Supervised sequence labelling is a vital area of machine learning, encompassing tasks such as speech, handwriting and gesture recognition, protein secondary structure prediction and part-of-speech tagging. Recurrent neural networks are powerful sequence learning tools—robust to input noise and distortion, able to exploit long-range contextual information—that would seem ideally suited to such problems. However their role in large-scale sequence labelling systems has so far been auxiliary. The goal of this book is a complete framework for classifying and transcribing sequential data with recurrent neural networks only. Three main innovations are introduced in order to realise this goal. Firstly, the connectionist temporal classification output layer allows the framework to be trained with unsegmented target sequences, such as phoneme-level speech transcriptions; this is in contrast to previous connectionist approaches, which were dependent on error-prone prior segmentation. Secondly, multidimensional recurrent neural networks extend the framework in a natural way to data with more than one spatio-temporal dimension, such as images and videos. Thirdly, the use of hierarchical subsampling makes it feasible to apply the framework to very large or high resolution sequences, such as raw audio or video. Experimental validation is provided by state-of-the-art results in speech and handwriting recognition.
Author: Alex Graves
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
New technologies in engineering, physics and biomedicine are demanding increasingly complex methods of digital signal processing. By presenting the latest research work the authors demonstrate how real-time recurrent neural networks (RNNs) can be implemented to expand the range of traditional signal processing techniques and to help combat the problem of prediction. Within this text neural networks are considered as massively interconnected nonlinear adaptive filters. ? Analyses the relationships between RNNs and various nonlinear models and filters, and introduces spatio-temporal architectures together with the concepts of modularity and nesting ? Examines stability and relaxation within RNNs ? Presents on-line learning algorithms for nonlinear adaptive filters and introduces new paradigms which exploit the concepts of a priori and a posteriori errors, data-reusing adaptation, and normalisation ? Studies convergence and stability of on-line learning algorithms based upon optimisation techniques such as contraction mapping and fixed point iteration ? Describes strategies for the exploitation of inherent relationships between parameters in RNNs ? Discusses practical issues such as predictability and nonlinearity detecting and includes several practical applications in areas such as air pollutant modelling and prediction, attractor discovery and chaos, ECG signal processing, and speech processing Recurrent Neural Networks for Prediction offers a new insight into the learning algorithms, architectures and stability of recurrent neural networks and, consequently, will have instant appeal. It provides an extensive background for researchers, academics and postgraduates enabling them to apply such networks in new applications. VISIT OUR COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY WEBSITE! http://www.wiley.co.uk/commstech/ VISIT OUR WEB PAGE! http://www.wiley.co.uk/
Learning Algorithms, Architectures and Stability
Author: Danilo P. Mandic,Jonathon Chambers
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons Incorporated
This monograph presents selected areas of application of pattern recognition and classification approaches including handwriting recognition, medical image analysis and interpretation, development of cognitive systems for image computer understanding, moving object detection, advanced image filtration and intelligent multi-object labelling and classification. It is directed to the scientists, application engineers, professors, professors and students will find this book useful.
Author: Marek R. Ogiela,Lakhmi C. Jain
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 16th Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Medicine, AIME 2017, held in Vienna, Austria, in June 2017. The 21 revised full and 23 short papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 113 submissions. The papers are organized in the following topical sections: ontologies and knowledge representation; Bayesian methods; temporal methods; natural language processing; health care processes; and machine learning, and a section with demo papers.
16th Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Medicine, AIME 2017, Vienna, Austria, June 21-24, 2017, Proceedings
Author: Annette ten Teije,Christian Popow,John H. Holmes,Lucia Sacchi
The two-volume set LNAI 10245 and LNAI 10246 constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Soft Computing, ICAISC 2017, held in Zakopane, Poland in June 2017. The 133 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 274 submissions. The papers included in the first volume are organized in the following five parts: neural networks and their applications; fuzzy systems and their applications; evolutionary algorithms and their applications; computer vision, image and speech analysis; and bioinformatics, biometrics and medical applications.
16th International Conference, ICAISC 2017, Zakopane, Poland, June 11-15, 2017, Proceedings
Author: Leszek Rutkowski,Marcin Korytkowski,Rafał Scherer,Ryszard Tadeusiewicz,Lotfi A. Zadeh,Jacek M. Zurada
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, AIED 2017, held in Wuhan, China, in June/July 2017. The 36 revised full papers presented together with 4 keynotes, 37 poster, presentations, 4 doctoral consortium papers, 5 industry papers, 4 workshop abstracts, and 2 tutorial abstracts were carefully reviewed and selected from 159 submissions. The conference provides opportunities for the cross-fertilization of approaches, techniques and ideas from the many fields that comprise AIED, including computer science, cognitive and learning sciences, education, game design, psychology, sociology, linguistics as well as many domain-specific areas.
18th International Conference, AIED 2017, Wuhan, China, June 28 – July 1, 2017, Proceedings
Author: Elisabeth André,Ryan Baker,Xiangen Hu,Ma. Mercedes T. Rodrigo,Benedict du Boulay
Spoken language understanding (SLU) is an emerging field in between speech and language processing, investigating human/ machine and human/ human communication by leveraging technologies from signal processing, pattern recognition, machine learning and artificial intelligence. SLU systems are designed to extract the meaning from speech utterances and its applications are vast, from voice search in mobile devices to meeting summarization, attracting interest from both commercial and academic sectors. Both human/machine and human/human communications can benefit from the application of SLU, using differing tasks and approaches to better understand and utilize such communications. This book covers the state-of-the-art approaches for the most popular SLU tasks with chapters written by well-known researchers in the respective fields. Key features include: Presents a fully integrated view of the two distinct disciplines of speech processing and language processing for SLU tasks. Defines what is possible today for SLU as an enabling technology for enterprise (e.g., customer care centers or company meetings), and consumer (e.g., entertainment, mobile, car, robot, or smart environments) applications and outlines the key research areas. Provides a unique source of distilled information on methods for computer modeling of semantic information in human/machine and human/human conversations. This book can be successfully used for graduate courses in electronics engineering, computer science or computational linguistics. Moreover, technologists interested in processing spoken communications will find it a useful source of collated information of the topic drawn from the two distinct disciplines of speech processing and language processing under the new area of SLU.
Systems for Extracting Semantic Information from Speech
Author: Gokhan Tur,Renato De Mori
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Theoretical results suggest that in order to learn the kind of complicated functions that can represent high-level abstractions (e.g. in vision, language, and other AI-level tasks), one may need deep architectures. Deep architectures are composed of multiple levels of non-linear operations, such as in neural nets with many hidden layers or in complicated propositional formulae re-using many sub-formulae. Searching the parameter space of deep architectures is a difficult task, but learning algorithms such as those for Deep Belief Networks have recently been proposed to tackle this problem with notable success, beating the state-of-the-art in certain areas. This paper discusses the motivations and principles regarding learning algorithms for deep architectures, in particular those exploiting as building blocks unsupervised learning of single-layer models such as Restricted Boltzmann Machines, used to construct deeper models such as Deep Belief Networks.
Author: Yoshua Bengio
Publisher: Now Publishers Inc
Deep learning is providing exciting solutions for medical image analysis problems and is seen as a key method for future applications. This book gives a clear understanding of the principles and methods of neural network and deep learning concepts, showing how the algorithms that integrate deep learning as a core component have been applied to medical image detection, segmentation and registration, and computer-aided analysis, using a wide variety of application areas. Deep Learning for Medical Image Analysis is a great learning resource for academic and industry researchers in medical imaging analysis, and for graduate students taking courses on machine learning and deep learning for computer vision and medical image computing and analysis. Covers common research problems in medical image analysis and their challenges Describes deep learning methods and the theories behind approaches for medical image analysis Teaches how algorithms are applied to a broad range of application areas, including Chest X-ray, breast CAD, lung and chest, microscopy and pathology, etc. Includes a Foreword written by Nicholas Ayache
Author: S. Kevin Zhou,Hayit Greenspan,Dinggang Shen
Publisher: Academic Press
Category: Technology & Engineering
The book presents a comprehensive and up-to-date review of fuzzy pattern recognition. It carefully discusses a range of methodological and algorithmic issues, as well as implementations and case studies, and identifies the best design practices, assesses business models and practices of pattern recognition in real-world applications in industry, health care, administration, and business. Since the inception of fuzzy sets, fuzzy pattern recognition with its methodology, algorithms, and applications, has offered new insights into the principles and practice of pattern classification. Computational intelligence (CI) establishes a comprehensive framework aimed at fostering the paradigm of pattern recognition. The collection of contributions included in this book offers a representative overview of the advances in the area, with timely, in-depth and comprehensive material on the conceptually appealing and practically sound methodology and practices of CI-based pattern recognition.
Author: Witold Pedrycz,Shyi-Ming Chen
Electrical Engineering A Field Guide to Dynamical Recurrent Networks Acquire the tools for understanding new architectures and algorithms of dynamical recurrent networks (DRNs) from this valuable field guide, which documents recent forays into artificial intelligence, control theory, and connectionism. This unbiased introduction to DRNs and their application to time-series problems (such as classification and prediction) provides a comprehensive overview of the recent explosion of leading research in this prolific field. A Field Guide to Dynamical Recurrent Networks emphasizes the issues driving the development of this class of network structures. It provides a solid foundation in DRN systems theory and practice using consistent notation and terminology. Theoretical presentations are supplemented with applications ranging from cognitive modeling to financial forecasting. A Field Guide to Dynamical Recurrent Networks will enable engineers, research scientists, academics, and graduate students to apply DRNs to various real-world problems and learn about different areas of active research. It provides both state-of-the-art information and a road map to the future of cutting-edge dynamical recurrent networks.
Author: John F. Kolen,Stefan C. Kremer
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Neural networks are a family of powerful machine learning models. This book focuses on the application of neural network models to natural language data. The first half of the book (Parts I and II) covers the basics of supervised machine learning and feed-forward neural networks, the basics of working with machine learning over language data, and the use of vector-based rather than symbolic representations for words. It also covers the computation-graph abstraction, which allows to easily define and train arbitrary neural networks, and is the basis behind the design of contemporary neural network software libraries. The second part of the book (Parts III and IV) introduces more specialized neural network architectures, including 1D convolutional neural networks, recurrent neural networks, conditioned-generation models, and attention-based models. These architectures and techniques are the driving force behind state-of-the-art algorithms for machine translation, syntactic parsing, and many other applications. Finally, we also discuss tree-shaped networks, structured prediction, and the prospects of multi-task learning.
Author: Yoav Goldberg
Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers
Folding networks, a generalisation of recurrent neural networks to tree structured inputs, are investigated as a mechanism to learn regularities on classical symbolic data, for example. The architecture, the training mechanism, and several applications in different areas are explained. Afterwards a theoretical foundation, proving that the approach is appropriate as a learning mechanism in principle, is presented: Their universal approximation ability is investigated- including several new results for standard recurrent neural networks such as explicit bounds on the required number of neurons and the super Turing capability of sigmoidal recurrent networks. The information theoretical learnability is examined - including several contribution to distribution dependent learnability, an answer to an open question posed by Vidyasagar, and a generalisation of the recent luckiness framework to function classes. Finally, the complexity of training is considered - including new results on the loading problem for standard feedforward networks with an arbitrary multilayered architecture, a correlated number of neurons and training set size, a varying number of hidden neurons but fixed input dimension, or the sigmoidal activation function, respectively.
Author: Barbara Hammer
Category: Technology & Engineering
Provides an overview of general deep learning methodology and its applications to a variety of signal and information processing tasks
Methods and Applications
Author: Li Deng,Dong Yu
Category: Machine learning
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Speech and Computer, SPECOM 2014, held in Novi Sad, Serbia. The 56 revised full papers presented together with 3 invited talks were carefully reviewed and selected from 100 initial submissions. It is a conference with long tradition that attracts researchers in the area of computer speech processing (recognition, synthesis, understanding etc.) and related domains (including signal processing, language and text processing, multi-modal speech processing or human-computer interaction for instance).
16th International Conference, SPECOM 2014, Novi Sad, Serbia, October 5-9, 2014. Proceedings
Author: Andrey Ronzhin,Rodmonga Potapova,Delic Vlado
"Written by three experts in the field, Deep Learning is the only comprehensive book on the subject." -- Elon Musk, cochair of OpenAI; cofounder and CEO of Tesla and SpaceX Deep learning is a form of machine learning that enables computers to learn from experience and understand the world in terms of a hierarchy of concepts. Because the computer gathers knowledge from experience, there is no need for a human computer operator to formally specify all the knowledge that the computer needs. The hierarchy of concepts allows the computer to learn complicated concepts by building them out of simpler ones; a graph of these hierarchies would be many layers deep. This book introduces a broad range of topics in deep learning. The text offers mathematical and conceptual background, covering relevant concepts in linear algebra, probability theory and information theory, numerical computation, and machine learning. It describes deep learning techniques used by practitioners in industry, including deep feedforward networks, regularization, optimization algorithms, convolutional networks, sequence modeling, and practical methodology; and it surveys such applications as natural language processing, speech recognition, computer vision, online recommendation systems, bioinformatics, and videogames. Finally, the book offers research perspectives, covering such theoretical topics as linear factor models, autoencoders, representation learning, structured probabilistic models, Monte Carlo methods, the partition function, approximate inference, and deep generative models. Deep Learning can be used by undergraduate or graduate students planning careers in either industry or research, and by software engineers who want to begin using deep learning in their products or platforms. A website offers supplementary material for both readers and instructors.
Author: Ian Goodfellow,Yoshua Bengio,Aaron Courville
Publisher: MIT Press
Sequential behavior is essential to intelligence in general and a fundamental part of human activities, ranging from reasoning to language, and from everyday skills to complex problem solving. Sequence learning is an important component of learning in many tasks and application fields: planning, reasoning, robotics natural language processing, speech recognition, adaptive control, time series prediction, financial engineering, DNA sequencing, and so on. This book presents coherently integrated chapters by leading authorities and assesses the state of the art in sequence learning by introducing essential models and algorithms and by examining a variety of applications. The book offers topical sections on sequence clustering and learning with Markov models, sequence prediction and recognition with neural networks, sequence discovery with symbolic methods, sequential decision making, biologically inspired sequence learning models.
Paradigms, Algorithms, and Applications
Author: Ron Sun,C.Lee Giles
With existent uses ranging from motion detection to music synthesis to financial forecasting, recurrent neural networks have generated widespread attention. The tremendous interest in these networks drives Recurrent Neural Networks: Design and Applications, a summary of the design, applications, current research, and challenges of this subfield of artificial neural networks. This overview incorporates every aspect of recurrent neural networks. It outlines the wide variety of complex learning techniques and associated research projects. Each chapter addresses architectures, from fully connected to partially connected, including recurrent multilayer feedforward. It presents problems involving trajectories, control systems, and robotics, as well as RNN use in chaotic systems. The authors also share their expert knowledge of ideas for alternate designs and advances in theoretical aspects. The dynamical behavior of recurrent neural networks is useful for solving problems in science, engineering, and business. This approach will yield huge advances in the coming years. Recurrent Neural Networks illuminates the opportunities and provides you with a broad view of the current events in this rich field.
Design and Applications
Author: Larry Medsker,Lakhmi C. Jain
Publisher: CRC Press