The Struggle for Black Equality

Author: Harvard Sitkoff

Publisher: Hill and Wang

ISBN: 1429991917

Category: Political Science

Page: 304

View: 2318

The Struggle for Black Equality is a dramatic, memorable history of the civil rights movement. Harvard Sitkoff offers both a brilliant interpretation of the personalities and dynamics of civil rights organizations and a compelling analysis of the continuing problems plaguing many African Americans. With a new foreword and afterword, and an up-to-date bibliography, this anniversary edition highlights the continuing significance of the movement for black equality and justice.
Posted in Political Science

The Bystander

John F. Kennedy and the Struggle for Black Equality

Author: Nick Bryant

Publisher: Basic Books (AZ)

ISBN: 9780465008278

Category: Political Science

Page: 545

View: 5302

Traces the history of John F. Kennedy's civil rights record, arguing that his erratic handling of the issue led to his failure to enact genuine reform and to an increasingly violent battle over civil rights in the streets.
Posted in Political Science

The Struggle for Black Equality, 1954-1992

Author: Harvard Sitkoff,Eric Foner

Publisher: Macmillan

ISBN: 9780374523565

Category: Social Science

Page: 258

View: 8410

A new edition of the classic history of the struggle for black equality discusses Reaganomics, white backlash, and other pressing issues for blacks living in America.
Posted in Social Science

Divided We Stand

American Workers and the Struggle for Black Equality

Author: Bruce Nelson

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691095349

Category: History

Page: 388

View: 3651

Divided We Stand is a study of how class and race have intersected in American society--above all, in the "making" and remaking of the American working class in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Focusing mainly on longshoremen in the ports of New York, New Orleans, and Los Angeles, and on steelworkers in many of the nation's steel towns, it examines how European immigrants became American and "white" in the crucible of the industrial workplace and the ethnic and working-class neighborhood. As workers organized on the job, especially during the overlapping CIO and civil rights eras in the middle third of the twentieth century, trade unions became a vital arena in which "old" and "new" immigrants and black migrants forged new alliances and identities and tested the limits not only of class solidarity but of American democracy. The most volatile force in this regard was the civil rights movement. As it crested in the 1950s and '60s, "the Movement" confronted unions anew with the question, "Which side are you on?" This book demonstrates the complex ways in which labor organizations answered that question and the complex relationships between union leaders and diverse rank-and-file constituencies in addressing it. Divided We Stand includes vivid examples of white working-class "agency" in the construction of racially discriminatory employment structures. But Nelson is less concerned with racism as such than with the concrete historical circumstances in which racialized class identities emerged and developed. This leads him to a detailed and often fascinating consideration of white, working-class ethnicity but also to a careful analysis of black workers--their conditions of work, their aspirations and identities, their struggles for equality. Making its case with passion and clarity, Divided We Stand will be a compelling and controversial book.
Posted in History

Our Minds on Freedom

Women and the Struggle for Black Equality in Louisiana, 1924-1967

Author: Shannon Frystak

Publisher: LSU Press

ISBN: 9780807136621

Category: History

Page: 280

View: 3586

Traditionally, literature on the civil rights movement has highlighted the leadership of ministerial men and young black revolutionaries like the Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., Stokely Carmichael, and Malcolm X. Though recent studies have begun to explore female participation in the struggle for racial justice, women have generally been relegated to the margins of civil rights history. In Our Minds on Freedom, Shannon Frystak explores the organizational and leadership roles female civil rights activists in Louisiana assumed from the 1920s to the 1960s, highlighting a diverse group of courageous women who fought alongside their brothers and fathers, uncles and cousins, to achieve a more racially just Louisiana. From the Depression through World War II and the postwar years, Frystak shows, black women joined and led local unions and civil rights organizations, agitating for voting rights and equal treatment in the public arena, in employment, and in admission to Louisiana's institutions of higher learning. At the same time, black women and white women began to find common ground in organizations such as the YWCA, the NAACP, and the National Urban League. Frystak explores how women of both races worked together to organize the 1953 Baton Rouge bus boycott, which served as inspiration for the more famous Montgomery bus boycott two years later;in the day-to-day struggle to alter the system of unequal education throughout the state; and in the fight to integrate New Orleans schools after the 1954 Brown decision. In the early 1960s, a new generation of female activists joined their older female counterparts to work with organizations such as the NAACP, the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), and a number of local grassroots civil rights organizations. Frystak vividly describes the very real dangers they faced canvassing for voter registration in Louisiana's rural areas, teaching in Freedom Schools, and hosting out-of-town civil rights workers in their homes. As Frystak shows, the civil rights movement allowed women to step out of their socially prescribed roles as wives, mothers, and daughters and become significant actors, indeed leaders, in a social movement structure largely dominated by men. Our Minds on Freedom is a welcome addition to the literature of the civil rights movement and will intrigue those interested in African American history, women's history, Louisiana, or the U.S. South.
Posted in History

