The Advent of the Algorithm

The Idea that Rules the World

Author: David Berlinski

Publisher: Houghton Mifflin

ISBN: N.A

Category: Mathematics

Page: 345

View: 3020

Describes the invention of the algorithm, first theorized by Leibniz, and the dramatic implications of this mathematical discovery on the development of computer technology and the working of DNA
Posted in Mathematics

Understanding Digital Literacies

A Practical Introduction

Author: Rodney H. Jones,Christoph A. Hafner

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136212892

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 214

View: 8332

Assuming no knowledge of linguistics, Understanding Digital Literacies provides an accessible and timely introduction to new media literacies. It supplies readers with the theoretical and analytical tools with which to explore the linguistic and social impact of a host of new digital literacy practices. Each chapter in the volume covers a different topic, presenting an overview of the major concepts, issues, problems and debates surrounding the topic, while also encouraging students to reflect on and critically evaluate their own language and communication practices. Features include: coverage of a diverse range of digital media texts, tools and practices including blogging, hypertextual organisation, Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Wikipedia, websites and games an extensive range of examples and case studies to illustrate each topic, such as how blogs have affected our thinking about communication, how the creation and sharing of digital images and video can bring about shifts in social roles, and how the design of multiplayer online games for children can promote different ideologies a variety of discussion questions and mini-ethnographic research projects involving exploration of various patterns of media production and communication between peers, for example in the context of Wikinomics and peer production, social networking and civic participation, and digital literacies at work end of chapter suggestions for further reading and links to key web and video resources a companion website providing supplementary material for each chapter, including summaries of key issues, additional web-based exercises, and links to further resources such as useful websites, articles, videos and blogs. This book will provide a key resource for undergraduate and graduate students studying courses in new media and digital literacies.
Posted in Language Arts & Disciplines

Ancient History: a Revised Chronology

An Updated Revision of Ancient History Based on New Archaeology

Author: Anthony Lyle

Publisher: AuthorHouse

ISBN: 1468588095

Category: History

Page: 476

View: 8329

This book is a culmination of that research. After trashing his work 10 times and starting over, he managed to get a revised chronology that seemed to be more accurate than that being put out by the status quo universities. It combines secular / world history with Biblical history in a far more even and smoother match than that proposed by former historians who have attempted the same. This is his version 12, which doesnt try to match different histories based on dates, but rather by matching people and events and then applying revised dates to those events and people. This work will call into question the conclusions of historians of the last 200 years, about the ancient periods of time, and provide an alternative dating for those times. It is a World History in that it incorporates the ancient history of India, China, Japan, as well as the traditional Middle Eastern and European societies of ancient times. It re-evaluates the beginnings of civilization and the solar system, refuting common historical and scienti?? c beliefs of the modern world. Documents that have previously been written off as Mythology have been re-evaluated as well, as they give a different perspective of ancient times and what happened back then. The use and creation of calendars is an important feature added to this work which is seldom taken into account by modern histories. Incorporated in this work are many of the more recent archaeological ?? nds that have yet to be incorporated in status quo works and institutions. He makes no apology for the fact that this is Biblically based, and the conclusions that have been reached by this work ?? t very well in Biblical contexts and adds some understanding to the events that took place in the Biblical narratives.
Posted in History

The Logic of Logistics

Theory, Algorithms, and Applications for Logistics Management

Author: David Simchi-Levi,Xin Chen,Julien Bramel

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387949215

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 281

View: 4207

Fierce competition in today's global market provides a powerful motivation for developing ever more sophisticated logistics systems. This book, written for the logistics manager and researcher, presents a timely and authoritative survey of the modern theory and application of logistics, including case studies in which decision support tools for large-scale logistics applications are developed.
Posted in Business & Economics

