposed monolith are the continuing struggles between Left and Right, reformers and renegades, terrorists and legalists. And in his opening chapter, the author links these disparate strands together in a modest and self-critical appraisal. This is a volume deserving of an audience far beyond "Kremlinologists" or specialists in foreign affairs. In its sense of the Soviet whole, it will be of interest to all citizens concerned with the present and future of Soviet-American relations. Walter Laqueur is chairman of the International Research Council of the Center for Strategic and International Studies in Washington, and also co-director of the Wiener Library of Contemporary History in London. He is the author of almost twenty books and ten times that number of serious articles. They cover major themes of our times: terrorism, political movements, ideological trends, and cultural forms. He is, in short, a unique figure.
Culture and Politics from Stalin to Gorbachev
Author: Walter Laqueur
Publisher: Transaction Publishers
The revolutionary ideals of equality, communal living, proletarian morality, and technology worship, rooted in Russian utopianism, generated a range of social experiments which found expression, in the first decade of the Russian revolution, in festival, symbol, science fiction, city planning, and the arts. In this study, historian Richard Stites offers a vivid portrayal of revolutionary life and the cultural factors--myth, ritual, cult, and symbol--that sustained it, and describes the principal forms of utopian thinking and experimental impulse. Analyzing the inevitable clash between the authoritarian elements in the Bolshevik's vision and the libertarian behavior and aspirations of large segments of the population, Stites interprets the pathos of utopian fantasy as the key to the emotional force of the Bolshevik revolution which gave way in the early 1930s to bureaucratic state centralism and a theology of Stalinism.
Utopian Vision and Experimental Life in the Russian Revolution
Author: Richard Stites
Publisher: Oxford University Press
the rhetoric of violence and the violence of rhetoric in modern Russian culture
Author: Anna Brodsky,Mark Naumovich Lipovet︠s︡kiĭ,Sven Spieker
Category: Slavic philology
"This new and enlarged version of Readings in Russian Civilization is the result of fairly extensive revisions. There are now 72 instead of 64 items; 20 of the selections are new. The first volume has undergone the least change with 3 new items, of which 2 appear in English for the first time. In the second volume there are 6 new items; all of them appear in English for the first time. The third volume has undergone the greatest revision, with 11 new items, of which 6 are newly translated from the Russian. It is the editor's hope that items left out in the new edition will not be sorely missed, and that the new selections will turn out to be useful and illuminating. The aim, throughout, has been to cover areas of knowledge and periods which had been neglected in the first edition, and to include topics which are important in the study of the Russian past and present. "The bibliographical headnotes have been enlarged, with the result that there are now approximately twice as many entries as in the old edition. New citations include not only works which have appeared since 1963, but also older books and articles which have come to the editor's attention."—From the Editor's Preface ". . . a judicious combination of seminal works and more recent commentaries that achieves the editor's purpose of stimulating curiosity and developing a point of view."—C. Bickford O'Brien, The Russian Review "These three volumes cover quite well the main periods of Russian civilization. The choice of the articles and other material is made by a competent and unbiased scholar."—Ivan A. Lopatin, Professor of Asian and Slavic Studies, University of Southern California
Russia Before Peter the Great, 900-1700
Author: Thomas Riha
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Stalinism surveys the efforts made in recent years by professional historians, in Russia and the West, to better understand what really went on in the USSR between 1929 and 1953, when the country's affairs were shrouded in secrecy. The opening of the Soviet archives in 1991 has led to a profusion of historical studies, whose strengths and weaknesses are assessed here impartially though not uncritically. While Joseph Stalin now emerges as a less omnipotent figure than he seemed to be at the time, most serious writers accept that the system over which he ruled was despotic and totalitarian. Some nostalgic nationalists in Russia, along with some Western post-modernists, disagree. Their arguments are carefully dissected here. Stalinism was of course much more than state sponsored terror, and so due attention is paid to a wide range of socio-economic and cultural problems. Keep and Litvin applaud the efforts of Soviet citizens to express dissenting views.