Brotherhoods of Color

Black Railroad Workers and the Struggle for Equality

Author: Eric ARNESEN,Eric Arnesen

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674020286

Category: Social Science

Page: 352

View: 8088

From the time the first tracks were laid in the early nineteenth century, the railroad has occupied a crucial place in America's historical imagination. Now, for the first time, Eric Arnesen gives us an untold piece of that vital American institution--the story of African Americans on the railroad. African Americans have been a part of the railroad from its inception, but today they are largely remembered as Pullman porters and track layers. The real history is far richer, a tale of endless struggle, perseverance, and partial victory. In a sweeping narrative, Arnesen re-creates the heroic efforts by black locomotive firemen, brakemen, porters, dining car waiters, and redcaps to fight a pervasive system of racism and job discrimination fostered by their employers, white co-workers, and the unions that legally represented them even while barring them from membership. Decades before the rise of the modern civil rights movement in the mid-1950s, black railroaders forged their own brand of civil rights activism, organizing their own associations, challenging white trade unions, and pursuing legal redress through state and federal courts. In recapturing black railroaders' voices, aspirations, and challenges, Arnesen helps to recast the history of black protest and American labor in the twentieth century. Table of Contents: Prologue 1. Race in the First Century of American Railroading 2. Promise and Failure in the World War I Era 3. The Black Wedge of Civil Rights Unionism 4. Independent Black Unionism in Depression and War 5. The Rise of the Red Caps 6. The Politics of Fair Employment 7. The Politics of Fair Representation 8. Black Railroaders in the Modern Era Conclusion Notes Acknowledgments Index Reviews of this book: In this superbly written monograph, Arnesen...shows how African American railroad workers combined civil rights and labor union activism in their struggles for racial equality in the workplace...Throughout, black locomotive firemen, porters, yardmen, and other railroaders speak eloquently about the work they performed and their confrontations with racist treatment...This history of the 'aristocrats' of the African American working class is highly recommended. --Charles L. Lumpkins, Library Journal Reviews of this book: Arnesen provides a fascinating look at U.S. labor and commerce in the arena of the railroads, so much a part of romantic notions about the growth of the nation. The focus of the book is the troubled history of the railroads in the exploitation of black workers from slavery until the civil rights movement, with an insightful analysis of the broader racial integration brought about by labor activism. --Vanessa Bush, Booklist Reviews of this book: [An] exhaustive and illuminating work of scholarship. --Publishers Weekly Reviews of this book: Arnesen tells a story that should be of interest to a variety of readers, including those who are avid students of this country's railroads. He knows his stuff, and furthermore, reminds us of how dependent American railroads were on the backbreaking labor of racial and ethnic groups whose civil and political status were precarious at best: Irish, Chinese, Mexicans and Italians, as well as African-Americans. But Arnesen's most powerful and provocative argument is that the nature of discrimination not only led black railroad workers to pursue the path of independent unionism, it also propelled them into the larger struggle for civil rights. --Steven Hahn, Chicago Tribune
Posted in Social Science

Simple Justice

The History of Brown v. Board of Education and Black America's Struggle for Equality

Author: Richard Kluger

Publisher: Vintage

ISBN: 030754608X

Category: Law

Page: 880

View: 414

Simple Justice is the definitive history of the landmark case Brown v. Board of Education and the epic struggle for racial equality in this country. Combining intensive research with original interviews with surviving participants, Richard Kluger provides the fullest possible view of the human and legal drama in the years before 1954, the cumulative assaults on the white power structure that defended segregation, and the step-by-step establishment of a team of inspired black lawyers that could successfully challenge the law. Now, on the fiftieth anniversary of the unanimous Supreme Court decision that ended legal segregation, Kluger has updated his work with a new final chapter covering events and issues that have arisen since the book was first published, including developments in civil rights and recent cases involving affirmative action, which rose directly out of Brown v. Board of Education. From the Trade Paperback edition.
Posted in Law

Black San Francisco

The Struggle for Racial Equality in the West, 1900-1954

Author: Albert S. Broussard

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Social Science

Page: 323

View: 2930

When it came to racial equality in the early twentieth century, Albert S. Broussard argues, the liberal, progressive image of San Francisco was largely a facade. In this book, he challenges the rhetoric of progress and opportunity with evidence of the reality of inequality and shows how black San Franciscans struggled for equality in the same manner as their counterparts in the Midwest and East. Understanding the texture of the racial caste system in the city prior to 1954, he contends, is critical to understanding why blacks made so little progress in employment, housing, and politics despite the absence of segregation laws. Reconstructing the plight of San Francisco's black citizens, Broussard reveals a population that, despite its small size before 1940, did not accept second-class citizenship passively yet remained nonviolent into the 1960s. He also shows how World War II and the defense industry brought thousands of southern black migrants to the bay area. Ultimately, he demonstrates, these newcomers and native black residents formed coalitions with white liberals to attack racial inequality more vigorously and successfully than at any previous time in San Francisco's history.
Posted in Social Science

Democracy Rising

South Carolina and the Fight for Black Equality since 1865

Author: Peter F. Lau

Publisher: University Press of Kentucky

ISBN: 0813159121

Category: History

Page: 360

View: 4975

Considered by many historians to be the birthplace of the Confederacy, South Carolina experienced one of the longest and most turbulent Reconstruction periods of all the southern states. After the Civil War, white supremacist leadership in the state fiercely resisted the efforts of freed slaves to secure full citizenship rights and to remake society based upon an expansive vision of freedom forged in slavery and the crucible of war. Despite numerous obstacles, African Americans achieved remarkable social and political advances in the ten years following the war, including the establishment of the state's first publicly-funded school system and health care for the poor. Through their efforts, the state's political process and social fabric became more democratic. Peter F. Lau traces the civil rights movement in South Carolina from Reconstruction through the early twenty-first century. He stresses that the movement was shaped by local, national, and international circumstances in which individuals worked to redefine and expand the meaning and practice of democracy beyond the borders of their own state. Contrary to recent scholars who separate civil rights claims from general calls for economic justice, Lau asserts that African American demands for civil rights have been inseparable from broader demands for a redistribution of social and economic power. Using the tension between rights possession and rights application as his organizing theme, Lau fundamentally revises our understanding of the civil rights movement in America. In addition to considering South Carolina's pivotal role in the national civil rights movement, Lau offers a comprehensive analysis of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) during the height of its power and influence, from 1910 through the years following Brown v. Board of Education (1954). During this time, the NAACP worked to ensure the rights guaranteed to African Americans by the 14th and 15th amendments and facilitated the emergence of a broad-based movement that included many of the nation's rural and most marginalized people. By examining events that occurred in South Carolina and the impact of the activities of the NAACP, Democracy Rising upends traditional interpretations of the civil rights movement in America. In their place, Lau offers an innovative way to understand the struggle for black equality by tracing the movement of people, institutions, and ideas across boundaries of region, nation, and identity. Ultimately, the book illustrates how conflicts caused by the state's history of racial exclusion and discrimination continue to shape modern society.
Posted in History

Dangerous Liaisons

Blacks, Gays, and the Struggle for Equality

Author: Eric Brandt

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781565844551

Category: Political Science

Page: 312

View: 1827

Dangerous Liaisons provides a platform for the leading minds of both communities - including thinkers who straddle both worlds - to debate the volatile subject of the relationship between African Americans and homosexuals. It includes writing on minority relations by well-known historians, political analysts, activists, writers, and philosophers. They address such timely issues as recent high-profile hate crimes against blacks and gays: racism in gay and lesbian rights organizations; homophobia in the black church; the shift in highest rate-of-infection of HIV from the gay community to the black community; and stereotypes in books and films.
Posted in Political Science

Gateway to Equality

Black Women and the Struggle for Economic Justice in St. Louis

Author: Keona K. Ervin

Publisher: University Press of Kentucky

ISBN: 0813169879

Category: History

Page: 314

View: 3871

Like most of the nation during the 1930s, St. Louis, Missouri, was caught in the stifling grip of the Great Depression. For the next thirty years, the "Gateway City" continued to experience significant urban decline as its population swelled and the area's industries stagnated. Over these decades, many African American citizens in the region found themselves struggling financially and fighting for access to profitable jobs and suitable working conditions. To combat ingrained racism, crippling levels of poverty, and sub-standard living conditions, black women worked together to form a community-based culture of resistance -- fighting for employment, a living wage, dignity, representation, and political leadership. Gateway to Equality investigates black working-class women's struggle for economic justice from the rise of New Deal liberalism in the 1930s to the social upheavals of the 1960s. Author Keona K. Ervin explains that the conditions in twentieth-century St. Louis were uniquely conducive to the rise of this movement since the city's economy was based on light industries that employed women, such as textiles and food processing. As part of the Great Migration, black women migrated to the city at a higher rate than their male counterparts, and labor and black freedom movements relied less on a charismatic, male leadership model. This made it possible for women to emerge as visible and influential leaders in both formal and informal capacities. In this impressive study, Ervin presents a stunning account of the ways in which black working-class women creatively fused racial and economic justice. By illustrating that their politics played an important role in defining urban political agendas, her work sheds light on an unexplored aspect of community activism and illuminates the complexities of the overlapping civil rights and labor movements during the first half of the twentieth century.
Posted in History

Toward Freedom Land

The Long Struggle for Racial Equality in America

Author: Harvard Sitkoff

Publisher: University Press of Kentucky

ISBN: 0813139759

Category: Social Science

Page: 232

View: 3506

The ongoing struggle for civil rights and social justice lies at the heart of America's evolving identity. The pursuit of equal rights is often met with social and political trepidation, forcing citizens and leaders to grapple with controversial issues of race, class, and gender. Renowned scholar Harvard Sitkoff has devoted his life to the study of the civil rights movement, becoming a key figure in global human rights discussions and an authority on American liberalism. Toward Freedom Land assembles Sitkoff 's writings on twentieth-century race relations, representing some of the finest race-related historical research on record. Spanning thirty-five years of Sitkoff 's distingushed career, the collection features an in-depth examination of the Great Depression and its effects on African Americans, the intriguing story of the labor movement and its relationship to African American workers, and a discussion of the effects of World War II on the civil rights movement. His precise analysis illuminates multifaceted racial issues including the New Deal's impact on race relations, the Detroit Riot of 1943, and connections between African Americans, Jews, and the Holocaust.
Posted in Social Science

The struggle for Black equality

Author: Harvard Sitkoff,John Hope Franklin

Publisher: Hill & Wang

ISBN: 9780809089246

Category: History

Page: 286

View: 2166

The Struggle for Black Equality is a dramatic, memorable history of the civil rights movement. Harvard Sitkoff offers both a brilliant interpretation of the personalities and dynamics of civil rights organizations and a compelling analysis of the continuing problems plaguing many African Americans. With a new foreword and afterword, and an up-to-date bibliography, this anniversary edition highlights the continuing significance of the movement for black equality and justice. Harvard Sitkoff, professor of history at the University of New Hampshire, is the author of New Deal for Blacks and editor of Fifty Years Later: The New Deal Evaluted and A History of Our Time. The Struggle for Black Equality is an arresting history of the civil-rights movement—from the pathbreaking Supreme Court decision of 1954, Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, through the growth of strife and conflict in the 1960s to the major issues of the 1990s. Harvard Sitkoff offers not only a brilliant interpretation of the personalities and dynamics of the civil-rights organizations—SNCC, CORE, NAACP, SCLC, and others—but a superb study of the continuing problems plaguing the African American population: the future that in 1980 seemed to hold much promise for a better way of life had by the early 1990s hardly lived up to expectations. Jim Crow has gone, but, fifty years after Brown, poverty, big-city slums, white backlash, politically and socially conservative policies, and prolonged recession have made economic progress for the vast majority of blacks an elusive, perhaps ever more distant goal. "As an introduction to the subject, this book is outstanding . . . The civil rights movement challenges historians to chronicle the transformations that occurred over three decades [and] few have accomplished this task more satisfactorily than Harvard Sitkoff . . . The Struggle for Black Equality stunningly conveys the passion and anguish of the civil rights movement for those too young to remember and to those who prefer not to forget. From Brown to Bakke, Martin Luther King, Jr., to Malcolm X, and Montgomery to Memphis, the author vividly portrays the many currents flowing into the river of black protest—the individual and social, local and national, practical and philosophical. He skillfully charts the ebb and flow of Afro-American militancy alternating between optimism and despair, and concludes that a third Reconstruction must arise to remedy the economic and institutional ills carried over from the past. Readers will not find 'value-free' history in the pages of Sitkoff's book, for the author seeks to engage his audience, hoping to shatter its complacency. In doing so, he refrains from preaching, and while he never equivocates in his judgments, he carefully presents a balanced treatment."—Steven F. Lawson, University of South Florida, The Public Historian "Sitkoff is an excellent storyteller; he captures the drama of events, the calculations, the horror, the unbelievable sadness of struggle."—David Bradley, The Washington Post Book World "First-rate . . . As an introduction to the subject, this book is outstanding . . . The civil rights movement challenges historians to chronicle the transformations that occurred over three decades [and] few have accomplished this task more satisfactorily than Harvard Sitkoff . . . The Struggle for Black Equality stunningly conveys the passion and anguish of the civil rights movement for those too young to remember and to those who prefer not to forget. From Brown to Bakke, Martin Luther King, Jr., to Malcolm X, and Montgomery to Memphis, the author vividly portrays the many currents flowing into the river of black protest—the individual and social, local and national, practical and philosophical. He skillfully charts the ebb and flow of Afro-American militancy alternating between optimism and despair, and concludes that a third Reconstruction must arise to remedy the economic and institutional ills carried over from the past. Readers will not find 'value-free' history in the pages of Sitkoff's book, for the author seeks to engage his audience, hoping to shatter its complacency. In doing so, he refrains from preaching, and while he never equivocates in his judgments, he carefully presents a balanced treatment."—Steven F. Lawson, University of South Florida, The Public Historian "Well-written, logically organized . . . Sitkoff has succeeded admirably in retelling with poignancy and compassion a familiar story. The author has dramatically juxtaposed the resiliency of the freedom fighters against the depravity and violence of white opponents to social change along racial lines. The book will be of immense value to today's college students, especially those who experience difficulty comprehending and appreciating the courage and commitment of freedom fighters who willingly sacrificed jobs, lives, and education in the struggle to win equal justice for all."—Darlene Clark Hine, Purdue University, Georgia Historical Quarterly "Drawing upon a wealth of published primary and secondary sources, Sitkoff fashions a thoughtful synthesis of the people, organizations, and events that constituted the black quest for equal rights in postwar America. His examination of black protest and white reaction in the South, the emergence of Martin Luther King, Jr., and the competitive evolution of the various civil rights groups is especially good . . . The writing is superb . . . Well suited for courses in African American and recent United States history."—Edward Haas, Louisiana State Museum, The Alabama Review "A brief interpretive history of the Civil Rights movement that recaptures the crusading spirit, highlights the historic moments, defines the role of individuals and groups—and generally gives shape, responsible shape, to the course of events from the Brown decision, in 1954, to the assassination of Martin Luther King, in 1968 . . . This is a fine introduction to the movement per se, and the best one around for students."—Kirkus Reviews "Sitkoff, by weaving his narrative around the most dramatic episodes—e.g. the Montgomery bus boycott, the Freedom Rides—has produced an excellent introduction to the subject."—William Thomas Miller, History Department, St. Ambrose College, Davenport, Iowa, Library Journal "Thoughtful, concise [and] well-written . . . Sitkoff offers valuable insights into the sources of strategic events. He explores, for instance, Gandhi's importance to the Greensboro sit-ins of the 1960's; the movement's radical turn in 1963, following Birmingham, as poor blacks entered an essentially middle-class struggle; the late '60s 'malaise' of rights leaders in the face of 'Black Power' demands; and the political considerations behind federal responses to events in the streets."—Publishers Weekly
Posted in History