Bayesian Signal Processing

Classical, Modern and Particle Filtering Methods

Author: James V. Candy

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118210549

Category: Science

Page: 472

View: 343

New Bayesian approach helps you solve tough problems in signal processing with ease Signal processing is based on this fundamental concept—the extraction of critical information from noisy, uncertain data. Most techniques rely on underlying Gaussian assumptions for a solution, but what happens when these assumptions are erroneous? Bayesian techniques circumvent this limitation by offering a completely different approach that can easily incorporate non-Gaussian and nonlinear processes along with all of the usual methods currently available. This text enables readers to fully exploit the many advantages of the "Bayesian approach" to model-based signal processing. It clearly demonstrates the features of this powerful approach compared to the pure statistical methods found in other texts. Readers will discover how easily and effectively the Bayesian approach, coupled with the hierarchy of physics-based models developed throughout, can be applied to signal processing problems that previously seemed unsolvable. Bayesian Signal Processing features the latest generation of processors (particle filters) that have been enabled by the advent of high-speed/high-throughput computers. The Bayesian approach is uniformly developed in this book's algorithms, examples, applications, and case studies. Throughout this book, the emphasis is on nonlinear/non-Gaussian problems; however, some classical techniques (e.g. Kalman filters, unscented Kalman filters, Gaussian sums, grid-based filters, et al) are included to enable readers familiar with those methods to draw parallels between the two approaches. Special features include: Unified Bayesian treatment starting from the basics (Bayes's rule) to the more advanced (Monte Carlo sampling), evolving to the next-generation techniques (sequential Monte Carlo sampling) Incorporates "classical" Kalman filtering for linear, linearized, and nonlinear systems; "modern" unscented Kalman filters; and the "next-generation" Bayesian particle filters Examples illustrate how theory can be applied directly to a variety of processing problems Case studies demonstrate how the Bayesian approach solves real-world problems in practice MATLAB notes at the end of each chapter help readers solve complex problems using readily available software commands and point out software packages available Problem sets test readers' knowledge and help them put their new skills into practice The basic Bayesian approach is emphasized throughout this text in order to enable the processor to rethink the approach to formulating and solving signal processing problems from the Bayesian perspective. This text brings readers from the classical methods of model-based signal processing to the next generation of processors that will clearly dominate the future of signal processing for years to come. With its many illustrations demonstrating the applicability of the Bayesian approach to real-world problems in signal processing, this text is essential for all students, scientists, and engineers who investigate and apply signal processing to their everyday problems.
Posted in Science

In Our Own Image

Will artificial intelligence save or destroy us?

Author: George Zarkadakis

Publisher: Random House

ISBN: 1473501431

Category: Science

Page: 384

View: 846

'TIMELY AND IMPORTANT' JIM AL-KHALILI In Our Own Image by Dr George Zarkadakis explores one of humankind’s oldest love–hate relationships – our ties with Artificial Intelligence or AI. Zarkadakis traces AI’s origins in ancient myth, through literary classics such as Frankenstein, to today’s sci-fi blockbusters, arguing that a fascination with AI is hardwired into the human psyche. He explains AI’s history, technology and potential; its manifestations in intelligent machines; its connections to neurology and consciousness, as well as – perhaps most tellingly – what AI reveals about us as human beings. In Our Own Image argues that we are on the brink of a fourth industrial revolution – poised to enter the age of Artificial Intelligence as science fiction becomes science fact. Ultimately, Zarkadakis observes, the fate of AI has profound implications for the future of science and humanity itself...
Posted in Science

Handbook of Algorithms for Physical Design Automation

Author: Charles J. Alpert,Dinesh P. Mehta,Sachin S. Sapatnekar

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 0849372429

Category: Computers

Page: 1024

View: 375

The physical design flow of any project depends upon the size of the design, the technology, the number of designers, the clock frequency, and the time to do the design. As technology advances and design-styles change, physical design flows are constantly reinvented as traditional phases are removed and new ones are added to accommodate changes in technology. Handbook of Algorithms for Physical Design Automation provides a detailed overview of VLSI physical design automation, emphasizing state-of-the-art techniques, trends and improvements that have emerged during the previous decade. After a brief introduction to the modern physical design problem, basic algorithmic techniques, and partitioning, the book discusses significant advances in floorplanning representations and describes recent formulations of the floorplanning problem. The text also addresses issues of placement, net layout and optimization, routing multiple signal nets, manufacturability, physical synthesis, special nets, and designing for specialized technologies. It includes a personal perspective from Ralph Otten as he looks back on the major technical milestones in the history of physical design automation. Although several books on this topic are currently available, most are either too broad or out of date. Alternatively, proceedings and journal articles are valuable resources for researchers in this area, but the material is widely dispersed in the literature. This handbook pulls together a broad variety of perspectives on the most challenging problems in the field, and focuses on emerging problems and research results.
Posted in Computers

What? Where? When? Why?