Russian and Western Views at the Turn of the Millenium
Author: John L. H. Keep,Alter L. Litvin
Seit nunmehr siebzig Jahren beziehen sich Historienfilme, Historienromane und Gedenktage in Polen, der Ukraine und Russland auf Kriege des 17. Jahrhunderts. Worin liegt im 20. Jahrhundert wie auch in der Gegenwart die Aktualitat der Kriege des 17. Jahrhunderts? Scheinbar hat in der jungeren Vergangenheit vor allem die Frage, ob die Ukraine kulturell oder gar politisch entweder zu Polen oder zu Russland gehore oder eine vollkommen eigenstandige Existenz fuhre, den Erinnerungen an Kriege des 17. Jahrhunderts Relevanz verliehen. Das Buch untersucht wie Politiker, Historiker und Kunstler die Kriege des 17. Jahrhunderts in den vergangenen sieben Jahrzehnten vergegenwartigt haben. Dabei geht es nicht zuletzt auch um die Frage, ob sich eine Verflechtungsgeschichte von Gedachtnissen schreiben lasst, die auf den ersten Blick national gerahmt erscheinen, tatsachlich jedoch in vielfaltiger Weise in einem polnisch-ukrainisch-russischen Dreieck positioniert sind.
konkurrierende Erinnerungen an die Kriege des 17. Jahrhunderts in den Jahren 1934 bis 2006
Author: Martin Aust
Publisher: Otto Harrassowitz
This book presents a large collection of anecdotes and jokes from different periods of the 20th century. Anecdotes and jokes were a hidden form of discursive communication in the Soviet era, lampooning official practices and acting as a confidential form of self-affirmation. They were not necessarily anti-Soviet, by their very nature both criticising existing reality and acting as a form of acquiescence. Above all they provide invaluable insights into everyday life, and the attitudes and concerns of ordinary people. The book also includes anecdotes and jokes from the post-Soviet period, when ordinary people in Russia continued to have to cope with rather grim reality, and the compiler provides extensive introductory and explanatory matter to set the material in context.
Twentieth Century Soviet and Russian History in Anecdotes and Jokes
Author: Bruce Adams
Category: Europe, Eastern
Ein Tag aus dem Leben des Iwan Denissowitsch ist zweifellos das aufsehenerregendste Buch, das nach dem Krieg in der Sowjetumion veröffentlicht wurde. Heute ist dieses Buch aus den Buchhandlungen in der Sowjetunion wieder verschwunden, für das sich Chruschtschow auf dem 22. Parteitag mt den Worten einsetzte: "Es ist unsere Pflicht, derartige Angelegenheiten, die mit dem Mißbrauch der Macht zusammenhängen, sorgfältig und allseitig zu klären.Solange wir arbeiten. können, müssen wir vieles klarstellen und der Partei und dem Volk die Wahrheit sagen..." Solschenizyn hat das gequälte Gewissen jener zahllosen Russen erleichtert, die solange in vollem Wissen um die Schande in Stummheit leben mußten. Das Buch ist keineswegs eine sensationell aufgemachte Aneinanderreihung grausamer Enthüllungen und der im Titel genannte "Tag" unterscheidet sich kaum von den mehr als dreitausend anderen Tagen der Gefangenschaft Denissowitschs. Es werden weder Folterungen beschrieben, noch wird offen gegen das Unrecht protestiert, aber der stumme Protest, der die Erzählung bestimmt, wirkt gerade durch die eindringliche,detaillierte Schilderung des monotonen Lagerlebens um so stärker. Es ist unumgänglich für jeden, der sich ein Bild von den Entwicklungen jener Zeit in der Sowjetliteratur machen will, das hier neuaufgelegte erste Buch von Solschenizyn zu lesen.
Author: Alexander Solschenizyn
Publisher: Langen Mueller Herbig
Bakhtin, Stalin, and Modern Russian Fiction presents an advanced introduction to the work of the Russian theorist Mikhail Bakhtin, focusing on the concepts of carnival, dialogism, and historicism. The discussion of Bakhtin pays particular attention to the impact of his historical context in the Soviet Union and to the importance of his own dialogic mode of discourse. Bakhtin's ideas are then placed in dialogic relation to the works of several important writers of modern Russian fiction, including Vassily Aksyonov, Ilf and Petrov, Mikhail Zoshchenko, Yuz Aleshkovsky, Andrei Bitov, and Sasha Sokolov.
Carnival, Dialogism, and History
Author: M. Keith Booker,Dubravka Juraga
Category: Russian fiction