Local People

The Struggle for Civil Rights in Mississippi

Author: John Dittmer

Publisher: University of Illinois Press

ISBN: 9780252065071

Category: History

Page: 530

View: 6075

Details the Black struggle for civil rights in Mississippi
Posted in History

Eyes Off the Prize

The United Nations and the African American Struggle for Human Rights, 1944-1955

Author: Carol Elaine Anderson

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521531580

Category: History

Page: 302

View: 9912

This book was first published in 2003. As World War II drew to a close and the world awakened to the horror wrought by white supremacists in Nazi Germany, African American leaders, led by the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People), sensed the opportunity to launch an offensive against the conditions of segregation and inequality in America. The 'prize' they sought was not civil rights, but human rights. Only the human rights lexicon, shaped by the Holocaust and articulated by the United Nations, contained the language and the moral power to address not only the political and legal inequality but also the education, health care, housing, and employment needs that haunted the black community. But the onset of the Cold War and rising anti-communism allowed powerful Southerners to cast those rights as Soviet-inspired. Thus the Civil Rights Movement was launched with neither the language nor the mission it needed to truly achieve black equality.
Posted in History

American History, Race and the Struggle for Equality

An Unfinished Journey

Author: Masaki Kawashima

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9811019770

Category: History

Page: 300

View: 4149

Powerfully synthesizing major currents in the field, this book addresses the issue of inequality across American politics and society, using race as a lens for the exploration of major themes in American history. It considers the concept of race as a social construction, against the background of the historical struggles for “fairness” in a society based on the framework of democracy, whose principle is that majority’s consent be necessary for the fulfillment of “justice.” Foregrounding problems of race, capital, and political economy, it particularly examines the connections between race and class, the relationship of slavery and national politics, and the distinctive intellectual framework that Americans have developed to discuss “race.” Offering a detailed account of civil rights legislation, an overview of immigration law and policy, and comprehensive overviews of debates about affirmative action, immigration, and the causes and solutions to racialized urban poverty, this book emphasizes what is distinctive about the United States and offers a unique comparative framework for thinking about America’s racial past.
Posted in History

Dreams and Nightmares

Martin Luther King, Jr., Malcolm X, and the Struggle for Black Equality in America

Author: Britta Waldschmidt-Nelson

Publisher: New Perspectives on the Histor

ISBN: 9780813037233

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 215

View: 5521

One man dreamed of a country united in true racial equality. Another saw this as a nightmare that served only the interest of wealthy whites. Both were sons of Baptist ministers. Both grew up to be icons of the civil rights movement. This book explores Martin Luther King, Jr.'s dream and much more.
Posted in Biography & Autobiography

The Fight of the Century

Jack Johnson, Joe Louis, and the Struggle for Racial Equality

Author: Thomas R. Hietala

Publisher: M.E. Sharpe

ISBN: 9780765607232

Category: Political Science

Page: 390

View: 5617

Examines the symbolic significance of fighters Jack Johnson and Joe Louis during the prejudice and segregation of the 1900s to the 1940s. Explores how they overcame obstacles as important black sports figures. Covers the Johnson-Jeffries 1910 fight, Johnson's Mann Act Trial in 1913, Louis' two fights with Max Schmeling in the 1930s, and Louis' 1942 Army enlistment.
Posted in Political Science

The Struggle for Black Equality, 1954-1992

Author: Harvard Sitkoff,Eric Foner

Publisher: Hill & Wang

ISBN: 9780374523565

Category: Social Science

Page: 258

View: 4453

A new edition of the classic history of the struggle for black equality discusses Reaganomics, white backlash, and other pressing issues for blacks living in America.
Posted in Social Science

The Struggle for Black Equality, 1954-1992

Author: Harvard Sitkoff,Eric Foner

Publisher: Hill & Wang

ISBN: 9780374523565

Category: Social Science

Page: 258

View: 2486

A new edition of the classic history of the struggle for black equality discusses Reaganomics, white backlash, and other pressing issues for blacks living in America.
Posted in Social Science