*MATHEMATICS OF DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY AND RELATIVITY*

Author: AHSAN, ZAFAR

Publisher: PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.

ISBN: 812035088X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 240

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## TENSORS

The principal aim of analysis of tensors is to investigate those relations which remain valid when we change from one coordinate system to another. This book on Tensors requires only a knowledge of elementary calculus, differential equations and classical mechanics as pre-requisites. It provides the readers with all the information about the tensors along with the derivation of all the tensorial relations/equations in a simple manner. The book also deals in detail with topics of importance to the study of special and general relativity and the geometry of differentiable manifolds with a crystal clear exposition. The concepts dealt within the book are well supported by a number of solved examples. A carefully selected set of unsolved problems is also given at the end of each chapter, and the answers and hints for the solution of these problems are given at the end of the book. The applications of tensors to the fields of differential geometry, relativity, cosmology and electromagnetism is another attraction of the present book. This book is intended to serve as text for postgraduate students of mathematics, physics and engineering. It is ideally suited for both students and teachers who are engaged in research in General Theory of Relativity and Differential Geometry.
## Differential Geometry And Tensors

The purpose of this book is to give a simple, lucid, rigorous and comprehensive account of fundamental notions of Differential Geometry and Tensors. The book is self-contained and divided in two parts. Section A deals with Differential Geometry and Section B is devoted to the study of Tensors. Section A deals with: " Theory of curves, envelopes and developables. " Curves on surfaces and fundamental magnitudes, curvature of surfaces and lines of curvature. " Fundamental equations of surface theory. " Geodesics. Section B deals with: " Tensor algebra. " Tensor calculus. " Christoffel symbols and their properties. " Riemann symbols and Einstein space, and their properties. " Physical components of contravariant and covariant vectors. " Geodesics and Parallelism of vectors. " Differentiable manifolds, charts, atlases.
## Tensor Geometry

## TEXTBOOK OF TENSOR CALCULUS AND DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY

Primarily intended for the undergraduate and postgraduate students of mathematics, this textbook covers both geometry and tensor in a single volume. This book aims to provide a conceptual exposition of the fundamental results in the theory of tensors. It also illustrates the applications of tensors to differential geometry, mechanics and relativity. Organized in ten chapters, it provides the origin and nature of the tensor along with the scope of the tensor calculus. Besides this, it also discusses N-dimensional Riemannian space, characteristic peculiarity of Riemannian space, intrinsic property of surfaces, and properties and transformation of Christoffel’s symbols. Besides the students of mathematics, this book will be equally useful for the postgraduate students of physics. KEY FEATURES : Contains 250 worked out examples Includes more than 350 unsolved problems Gives thorough foundation in Tensors
## Tensor Calculus

A compact exposition of the theory of tensors, this text also illustrates the power of the tensor technique by its applications to differential geometry, elasticity, and relativity. Explores tensor algebra, the line element, covariant differentiation, geodesics and parallelism, and curvature tensor. Also covers Euclidean 3-dimensional differential geometry, Cartesian tensors and elasticity, and the theory of relativity. 1960 edition.
## Tensors, Differential Forms, and Variational Principles

Incisive, self-contained account of tensor analysis and the calculus of exterior differential forms, interaction between the concept of invariance and the calculus of variations. Emphasis is on analytical techniques. Includes problems.
## Tensor Analysis and Elementary Differential Geometry for Physicists and Engineers

This book comprehensively presents topics, such as Dirac notation, tensor analysis, elementary differential geometry of moving surfaces, and k-differential forms. Additionally, two new chapters of Cartan differential forms and Dirac and tensor notations in quantum mechanics are added to this second edition. The reader is provided with hands-on calculations and worked-out examples at which he will learn how to handle the bra-ket notation, tensors, differential geometry, and differential forms; and to apply them to the physical and engineering world. Many methods and applications are given in CFD, continuum mechanics, electrodynamics in special relativity, cosmology in the Minkowski four-dimensional spacetime, and relativistic and non-relativistic quantum mechanics. Tensors, differential geometry, differential forms, and Dirac notation are very useful advanced mathematical tools in many fields of modern physics and computational engineering. They are involved in special and general relativity physics, quantum mechanics, cosmology, electrodynamics, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and continuum mechanics. The target audience of this all-in-one book primarily comprises graduate students in mathematics, physics, engineering, research scientists, and engineers.
## Differential Geometry and Relativity Theory