Essays on Induction, Space and Time, Explanation

Author: R. McLaughlin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 940097731X

Category: Science

Page: 319

View: 2352

Only in fairly recent years has History and Philosophy of Science been recog nised - though not always under that name - as a distinct field of scholarly endeavour. Previously, in the Australasian region as elsewhere, those few individuals working within this broad area of inquiry found their base, both intellectually and socially, where they could. In fact, the institutionalisation of History and Philosophy of Science began comparatively early in Australia. An initial lecturing appointment was made at the University of Melbourne immediately after the Second World War, in 1946, and other appointments followed as the subject underwent an expansion during the 1950s and '60s similar to that which took place in other parts of the world. Today there are major Departments at the University of Melbourne, the University of New South Wales and the University of Wollongong, and smaller groups active in many other parts of Australia, and in New Zealand.
Posted in Science

Love in the Time of Algorithms

What Technology Does to Meeting and Mating

Author: Dan Slater

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 1101608250

Category: Psychology

Page: 272

View: 9958

“If online dating can blunt the emotional pain of separation, if adults can afford to be increasingly demanding about what they want from a relationship, the effect of online dating seems positive. But what if it’s also the case that the prospect of finding an ever more compatible mate with the click of a mouse means a future of relationship instability, a paradox of choice that keeps us chasing the illusive bunny around the dating track?” It’s the mother of all search problems: how to find a spouse, a mate, a date. The escalating marriage age and declin­ing marriage rate mean we’re spending a greater portion of our lives unattached, searching for love well into our thirties and forties. It’s no wonder that a third of America’s 90 million singles are turning to dating Web sites. Once considered the realm of the lonely and desperate, sites like eHarmony, Match, OkCupid, and Plenty of Fish have been embraced by pretty much every demographic. Thanks to the increasingly efficient algorithms that power these sites, dating has been transformed from a daunting transaction based on scarcity to one in which the possibilities are almost endless. Now anyone—young, old, straight, gay, and even married—can search for exactly what they want, connect with more people, and get more information about those people than ever before. As journalist Dan Slater shows, online dating is changing society in more profound ways than we imagine. He explores how these new technologies, by altering our perception of what’s possible, are reconditioning our feelings about commitment and challenging the traditional paradigm of adult life. Like the sexual revolution of the 1960s and ’70s, the digital revolution is forcing us to ask new questions about what constitutes “normal”: Why should we settle for someone who falls short of our expectations if there are thousands of other options just a click away? Can commitment thrive in a world of unlimited choice? Can chemistry really be quantified by math geeks? As one of Slater’s subjects wonders, “What’s the etiquette here?” Blending history, psychology, and interviews with site creators and users, Slater takes readers behind the scenes of a fascinating business. Dating sites capitalize on our quest for love, but how do their creators’ ideas about profits, morality, and the nature of desire shape the virtual worlds they’ve created for us? Should we trust an industry whose revenue model benefits from our avoiding monogamy? Documenting the untold story of the online-dating industry’s rise from ignominy to ubiquity—beginning with its early days as “computer dating” at Harvard in 1965—Slater offers a lively, entertaining, and thought provoking account of how we have, for better and worse, embraced technology in the most intimate aspect of our lives.
Posted in Psychology

50 Years of Artificial Intelligence

Essays Dedicated to the 50th Anniversary of Artificial Intelligence

Author: Max Lungarella,Fumiya Iida,Josh Bongard,Rolf Pfeifer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540772952

Category: Computers

Page: 398

View: 921

This Festschrift volume, published in celebration of the 50th Anniversary of Artificial Intelligence, includes 34 refereed papers written by leading researchers in the field of Artificial Intelligence. The papers were carefully selected from the invited lectures given at the 50th Anniversary Summit of AI, held at the Centro Stefano Franscini, Monte Verità, Ascona, Switzerland, July 9-14, 2006. The summit provided a venue for discussions on a broad range of topics.
Posted in Computers

Theorem Proving in Higher Order Logics

13th International Conference, TPHOLs 2000 Portland, OR, USA, August 14-18, 2000 Proceedings

Author: Mark Aagaard

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540678632

Category: Computers

Page: 533

View: 3961

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Theorem Proving in Higher Order Logics, TPHOLs 2000, held in Portland, Oregon, USA in August 2000. The 29 revised full papers presented together with three invited contributions were carefully reviewed and selected from 55 submissions. All current aspects of HOL theorem proving, formal verification of hardware and software systems, and formal verification are covered. Among the HOL theorem provers evaluated are COQ, HOL, Isabelle, HOL/SPIN, PVS, and Isabelle/HOL.
Posted in Computers

Machine Dreams

Economics Becomes a Cyborg Science

Author: Philip Mirowski

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521775267

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 655

View: 2032

This was the first cross-over book into the history of science written by an historian of economics. It shows how 'history of technology' can be integrated with the history of economic ideas. The analysis combines Cold War history with the history of postwar economics in America and later elsewhere, revealing that the Pax Americana had much to do with abstruse and formal doctrines such as linear programming and game theory. It links the literature on 'cyborg' to economics, an element missing in literature to date. The treatment further calls into question the idea that economics has been immune to postmodern currents, arguing that neoclassical economics has participated in the deconstruction of the integral 'self'. Finally, it argues for an alliance of computational and institutional themes, and challenges the widespread impression that there is nothing else besides American neoclassical economic theory left standing after the demise of Marxism.
Posted in Business & Economics

Eine kurze Geschichte der Menschheit

Author: Yuval Noah Harari

Publisher: DVA

ISBN: 364110498X

Category: History

Page: 528

View: 3077

Krone der Schöpfung? Vor 100 000 Jahren war der Homo sapiens noch ein unbedeutendes Tier, das unauffällig in einem abgelegenen Winkel des afrikanischen Kontinents lebte. Unsere Vorfahren teilten sich den Planeten mit mindestens fünf weiteren menschlichen Spezies, und die Rolle, die sie im Ökosystem spielten, war nicht größer als die von Gorillas, Libellen oder Quallen. Vor 70 000 Jahren dann vollzog sich ein mysteriöser und rascher Wandel mit dem Homo sapiens, und es war vor allem die Beschaffenheit seines Gehirns, die ihn zum Herren des Planeten und zum Schrecken des Ökosystems werden ließ. Bis heute hat sich diese Vorherrschaft stetig zugespitzt: Der Mensch hat die Fähigkeit zu schöpferischem und zu zerstörerischem Handeln wie kein anderes Lebewesen. Anschaulich, unterhaltsam und stellenweise hochkomisch zeichnet Yuval Harari die Geschichte des Menschen nach und zeigt alle großen, aber auch alle ambivalenten Momente unserer Menschwerdung.
Posted in History

Homo Deus

Eine Geschichte von Morgen

Author: Yuval Noah Harari

Publisher: C.H.Beck

ISBN: 3406704026

Category: Social Science

Page: 576

View: 5034

In seinem Kultbuch „Eine kurze Geschichte der Menschheit“ erklärte Yuval Noah Harari, wie unsere Spezies die Erde erobern konnte. In „Homo Deus“ stößt er vor in eine noch verborgene Welt: die Zukunft. Was wird mit uns und unserem Planeten passieren, wenn die neuen Technologien dem Menschen gottgleiche Fähigkeiten verleihen – schöpferische wie zerstörerische – und das Leben selbst auf eine völlig neue Stufe der Evolution heben? Wie wird es dem Homo Sapiens ergehen, wenn er einen technikverstärkten Homo Deus erschafft, der sich vom heutigen Menschen deutlicher unterscheidet als dieser vom Neandertaler? Was bleibt von uns und der modernen Religion des Humanismus, wenn wir Maschinen konstruieren, die alles besser können als wir? In unserer Gier nach Gesundheit, Glück und Macht könnten wir uns ganz allmählich so weit verändern, bis wir schließlich keine Menschen mehr sind.
Posted in Social Science

