The discovery of biological activity associated with flavonoid contaminants in vitamin C preparations from bell peppers and lemons by Szent-Gyorgyi and his associates opened a floodgate of research into the biological functions of this ubiquitous and diverse group of compounds. Since then, a broad range of physiological and biochemical activities were discovered in living systems including most plants and animals. With the continued discovery, isolation and identification of new natural and synthetic compounds exhibiting biological activities, entire research programs are devoted to wide ranging investigations to nearly every conceivable area, from microbial and plant interaction, growth regulation and development to physiological, genetical, medicinal actions and uses in animals. This volume is based on presentations made at a Symposium, titled Flavonoids in Cell Function, held during the 219'h National Meeting of the American Chemical Society held in San Francisco, California on March 29-30, 2000. The book is not intended to be a comprehensive treatise on flavonoid research, only a sampling of recent results. The papers cover a range of topics discussing various approaches to flavonoid study, starting at plant microbe communication through analytical methods to medicinal and systemic implications of these compounds in animal cells and systems. The organizers would like to express their thanks to Cargill Foods, Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota and the Division of Agricultural and Food Chemistry of the American Chemical Society for financial support. A great deal of thanks is also due to the authors without whose cooperation and patience this volume would not be realized.
Author: Béla Buslig,John Manthey
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Biological Identification provides a detailed review of, and potential future developments in, the technologies available to counter the threats to life and health posed by natural pathogens, toxins, and bioterrorism agents. Biological identification systems must be fast, accurate, reliable, and easy to use. It is also important to employ the most suitable technology in dealing with any particular threat. This book covers the fundamentals of these vital systems and lays out possible advances in the technology. Part one covers the essentials of DNA and RNA sequencing for the identification of pathogens, including next generation sequencing (NGS), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods, isothermal amplification, and bead array technologies. Part two addresses a variety of approaches to making identification systems portable, tackling the special requirements of smaller, mobile systems in fluid movement, power usage, and sample preparation. Part three focuses on a range of optical methods and their advantages. Finally, part four describes a unique approach to sample preparation and a promising approach to identification using mass spectroscopy. Biological Identification is a useful resource for academics and engineers involved in the microelectronics and sensors industry, and for companies, medical organizations and military bodies looking for biodetection solutions. Covers DNA sequencing of pathogens, lab-on-chip, and portable systems for biodetection and analysis Provides an in-depth description of optical systems and explores sample preparation and mass spectrometry-based biological analysis
DNA Amplification and Sequencing, Optical Sensing, Lab-On-Chip and Portable Systems
Author: R. Paul Schaudies
Annual Plant Reviews, Volume 14 It is difficult to over-state the importance of plant pigments in biology. Chlorophylls are arguably the most important organic compounds on earth, as they are required for photosynthesis. Carotenoids are also necessary for the survival of both plants and mammals, through their roles in photosynthesis and nutrition, respectively. The other plant pigment groups, such as flavonoids and betalains, have important roles in both the biology of plants and the organisms with which plants interact. This book provides an overview of pigment chemistry and biology, together with an up-to-date account of the biosynthesis of pigments and the modification of their production using biotechnology. The chapters cover a wide scope of pigmentation research - from the importance of structural diversity in generating the range of colours seen in plants, through to improving human health properties of crops by increasing pigment levels in transgenic plants. The volume is directed at researchers and professionals in plant biochemistry, molecular biology and genetics.
Author: Kevin Davies
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Interest in obtaining biologically active compounds from natural sources has recently spiked due to their low toxicity, complete biodegradability, availability from renewable sources, and in most cases, low cost. Taking an interdisciplinary approach, Bioactive Compounds from Natural Sources: Isolation, Characterization, and Biological Properties covers general methods and main topics in the research field of bioactive natural products. The book describes general screening methods, modern HPLC hyphenated techniques, and NMR methods in the structural elucidation of compounds and devotes individual chapters to specific topics of research. Surveys on compounds displaying important pharmacological activities are presented in chapters devoted to Mexican medicinal plants, anti-tumor drugs of natural origin, cancer chemopreventive flavonoids, and metabolites displaying anti-HIV, antioxidative, antimalarial, and anti-inflammatory activity. The final chapters are devoted to representative examples of research into marine metabolites: immunomodulating marine glycolipids and surveys of bioactive compounds from marine opisthobranchs and Japanese soft corals. With its focus on modern approaches to the isolation of biologically active natural products, this book encourages interdisciplinary work among chemists, pharmacologists, biologists, botanists, and agronomists with an interest in bioactive natural products.