## The Absolute Differential Calculus

A chief requirement in the study of relativity is knowledge of the absolute differential calculus, the subject that Einstein found necessary for developing his ideas mathematically. Tullio Levi-Civita was one of the founders of this field of mathematics, and he presents a clear, detailed exposition of the subject in this classic book. The first section of the three-part treatment examines functional determinants and matrices; systems of total differential equations; linear partial differential equations in complete systems; and algebraic foundations of the absolute differential calculus, concluding with a geometrical introduction to the theory of differential quadratic forms. Part two, a study of the fundamental quadratic form and the absolute differential calculus, focuses on covariant differentiation, invariants and differential parameters, and locally geodesic coordinates; Riemann's symbols and properties relating to curvature, Ricci's and Einstein's symbols, and geodesic deviation; relations between two different metrics referred to the same parameters, manifolds of constant curvature; and differential quadratic forms of class zero and class one; and some applications of intrinsic geometry. The third and final section explores physical applications, including the evolution of mechanics and geometrical optics and their relation to a four-dimensional world according to Einstein; and gravitational equations and general relativity.
## Geometrical Methods of Mathematical Physics

In recent years the methods of modern differential geometry have become of considerable importance in theoretical physics and have found application in relativity and cosmology, high-energy physics and field theory, thermodynamics, fluid dynamics and mechanics. This textbook provides an introduction to these methods - in particular Lie derivatives, Lie groups and differential forms - and covers their extensive applications to theoretical physics. The reader is assumed to have some familiarity with advanced calculus, linear algebra and a little elementary operator theory. The advanced physics undergraduate should therefore find the presentation quite accessible. This account will prove valuable for those with backgrounds in physics and applied mathematics who desire an introduction to the subject. Having studied the book, the reader will be able to comprehend research papers that use this mathematics and follow more advanced pure-mathematical expositions.
## Introduction to Tensor Analysis and the Calculus of Moving Surfaces

This textbook is distinguished from other texts on the subject by the depth of the presentation and the discussion of the calculus of moving surfaces, which is an extension of tensor calculus to deforming manifolds. Designed for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, this text invites its audience to take a fresh look at previously learned material through the prism of tensor calculus. Once the framework is mastered, the student is introduced to new material which includes differential geometry on manifolds, shape optimization, boundary perturbation and dynamic fluid film equations. The language of tensors, originally championed by Einstein, is as fundamental as the languages of calculus and linear algebra and is one that every technical scientist ought to speak. The tensor technique, invented at the turn of the 20th century, is now considered classical. Yet, as the author shows, it remains remarkably vital and relevant. The author’s skilled lecturing capabilities are evident by the inclusion of insightful examples and a plethora of exercises. A great deal of material is devoted to the geometric fundamentals, the mechanics of change of variables, the proper use of the tensor notation and the discussion of the interplay between algebra and geometry. The early chapters have many words and few equations. The definition of a tensor comes only in Chapter 6 – when the reader is ready for it. While this text maintains a consistent level of rigor, it takes great care to avoid formalizing the subject. The last part of the textbook is devoted to the Calculus of Moving Surfaces. It is the first textbook exposition of this important technique and is one of the gems of this text. A number of exciting applications of the calculus are presented including shape optimization, boundary perturbation of boundary value problems and dynamic fluid film equations developed by the author in recent years. Furthermore, the moving surfaces framework is used to offer new derivations of classical results such as the geodesic equation and the celebrated Gauss-Bonnet theorem.
## Tensor Analysis with Applications

The principal aim of tensor analysis is to investigate the relations which remain valid when we change from one coordinate system to another. Albert Einstein found it to be an excellent tool for the presentation of his general theory of relativity and consequently tensor analysis came to prominence in mathematics. It has applications in most branches of theoretical physics and engineering. This present book is intended as a text for postgraduate students of mathematics, physics and engineering. It is self-contained and requires prior knowledge of elementary calculus, differential equations and classical mechanics. It consists of five chapters, each containing a large number of solved examples, unsolved problems and links to the solution of these problems. "Tensor Analysis with Applications" can be used on a selection of university courses, and will be a welcome addition to the library of maths, physics and engineering departments.
## Spacetime

One of the most of exciting aspects is the general relativity pred- tion of black holes and the Such Big Bang. predictions gained weight the theorems through Penrose. singularity pioneered In various by te- books on theorems general relativity singularity are and then presented used to that black holes exist and that the argue universe started with a To date what has big been is bang. a critical of what lacking analysis these theorems predict-’ We of really give a proof a typical singul- theorem and this ity use theorem to illustrate problems arising through the of possibilities violations" and "causality weak "shell very crossing These singularities". add to the problems weight of view that the point theorems alone singularity are not sufficient to the existence of predict physical singularities. The mathematical theme of the book In order to both solid gain a of and intuition understanding good for any mathematical theory, one,should to realise it as model of try a a fam- iar non-mathematical theories have had concept. Physical an especially the important on of and impact development mathematics, conversely various modern theories physical rather require sophisticated mathem- ics for their formulation. both and mathematics Today, physics are so that it is often difficult complex to master the theories in both very s- in the of jects. However, case differential pseudo-Riemannian geometry or the general relativity between and mathematics relationship physics is and it is therefore especially close, to from interd- possible profit an ciplinary approach.
## Tensor Analysis on Manifolds

DIVProceeds from general to special, including chapters on vector analysis on manifolds and integration theory. /div
## Tensor Calculus

Fundamental introduction of absolute differential calculus and for those interested in applications of tensor calculus to mathematical physics and engineering. Topics include spaces and tensors; basic operations in Riemannian space, curvature of space, more.
## A Brief on Tensor Analysis

In this text which gradually develops the tools for formulating and manipulating the field equations of Continuum Mechanics, the mathematics of tensor analysis is introduced in four, well-separated stages, and the physical interpretation and application of vectors and tensors are stressed throughout. This new edition contains more exercises. In addition, the author has appended a section on Differential Geometry.
## Tensor and Vector Analysis

Assuming only a knowledge of basic calculus, this text's elementary development of tensor theory focuses on concepts related to vector analysis. The book also forms an introduction to metric differential geometry. 1962 edition.
## Concepts from Tensor Analysis and Differential Geometry

Concepts from Tensor Analysis and Differential Geometry discusses coordinate manifolds, scalars, vectors, and tensors. The book explains some interesting formal properties of a skew-symmetric tensor and the curl of a vector in a coordinate manifold of three dimensions. It also explains Riemann spaces, affinely connected spaces, normal coordinates, and the general theory of extension. The book explores differential invariants, transformation groups, Euclidean metric space, and the Frenet formulae. The text describes curves in space, surfaces in space, mixed surfaces, space tensors, including the formulae of Gaus and Weingarten. It presents the equations of two scalars K and Q which can be defined over a regular surface S in a three dimensional Riemannian space R. In the equation, the scalar K, which is an intrinsic differential invariant of the surface S, is known as the total or Gaussian curvature and the scalar U is the mean curvature of the surface. The book also tackles families of parallel surfaces, developable surfaces, asymptotic lines, and orthogonal ennuples. The text is intended for a one-semester course for graduate students of pure mathematics, of applied mathematics covering subjects such as the theory of relativity, fluid mechanics, elasticity, and plasticity theory.
## Tensor Geometry

This treatment of differential geometry and the mathematics required for general relativity makes the subject accessible, for the first time, to anyone familiar with elementary calculus in one variable and with some knowledge of vector algebra. The emphasis throughout is on the geometry of the mathematics, which is greatly enhanced by the many illustrations presenting figures of three and more dimensions as closely as the book form will allow.
## Tensors, Relativity, and Cosmology

Tensors, Relativity, and Cosmology, Second Edition, combines relativity, astrophysics, and cosmology in a single volume, providing a simplified introduction to each subject that is followed by detailed mathematical derivations. The book includes a section on general relativity that gives the case for a curved space-time, presents the mathematical background (tensor calculus, Riemannian geometry), discusses the Einstein equation and its solutions (including black holes and Penrose processes), and considers the energy-momentum tensor for various solutions. In addition, a section on relativistic astrophysics discusses stellar contraction and collapse, neutron stars and their equations of state, black holes, and accretion onto collapsed objects, with a final section on cosmology discussing cosmological models, observational tests, and scenarios for the early universe. This fully revised and updated second edition includes new material on relativistic effects, such as the behavior of clocks and measuring rods in motion, relativistic addition of velocities, and the twin paradox, as well as new material on gravitational waves, amongst other topics. Clearly combines relativity, astrophysics, and cosmology in a single volume Extensive introductions to each section are followed by relevant examples and numerous exercises Presents topics of interest to those researching and studying tensor calculus, the theory of relativity, gravitation, cosmology, quantum cosmology, Robertson-Walker Metrics, curvature tensors, kinematics, black holes, and more Fully revised and updated with 80 pages of new material on relativistic effects, such as relativity of simultaneity and relativity of the concept of distance, amongst other topics Provides an easy-to-understand approach to this advanced field of mathematics and modern physics by providing highly detailed derivations of all equations and results

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*MATHEMATICS OF DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY AND RELATIVITY*

Author: AHSAN, ZAFAR

Publisher: PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.

ISBN: 812035088X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 240

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