It's Alive

The Coming Convergence of Information, Biology, and Business

Author: Christopher Meyer,Stanley M. Davis

Publisher: Crown Pub

ISBN: N.A

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 275

View: 1973

Why we are on the cusp of a new economic era that will make the changes and challenges of the Information Era seem like child’s play From the bestselling authors of Blur—a defining book of the Information Age—comes a startling glimpse into the near future and the emerging economy that awaits us. It’s Alive foretells the jolt the world is about to receive as the science of molecular evolution races out of the laboratories and into the business world. Think back to the early 1970s. Imagine the opportunities for your business, career choice, and investments had you received an advance report on the ways in which computer and information technology would revolutionize the world. It’s Alive provides that opportunity today: a realistic and persuasive look into the future—the molecular economy—and how it is starting to overtake and reshape the Information Age. Today’s gene mapping and molecular engineering are equivalent to the introduction of transistor radios at the advent of the information economy. Solid-state technology moved from the labs into the business arena, providing in turn the transistor, the microprocessor, and the modem—and the information business. During the next ten years, molecular technology will follow the same pattern, moving from the lab and into the basic operation of the corporation itself. Chris Meyer and Stan Davis are our guides in understanding this new future. They show that not only biological systems evolve. The rules of evolution help explain the process of change in biology, business, and the economy, thereby providing a management guide to the business world around the corner. It’s Alive is not science fiction or futurism. It bases its insights and predictions on the impact the molecular economy is already having in such diverse business environments as manufacturing, financial services, and energy. Through in-depth case studies of Capital One Financial, the U.S. Marine Corps, British Petroleum, and the biotech firm Maxygen, Meyer and Davis show how adaptive behavior works in the real world. As the rules of evolution combine with the connected economy, our business world will become unpredictable, volatile, and continually adaptive—in other words, alive. Also available as an eBook.
Posted in Business & Economics

Algorithmen - Eine Einführung

Author: Thomas H. Cormen,Charles E. Leiserson,Ronald Rivest,Clifford Stein

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 3110522012

Category: Computers

Page: 1339

View: 7321

Der "Cormen" bietet eine umfassende und vielseitige Einführung in das moderne Studium von Algorithmen. Es stellt viele Algorithmen Schritt für Schritt vor, behandelt sie detailliert und macht deren Entwurf und deren Analyse allen Leserschichten zugänglich. Sorgfältige Erklärungen zur notwendigen Mathematik helfen, die Analyse der Algorithmen zu verstehen. Den Autoren ist es dabei geglückt, Erklärungen elementar zu halten, ohne auf Tiefe oder mathematische Exaktheit zu verzichten. Jedes der weitgehend eigenständig gestalteten Kapitel stellt einen Algorithmus, eine Entwurfstechnik, ein Anwendungsgebiet oder ein verwandtes Thema vor. Algorithmen werden beschrieben und in Pseudocode entworfen, der für jeden lesbar sein sollte, der schon selbst ein wenig programmiert hat. Zahlreiche Abbildungen verdeutlichen, wie die Algorithmen arbeiten. Ebenfalls angesprochen werden Belange der Implementierung und andere technische Fragen, wobei, da Effizienz als Entwurfskriterium betont wird, die Ausführungen eine sorgfältige Analyse der Laufzeiten der Programme mit ein schließen. Über 1000 Übungen und Problemstellungen und ein umfangreiches Quellen- und Literaturverzeichnis komplettieren das Lehrbuch, dass durch das ganze Studium, aber auch noch danach als mathematisches Nachschlagewerk oder als technisches Handbuch nützlich ist. Für die dritte Auflage wurde das gesamte Buch aktualisiert. Die Änderungen sind vielfältig und umfassen insbesondere neue Kapitel, überarbeiteten Pseudocode, didaktische Verbesserungen und einen lebhafteren Schreibstil. So wurden etwa - neue Kapitel zu van-Emde-Boas-Bäume und mehrfädigen (engl.: multithreaded) Algorithmen aufgenommen, - das Kapitel zu Rekursionsgleichungen überarbeitet, sodass es nunmehr die Teile-und-Beherrsche-Methode besser abdeckt, - die Betrachtungen zu dynamischer Programmierung und Greedy-Algorithmen überarbeitet; Memoisation und der Begriff des Teilproblem-Graphen als eine Möglichkeit, die Laufzeit eines auf dynamischer Programmierung beruhender Algorithmus zu verstehen, werden eingeführt. - 100 neue Übungsaufgaben und 28 neue Problemstellungen ergänzt. Umfangreiches Dozentenmaterial (auf englisch) ist über die Website des US-Verlags verfügbar.
Posted in Computers

Nonlinear System Identification

From Classical Approaches to Neural Networks and Fuzzy Models

Author: Oliver Nelles

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540673699

Category: Computers

Page: 785

View: 5477

The goal of this book is to provide engineers and scientIsts in academia and industry with a thorough understanding of the underlying principles of nonlinear system identification. The reader will be able to apply the discussed models and methods to real problems with the necessary confidence and the awareness of potential difficulties that may arise in practice. This book is self-contained in the sense that it requires merely basic knowledge of matrix algebra, signals and systems, and statistics. Therefore, it also serves as an introduction to linear system identification and gives a practical overview on the major optimization methods used in engineering. The emphasis of this book is on an intuitive understanding of the subject and the practical application of the discussed techniques. It is not written in a theorem/proof style; rather the mathematics is kept to a minimum and the pursued ideas are illustrated by numerous figures, examples, and real-world applications. Fifteen years ago, nonlinear system identification was a field of several ad-hoc approaches, each applicable only to a very restricted class of systems. With the advent of neural networks, fuzzy models, and modern structure opti mization techniques a much wider class of systems can be handled. Although one major characteristic of nonlinear systems is that almost every nonlinear system is unique, tools have been developed that allow the use of the same ap proach for a broad variety of systems.
Posted in Computers

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

Building Intelligent Systems

Author: PARAG KULKARNI,PRACHI JOSHI

Publisher: PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.

ISBN: 8120350464

Category: Computers

Page: 528

View: 2245

There has been a movement over the years to make machines intelligent. With the advent of modern technology, AI has become the core part of day-to-day life. But it is accentuated to have a book that keeps abreast of all the state-of-the-art concepts (pertaining to AI) in simplified, explicit and elegant way, expounding on ample examples so that the beginners are able to comprehend the subject with ease. The book on Artificial Intelligence, dexterously divided into 21 chapters, fully satisfies all these pressing needs. It is intended to put each and every concept related to intelligent system in front of the readers in the most simplified way so that while understanding the basic concepts, they will develop thought process that can contribute to the building of advanced intelligent systems. Various cardinal landmarks pertaining to the subject such as problem solving, search techniques, intelligent agents, constraint satisfaction problems, knowledge representation, planning, machine learning, natural language processing, pattern recognition, game playing, hybrid and fuzzy systems, neural network-based learning and future work and trends in AI are now under the single umbrella of this book, thereby showing a nice blend of theoretical and practical aspects. With all the latest information incorporated and several pedagogical attributes included, this textbook is an invaluable learning tool for the undergraduate and postgraduate students of computer science and engineering, and information technology. KEY FEATURES • Highlights a clear and concise presentation through adequate study material • Follows a systematic approach to explicate fundamentals as well as recent advances in the area • Presents ample relevant problems in the form of multiple choice questions, concept review questions, critical thinking exercise and project work • Incorporates various case studies for major topics as well as numerous industrial examples
Posted in Computers