Isolation, Characterization and Biological Properties
Author: Corrado Tringali
Publisher: CRC Press
The main purpose of this book is to discuss cutting-edge research techniques in the field of biologically active compounds derived from plants and foods, and in particular to describe advanced instrumental methods for the identification and quantification of these important compounds. Natural products are used worldwide to prevent and treat various diseases. The efficacy and safety of natural products require the development and application of reliable analytical methods to regulate and control usage. Because of their complex chemical compositions, natural products often require separation techniques for reliable analysis of their constituents. This book provides an integrated approach to address the separation, identification, quantification and chemistry of natural products for their analysis through various instrumental analyses. This book is divided into four sections: 1) Sample Preparation, Separation and Identification 2) Identification by LC-MS and LC-NMR 3) Identification by GC, GC-MS, LC-GC and Spectroscopic Methods and 4). Metabolomic Fingerprinting. The first section covers sample preparation, extraction and rapid flash separation techniques, rapid LC analysis with bioassays and hyphenations to identify active constituents. The second section covers chromatographic separation by LC for active constituents, identification by mass spectra, and LC-NMR for the characterization of specific constituents. The third section covers separation of volatile constituents by GC and GC-MS. In recent years, analysis of volatiles using headspace has become more sensitive and popular, as it does not alter the original composition of volatile chemicals. The fourth section focuses on metabolic fingerprinting techniques. Metabolomics involves the study of small molecules from cells, plants, foods, tissues, organisms, or other biological tissues. Metabolic fingerprinting compares patterns, also called signatures or fingerprints of metabolites; these patterns change in response to external stimuli either in different plant varieties or species, or in response to adulteration, toxins, drug exposure, environmental or genetic alterations. This book comprehensively provides a current review that will be useful for scientists, researchers, teachers, and engineers in general, and is particularly useful for chemists, biochemists, chemical engineers, biochemical engineers, and others in chemistry-related fields.
Author: Guddadarangavvanahally K. Jayprakasha,Federica Pellati,American Chemical Society, Division of Agricultural and Food Chemistry Staff
Publisher: American Chemical Society
Advances in the flavonoid field have been nothing short of spectacular over the last 20 years. While the medical field has noticed flavonoids for their potential antioxidant, anticancer and cardioprotectant characteristics, growers and processors in plant sciences have utilized flavonoid biosynthesis and the genetic manipulation of the flavonoid pathway in plants to improve the nutritional and ornamental value of crops. Flavonoids: Chemistry, Biochemistry and Applications covers each class of flavonoid and presents the historic advances made in flavonoid research since the 1994 publication of an earlier text, Flavonoids Advances in Research Since 1986. This book details the analytical techniques scientists have used to achieve an improved understanding of flavonoid structures and functions as well as advances in the genetic manipulation of the flavonoid pathway, and the discovery of many new flavonoids. It indicates which techniques are best suited for the isolation and structure determination of flavonoids and whether the structures are novel. While explaining how to evaluate the flavonoid content in food and beverages, the book reveals the biotechnological advances that have allowed nutritionists and plant physiologists to assess the possible effects of flavonoids. As interest regarding the impact and health benefits of flavonoids continues to grow, Flavonoids: Chemistry, Biochemistry and Applications reflects the continuing commitment of flavonoid researchers to the improvement of human health and provides the most comprehensive, up-to-date source of information for all known flavonoids.
Chemistry, Biochemistry and Applications
Author: Oyvind M. Andersen,Kenneth R. Markham
Publisher: CRC Press
The past few years have witnessed increasing research in the applications of flavonoids as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals as well as on their roles as signal molecules within plants and between plants and other organisms. This book provides an overview of the science of flavonoids in plants, detailing both research and applications. It first introduces flavonoids as chemical entities and then presents an overview of the tools currently available for their analysis.
Author: Erich Grotewold
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Author: Kirsten Jean Skogerson
Public Health Microbiology: Methods and Protocols is focused on microorganisms that can present a hazard to human health in the course of everyday life. There are chapters dealing with organisms that are directly pathogenic to humans, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi; on organisms that produce toxins during growth in their natural habitats; on the use of bacteriocins produced by such organisms as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria; as well as several chapters on hazard analysis, the use of disinfectants, microbiological analysis of cosmetics, and microbiological tests for sanitation equipment in food factories. Additional chapters look at the use of animals (mice) in the study of the various characteristics of milk and their relationships with lactic acid bacteria in particular. Other chapters focus on special methods for determining particular components of milk. In particular, in Parts I and II, on bacterial and viral pathogens, special attention is given to methods for PCR detection of genes with resistance to tetracycline, as well as to Salmonella enterica; for identification and typing of Campylobacter coli; for detection of the abundance of enteric viruses, hepatitis A virus, and rotaviruses in sewage, and of bacteriophages infecting the O157:H7 strain of Escherichia coli. Part III offers methods for computerized analysis and typing of fungal isolates, for isolation and enumeration of fungi in foods, and for the determination of aflatoxin and zearalenone.
