The Case Against Perfection

Author: Michael J Sandel

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674036387

Category: Medical

Page: 162

View: 6245

What is wrong with re-engineering genetics? In this work, Sandel argues that the pursuit of perfection is flawed for reasons that go beyond safety and fairness. He contends that the genetic revolution will change the way philosophers discuss ethics and will force spiritual questions back onto the political agenda.
Posted in Medical

The Case against Perfection

Author: Michael J Sandel

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674043065

Category: Philosophy

Page: 176

View: 4487

Posted in Philosophy

THE CASE AGAINST PERFECTION

Author: Michael J Sandel

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: N.A

Category: Philosophy

Page: 176

View: 9479

Believing the quest to attain human perfection endangers the view of human life as a gift, argues against proposals to bioengineer human life through cloning and gene modification.
Posted in Philosophy

Enhancing Evolution

The Ethical Case for Making Better People

Author: John Harris

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400836383

Category: Science

Page: 272

View: 4032

In Enhancing Evolution, leading bioethicist John Harris dismantles objections to genetic engineering, stem-cell research, designer babies, and cloning and makes an ethical case for biotechnology that is both forthright and rigorous. Human enhancement, Harris argues, is a good thing--good morally, good for individuals, good as social policy, and good for a genetic heritage that needs serious improvement. Enhancing Evolution defends biotechnological interventions that could allow us to live longer, healthier, and even happier lives by, for example, providing us with immunity from cancer and HIV/AIDS. Further, Harris champions the possibility of influencing the very course of evolution to give us increased mental and physical powers--from reasoning, concentration, and memory to strength, stamina, and reaction speed. Indeed, he says, it's not only morally defensible to enhance ourselves; in some cases, it's morally obligatory. In a new preface, Harris offers a glimpse at the new science and technology to come, equipping readers with the knowledge to assess the ethics and policy dimensions of future forms of human enhancement.
Posted in Science

Public Philosophy

Essays on Morality in Politics

Author: Michael J. Sandel

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674019287

Category: Philosophy

Page: 292

View: 7089

In this book, Michael Sandel takes up some of the hotly contested moral and political issues of our time, including affirmative action, assisted suicide, abortion, gay rights, stem cell research, the meaning of toleration and civility, the gap between rich and poor, the role of markets, and the place of religion in public life. He argues that the most prominent ideals in our political life--individual rights and freedom of choice--do not by themselves provide an adequate ethic for a democratic society. Sandel calls for a politics that gives greater emphasis to citizenship, community, and civic virtue, and that grapples more directly with questions of the good life. Liberals often worry that inviting moral and religious argument into the public sphere runs the risk of intolerance and coercion. These essays respond to that concern by showing that substantive moral discourse is not at odds with progressive public purposes, and that a pluralist society need not shrink from engaging the moral and religious convictions that its citizens bring to public life.
Posted in Philosophy

What Money Can't Buy

The Moral Limits of Markets

Author: Michael J. Sandel

Publisher: Farrar, Straus and Giroux

ISBN: 1429942584

Category: Philosophy

Page: 256

View: 9884

Should we pay children to read books or to get good grades? Should we allow corporations to pay for the right to pollute the atmosphere? Is it ethical to pay people to test risky new drugs or to donate their organs? What about hiring mercenaries to fight our wars? Auctioning admission to elite universities? Selling citizenship to immigrants willing to pay? In What Money Can't Buy, Michael J. Sandel takes on one of the biggest ethical questions of our time: Is there something wrong with a world in which everything is for sale? If so, how can we prevent market values from reaching into spheres of life where they don't belong? What are the moral limits of markets? In recent decades, market values have crowded out nonmarket norms in almost every aspect of life—medicine, education, government, law, art, sports, even family life and personal relations. Without quite realizing it, Sandel argues, we have drifted from having a market economy to being a market society. Is this where we want to be?In his New York Times bestseller Justice, Sandel showed himself to be a master at illuminating, with clarity and verve, the hard moral questions we confront in our everyday lives. Now, in What Money Can't Buy, he provokes an essential discussion that we, in our market-driven age, need to have: What is the proper role of markets in a democratic society—and how can we protect the moral and civic goods that markets don't honor and that money can't buy?
Posted in Philosophy

Improving Nature?

The Science and Ethics of Genetic Engineering

Author: Michael J. Reiss,Roger Straughan

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521008471

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 2535

A biologist and a moral philosopher consider the positive potential and the possible negative consequences of genetic engineering, outlining the science surrounding the technology while discussing moral and ethical considerations. Reprint.
Posted in Science

The Ethics of Genetic Engineering

Author: Roberta M. Berry

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135195919

Category: Medical

Page: 240

View: 651

Human genetic engineering may soon be possible. The gathering debate about this prospect already threatens to become mired in irresolvable disagreement. After surveying the scientific and technological developments that have brought us to this pass, The Ethics of Genetic Engineering focuses on the ethical and policy debate, noting the deep divide that separates proponents and opponents. The book locates the source of this divide in differing framing assumptions: reductionist pluralist on one side, holist communitarian on the other. The book argues that we must bridge this divide, drawing on the resources from both encampments, if we are to understand and cope with the distinctive problems posed by genetic engineering. These problems, termed "fractious problems," are novel, complex, ethically fraught, unavoidably of public concern, and unavoidably divisive. Berry examines three prominent ethical and political theories – utilitarianism, Kantianism, and virtue ethics – to consider their competency in bridging the divide and addressing these fractious problems. The book concludes that virtue ethics can best guide parental decision making and that a new policymaking approach sketched here, a "navigational approach," can best guide policymaking. These approaches enable us to gain a rich understanding of the problems posed and to craft resolutions adequate to their challenges.
Posted in Medical

Justice

A Reader

Author: Michael J. Sandel

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 0195335112

Category: Philosophy

Page: 412

View: 875

Justice brings together in one indispensable volume essential readings on justice and moral reasoning. With readings from major thinkers from the classical era up to the present, the collection provides a thematic overview of the concept of justice. Moreover, Sandel's organization of the readings and his own commentaries allow readers to engage with a variety of pressing contemporary issues. Looking at a host of ethical dilemmas, including affirmative action, conscription, income distribution, and gay rights, from a variety of angles—morally, legally, politically—the collection engages with the core concerns of political philosophy: individual rights and the claims of community, equality and inequality, morality and law, and ultimately, justice. With concise section introductions that put the readings in context, this anthology is an invaluable tool for students, teachers, and anyone who wishes to engage in the great moral debates that have animated politics from classical times to our own.
Posted in Philosophy

Creation Ethics

Reproduction, Genetics, and Quality of Life

Author: David DeGrazia

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199974101

Category: Philosophy

Page: 240

View: 9859

The ethics of creating -- or declining to create -- human beings has been addressed in several contexts: debates over abortion and embryo research; literature on "self-creation"; and discussions of procreative rights and responsibilities, genetic engineering, and future generations. Here, for the first time, is a sustained, scholarly analysis of all of these issues -- a discussion combining breadth of topics with philosophical depth, imagination with current scientific understanding, argumentative rigor with accessibility. The overarching aim of Creation Ethics is to illuminate a broad array of issues connected with reproduction and genetics, through the lens of moral philosophy. With novel frameworks for understanding prenatal moral status and human identity, and exceptional fairness to those holding different views, David DeGrazia sheds new light on the ethics of abortion and embryo research, genetic enhancement and prenatal genetic interventions, procreation and parenting, and decisions that affect the quality of life of future generations. Along the way, he helpfully introduces personal identity theory and value theory as well as such complex topics as moral status, wrongful life, and the "nonidentity problem." The results include a subjective account of human well-being, a standard for responsible procreation and parenting, and a theoretical bridge between consequentialist and nonconsequentialist ethical theories. The upshot is a synoptic, mostly liberal vision of the ethics of creating human beings.
Posted in Philosophy

The Ethics of the New Eugenics

Author: Calum MacKellar,Christopher Bechtel

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 178238121X

Category: Medical

Page: 242

View: 8250

Strategies or decisions aimed at affecting, in a manner considered to be positive, the genetic heritage of a child in the context of human reproduction are increasingly being accepted in contemporary society. As a result, unnerving similarities between earlier selection ideology so central to the discredited eugenic regimes of the 20th century and those now on offer suggest that a new era of eugenics has dawned. The time is ripe, therefore, for considering and evaluating from an ethical perspective both current and future selection practices. This inter-disciplinary volume blends research from embryology, genetics, philosophy, sociology, psychology, and history. In so doing, it constructs a thorough picture of the procedures emerging from today's reproductive developments, including a rigorous ethical argumentation concerning the possible advantages and risks related to the new eugenics.
Posted in Medical

Design and Destiny

Jewish and Christian Perspectives on Human Germline Modification

Author: Ronald Cole-Turner

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262533014

Category: Science

Page: 237

View: 7731

Scholars discuss the genetic modification of embryonic cells from the viewpoints oftraditional Jewish and Christian teaching, considering both the possible therapeutic benefits ofthis technology and moral concerns about its implementation.
Posted in Science

Babies by Design

The Ethics of Genetic Choice

Author: Ronald M. Green

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 9780300138573

Category: SCIENCE

Page: 279

View: 1928

Product Description: We stand on the brink of unprecedented growth in our ability to understand and change the human genome. New reproductive technologies now enable parents to select some genetic traits for their children, and soon it will be possible to begin to shape ourselves as a species. Despite the loud cries of alarm that such a prospect inspires, Ronald Green argues that we will, and we should, undertake the direction of our own evolution. A leader in the bioethics community, Green offers a scientifically and ethically informed view of human genetic self-modification and the possibilities it opens up for a better future. Fears of a terrible Brave New World or a new eugenics movement are overblown, he maintains, and in the more likely future, genetic modifications may improve parents' ability to enhance children's lives and may even promote social justice. The author outlines the new capabilities of genomic science, addresses urgent questions of safety that genetic interventions pose, and explores questions of parenting and justice. He also examines the religious implications of gene modification. Babies by design are assuredly in the future, Green concludes, and by making responsible choices as we enter that future, we can incorporate gene technology in a new age of human adventure.
Posted in SCIENCE

Better than Human

The Promise and Perils of Enhancing Ourselves

Author: Allen Buchanan

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199797994

Category: Philosophy

Page: 256

View: 9891

Is it right to use biomedical technologies to make us better than well or even perhaps better than human? Should we view our biology as fixed or should we try to improve on it? College students are already taking cognitive enhancement drugs. The U.S. army is already working to develop drugs and technologies to produce "super soldiers." Scientists already know how to use genetic engineering techniques to enhance the strength and memories of mice and the application of such technologies to humans is on the horizon. In Better Than Human, philosopher-bioethicist Allen Buchanan grapples with the ethical dilemmas of the biomedical enhancement revolution. Biomedical enhancements can make us smarter, have better memories, be stronger, quicker, have more stamina, live much longer, avoid the frailties of aging, and enjoy richer emotional lives. In spite of the benefits that biomedical enhancements may bring, many people instinctively reject them. Some worry that we will lose something important-our appreciation for what we have or what makes human beings distinctively valuable. Others assume that biomedical enhancements will only be available to the rich, with the result that social inequalities will worsen. Buchanan shows that the debate over enhancement has been distorted by false assumptions and misleading rhetoric. To think clearly about enhancement, we have to acknowledge that human nature is a mixed bag and that our species has many "design flaws." We should be open be open to the possibility of becoming better than human, while never underestimating the risks that our attempts to improve may back-fire.
Posted in Philosophy

Encountering China

Michael Sandel and Chinese Philosophy

Author: Michael J. Sandel

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674983351

Category: Philosophy

Page: 284

View: 6835

In Michael Sandel the Chinese have found a guide through the ethical dilemmas created by their swift embrace of a market economy—one whose communitarian ideas resonate with China’s own rich, ancient philosophical traditions. This volume explores the connections and tensions revealed in this unlikely episode of Chinese engagement with the West.
Posted in Philosophy

Transhumanist Dreams and Dystopian Nightmares

The Promise and Peril of Genetic Engineering

Author: Maxwell J. Mehlman

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 1421407272

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 905

Transhumanists advocate for the development and distribution of technologies that will enhance human intellectual, physical, and psychological capacities, even eliminate aging. What if the dystopian futures and transhumanist utopias found in the pages of science journals, Margaret Atwood novels, films like Gattaca, and television shows like Dark Angel are realized? What kind of world would humans have created? Maxwell J. Mehlman considers the promises and perils of using genetic engineering in an effort to direct the future course of human evolution. He addresses scientific and ethical issues without choosing sides in the dispute between transhumanists and their challengers. However, Transhumanist Dreams and Dystopian Nightmares reveals that radical forms of genetic engineering could become a reality much sooner than many people think, and that we need to encourage risk-management efforts. Whether scientists are dubious or optimistic about the prospects for directed evolution, they tend to agree on two things. First, however long it takes to perfect the necessary technology, it is inevitable that humans will attempt to control their evolutionary future, and second, in the process of learning how to direct evolution, we are bound to make mistakes. Our responsibility is to learn how to balance innovation with caution. -- Michael A. Goldman
Posted in Science

Unfit for the Future

The Need for Moral Enhancement

Author: Ingmar Persson,Julian Savulescu

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019965364X

Category: Medical

Page: 143

View: 8979

Unfit for the Future argues that the future of our species depends on radical enhancement of the moral aspects of our nature. Population growth and technological advances are threatening to undermine the conditions of worthwhile life on earth forever. We need to modify the biological bases of human motivation to deal with this challenge.
Posted in Medical

Arguing About Bioethics

Author: Stephen Holland

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135692076

Category: Philosophy

Page: 624

View: 2342

Arguing About Bioethics is a fresh and exciting collection of essential readings in bioethics, offering a comprehensive introduction to and overview of the field. Influential contributions from established philosophers and bioethicists, such as Peter Singer, Thomas Nagel, Judith Jarvis Thomson and Michael Sandel, are combined with the best recent work in the subject. Organised into clear sections, readings have been chosen that engage with one another, and often take opposing views on the same question, helping students get to grips with the key areas of debate. All the core issues in bioethics are covered, alongside new controversies that are emerging in the field, including: embryo research selecting children and enhancing humans human cloning using animals for medical purposes organ donation consent and autonomy public health ethics resource allocation developing world bioethics assisted suicide. Each extract selected is clear, stimulating and free from unnecessary jargon. The editor’s accessible and engaging section introductions make Arguing About Bioethics ideal for those studying bioethics for the first time, while more advanced readers will be challenged by the rigorous and thought-provoking arguments presented in the readings.
Posted in Philosophy

The Lost Daughters of China

Adopted Girls, Their Journey to America, and the Search for a Missing Past

Author: Karin Evans

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 9781585426768

Category: Family & Relationships

Page: 380

View: 4207

At once a compelling personal narrative and an evocative portrait of contemporary China, this also serves as an invaluable guide for readers as they navigate the process of adopting from China.
Posted in Family & Relationships