Methods and Protocols
Author: John F. T. Spencer,Alicia L. Ragout de Spencer
Publisher: Humana Press
The flavonoids, one of the most numerous and widespread groups of natural constituents, are important to man not only because they contribute to plant colour but also because many members (e.g. coumestrol, phloridzin, rotenone) are physiologically active. Nearly two thousand substances have been described and as a group they are universally distributed among vascular plants. Although the anthocyanins have an undisputed function as plant pigments, the raison d'etre for the more widely distributed colourless flavones and flavonols still remains a mystery. It is perhaps the challenge of discovering these yet undisc10sed functions which has caused the considerable resurgence of interest in flavonoids during the last decade. This book attempts to summarize progress that has been made in the study of these constituents since the first comprehensive monograph on the chemistry of the flavonoid compounds was published, under the editorship of T. A. Geissman, in 1962. The present volume is divided into three parts. The first section (Chapters 1-4) deals with advances in chemistry, the main emphasis being on spectral techniques to take into account the re cent successful applications of NMR and mass spectral measurements to structural identifications. Recent developments in isolation techniques and in synthesis are also covered in this section. Advances in chemical knowledge of individual c1asses of flavonoid are mentioned inter aha in later chapters of the book.
Author: Jeffrey B. Harborne,Helga Marby,T. J. Marby
Author: Andrew G. Stephenson,Teh-hui Kao,Pennsylvania State University. Intercollege Graduate Program in Plant Physiology
Category: Plant physiology
Plants and plant-derived compounds and drugs are becoming more and more popular with increasing numbers of scientists researching plant analysis. The quality control of herbal drugs is also becoming essential to avoid severe health problems, and in the future many more new drugs will be developed from plant sources. This three-volume Handbook, featuring 47 detailed review articles, is unique as it deals with chemical and biological methodologies for plant analysis. It presents the most important and most accurate methods which are available for plant analysis. This comprehensive work is divided into six sections as follows: Sample preparation and identification – discussing plant selection and collection, followed by extraction and sample preparation methodologies. Extraction and sample preparation methodologies Instrumentation for chemical analysis - several instrumentations for chemical plant analysis are presented with an emphasis on hyphenated techniques, e.g. the coupling between HPLC and mass spectroscometry, and HPLC with NMR. Strategies for selective classes of compounds – coverage of the most interesting classes of compounds such as polysaccharides, saponins, cardiotonic glycosides, alkaloids, terpenoids, lipids, volatile compounds and polyphenols ( flavonoids, xanthones, coumarins, naphthoquinones, anthraquinones, proanthocyanidins, etc.). Biological Analysis - includes phenotyping, DNA barcoding techniques, transcriptome analysis , microarray, metabolomics and proteomics. Drugs from Plants – covers the screening of plant extracts and strategies for the quick discovery of novel bioactive natural products. Safety assessment of herbal drugs is highly dependent on outstanding chromatographic and spectroscopic methods which are also featured here. This Handbook introduces to scientists involved in plant studies the current knowledge of methodologies in various fields of chemically- and biochemically-related topics in plant research. The content from this Handbook will publish online within the Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry via Wiley Online Library: http://www.wileyonlinelibrary.com/ref/eac Benefit from the introductory offer, valid until 30 November 2014! Introductory price: £425.00 / $695.00 / €550.00 List price thereafter: £495.00 / $795.00 / €640.00
Author: Shilin Chen,Andrew Marston,Hermann Stuppner
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
I. Improvement of transgenic alfalfa by backcrossing : II. Breeding alfalfa for increased anthocyanin production
Author: Malgre Carreño Micallef
This fully updated edition of the bestselling three-part Methods in Enzymology series, Guide to Yeast Genetics and Molecular Cell Biology is specifically designed to meet the needs of graduate students, postdoctoral students, and researchers by providing all the up-to-date methods necessary to study genes in yeast. Procedures are included that enable newcomers to set up a yeast laboratory and to master basic manipulations. This volume serves as an essential reference for any beginning or experienced researcher in the field. Provides up-to-date methods necessary to study genes in yeast. Includes proceedures that enable newcomers to set up a yeast laboratory and to master basic manipulations. This volume serves as an essential reference for any beginning or experienced researcher in the field.
Publisher: Academic Press
This is the newest title in the successful Molecular Plant Biology Handbook Series. Just like the other titles in the series this new book presents an excellent overview of different approaches and techniques in Metabolomics. Contributors are either from ivy-league research institutions or from companies developing new technologies in this dynamic and fast-growing field. With its approach to introduce current techniques in plant metabolomics to a wider audience and with many labs and companies considering to introduce metabolomics for their research, the title meets a growing market. The Kahl books are in addition a trusted brand for the plant science community and have always sold above expectations.
Author: Wolfram Weckwerth,Guenter Kahl
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons