Stalin's Citizens

Everyday Politics in the Wake of Total War

Author: Sergij Êkelʹčik,Serhy Yekelchyk

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0199378444

Category: History

Page: 270

View: 788

"The first study of the everydayness of political life under Stalin, this book examines Soviet citizenship through common practices of expressing Soviet identity in the public space. The Stalinist state understood citizenship as practice, with participation in a set of political rituals and public display of certain 'civic emotions' serving as the marker of a person's inclusion in the political world. The state's relations with its citizens were structured by rituals of celebration, thanking, and hatred-rites that required both political awareness and a demonstrable emotional response. Soviet functionaries transmitted this obligation to ordinary citizens through the mechanisms of communal authority (workplace committees, volunteer agitators, and other forms of peer pressure) as much as through brutal state coercion. Yet, the population also often imbued these ceremonies--elections, state holidays, parades, mass rallies, subscriptions to state bonds--with different meanings: as a popular fãete, an occasion to get together after work, a chance to purchase goods not available on other days, and even as an opportunity to indulge in some drinking. The people also understood these political rituals as moments of negotiation whereby citizens fulfilling their 'patriotic duty' expected the state to reciprocate by providing essential services and basic social welfare. Nearly-universal passive resistance to required attendance casts doubt on recent theories about the mass internalization of communist ideology and the development of 'Soviet subjectivities.' The book is set in the Ukrainian capital of Kyiv during the last years of World War II and immediate postwar years, the period best demonstrating how formulaic rituals could create space for the people to expresstheir concerns, fears, and prejudices, as well as their eagerness to be viewed as citizens in good standing. By the end of Stalin's rule, a more ossified routine of political participation developed, which persisted until the Soviet Union's collapse"--
Posted in History

Stalin's Outcasts

Aliens, Citizens, and the Soviet State, 1926–1936

Author: Golfo Alexopoulos

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 1501720503

Category: History

Page: 256

View: 2651

"I served not in defense of the bourgeois order, but only for a crumb of bread since I was burdened with five small children." "From 1923 to 1925 I worked as a musician but later my earnings weren't steady and I quickly stopped. Without an income to live on, I was drawn to the nonlaboring path." "As a man almost completely illiterate and therefore not prepared for any kind of work, I was forced to return to my craft as a barber." "I am as ignorant as a pipe." Golfo Alexopoulos focuses on the lishentsy ("outcasts") of the interwar USSR to reveal the defining features of alien and citizen identities under Stalin's rule. Although portrayed as "bourgeois elements," lishentsy actually included a wide variety of people, including prostitutes, gamblers, tax evaders, embezzlers, and ethnic minorities, in particular, Jews. The poor, the weak, and the elderly were frequent targets of disenfranchisement, singled out by officials looking to conserve scarce resources or satisfy their superiors with long lists of discovered enemies. Alexopoulos draws heavily on an untapped resource: an archive in western Siberia that contains over 100,000 individual petitions for reinstatement. Her analysis of these and many other documents concerning "class aliens" shows how Bolshevik leaders defined the body politic and how individuals experienced the Soviet state. Personal narratives with which individuals successfully appealed to officials for reinstatement allow an unusual view into the lives of "outcasts." From Kremlin leaders to marked aliens, many participated in identifying insiders and outsiders and challenging the terms of membership in Stalin's new society.
Posted in History

Bloodlands

Europa zwischen Hitler und Stalin

Author: Timothy Snyder

Publisher: C.H.Beck

ISBN: 3406621856

Category: Political Science

Page: 523

View: 4729

Timothy Snyder nimmt den Leser mit auf eine Reise ins Herz der Finsternis. Er erzählt in seinem aufsehenerregenden, zutiefst aufwühlenden Buch drei miteinander verknüpfte Geschichten Stalins Terrorkampagnen, Hitlers Holocaust und den Hungerkrieg gegen die Kriegsgefangenen und die nichtjüdische Bevölkerung erstmals so, wie sie sich tatsächlich zugetragen haben: zur gleichen Zeit und am gleichen Ort. Makellos recherchiert, atemberaubend geschrieben und von eindringlicher Humanität gehört Bloodlands zu den historischen Büchern, die einen anderen Blick auf die Geschichte des 20. Jahrhunderts eröffnen. Noch bevor der Zweite Weltkrieg begann, hatte Hitlers zeitweiliger Partner und späterer Gegner Stalin bereits Millionen von Menschen umgebracht und setzte dieses Morden während des Krieges fort. Bevor Hitler besiegt war, hatte er sechs Millionen Juden ermorden lassen und ließ Millionen andere Menschen gezielt verhungern. All dies geschah auf einem einzigen Gebiet: den Bloodlands zwischen Russland und Deutschland. Doch als der Zweite Weltkrieg zu Ende war, verschwand die Erinnerung an diesen millionenfachen Mord in der Dunkelheit hinter dem Eisernen Vorhang. Nicht nur unser Bild vom Holocaust erweist sich jedoch mit dem Blick auf die Bloodlands als unvollständig und westlich verzerrt. Auch die Geschichte Europas gewinnt ein verlorenes Terrain im Osten zurück: die gemeinsame Erinnerung an 14 Millionen Tote und die größte Tragödie der modernen Geschichte. "Bloodlands wird für Jahrzehnte das wichtigste Buch zum Thema sein." Tony Judt "Dieses Buch zwingt seine Leser, Geschichte neu zu überdenken." Norman Davies "Ein originelles, wunderbares, furchterregendes Buch (&). Dieses so schön geschriebene und eindrucksvoll recherchierte Buch ist ohne Zweifel eines der wichtigsten Werke der Zeitgeschichte." Anthony Beevor
Posted in Political Science

Das kommunistische Manifest

Author: Karl Marx,Friedrich Engels

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Socialism

Page: 56

View: 5866

Posted in Socialism

Stalin

Eine Biographie

Author: Oleg Chlewnjuk

Publisher: Siedler Verlag

ISBN: 3641153492

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 592

View: 2997

Der Diktator und seine Herrschaft. Ein neuer Blick auf Stalin. Am Morgen des 1. März 1953, kurz nachdem er seinen engsten Führungszirkel verabschiedet hat, erleidet Josef Stalin in seiner Datscha bei Moskau einen Schlaganfall. Wenige Tage später ist er tot. Oleg Chlewnjuk, einer der führenden Stalinismus-Experten, nimmt diese letzten Lebenstage zum Ausgangspunkt einer beeindruckenden Biographie – auf Grundlage bisher unbekannter Quellen aus sowjetischen Archiven eröffnet sie einen neuen Blick auf den Diktator und seine Herrschaft. So spiegelt sich in Stalins letzten Tagen nicht nur der eigentümliche Charakter seines Regimes, auch seine intimste Umgebung gerät ins Blickfeld. Die Phase des Abschieds erschließt zudem eine neue Perspektive auf die wichtigsten Stationen seines Lebens: Kindheit und Jugend in Georgien, der Weg vom jungen Revolutionär zum politischen Führer und grausamen Despoten, der Kampf gegen Nazi-Deutschland, der Beginn des Kalten Krieges. Chlewnjuk durchleuchtet die elitären Machtzirkel des Kremls, die Stalin umgeben – und zeigt damit, wie untrennbar die Person des Diktators mit der Geschichte des sowjetischen Terrors verknüpft ist.
Posted in Biography & Autobiography

Die Flüsterer: Leben in Stalins Russland

Author: Orlando Figes

Publisher: ebook Berlin Verlag

ISBN: 3827070279

Category: History

Page: 1040

View: 2383

Viele Darstellungen behandeln die sichtbaren Aspekte der stalinistischen Diktatur: die Verhaftungen und Prozesse, die Versklavung und das Morden in den Gulags. Kein Buch hat jedoch bislang die Auswirkungen des Regimes auf das Privat- und Familienleben der Menschen untersucht, den ?Stalinismus, der uns alle ergriff", wie es ein russischer Historiker einmal formuliert hat. Auf der Basis von Hunderten Interviews mit Zeitzeugen und zahllosen bislang unbekannten Dokumenten liefert nun Orlando Figes in Die Flüsterer erstmals einen unmittelbaren Einblick in die Innenwelt gewöhnlicher Sowjetbürger und zeigt an zahlreichen eindringlichen Beispielen, wie Einzelne oder Familien in einem von Misstrauen, Angst, Kompromissen und Verrat beherrschten Alltag um ihr Überleben kämpften. Für die Zeit der Revolution von 1917 bis zu Stalins Tod und darüber hinaus rekonstruiert Figes das moralische Gespinst, in dem sich die allermeisten Russen gefangen sahen: Eine einzige falsche Bewegung konnte eine Familie zerstören oder am Ende womöglich deren Rettung bedeuten. Keiner konnte sich sicher fühlen, nicht einmal die überzeugtesten Anhänger des Regimes. Wahrheit und Wahn, Schuld und Unschuld waren in diesem Unterdrückungssystem immer wieder auf fatal miteinander verquickt. Orlando Figes' neues Meisterwerk - in seiner erzählerischen Wucht und Aufrichtigkeit vergleichbar mit Grossmans Jahrhundertroman Leben und Schicksal - ist das breit angelegte Porträt einer Gesellschaft, in der jeder nur noch flüstert - entweder um sich und andere zu schützen oder um zu verraten. Ein ebenso schonungsloser wie ergreifender Bericht davon, wie schwach - und wie unvorstellbar stark - Menschen in einer von Paranoia geprägten totalitären Gesellschaft werden können.
Posted in History

Policing Stalin's Socialism

Repression and Social Order in the Soviet Union, 1924-1953

Author: David R. Shearer

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 0300156227

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 532

View: 441

Policing Stalin's Socialism is one of the first books to emphasize the importance of social order repression by Stalin's Soviet regime in contrast to the traditional emphasis of historians on political repression. Based on extensive examination of new archival materials, David Shearer finds that most repression during the Stalinist dictatorship of the 1930s was against marginal social groups such as petty criminals, deviant youth, sectarians, and the unemployed and unproductive. It was because Soviet leaders regarded social disorder as more of a danger to the state than political opposition that they instituted a new form of class war to defend themselves against this perceived threat. Despite the combined work of the political and civil police the efforts to cleanse society failed; this failure set the stage for the massive purges that decimated the country in the late 1930s.
Posted in Biography & Autobiography

Stalin's Genocides

Author: Norman M. Naimark

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 0691152381

Category: History

Page: 176

View: 6333

Between the early 1930s and his death in 1953, Joseph Stalin had more than a million of his own citizens executed. This book is the chilling story of these crimes. The book puts forward the argument that mass killings under Stalin in the 1930s were indeed acts of genocide and that the Soviet dictator himself was behind them.
Posted in History

A Century of Spies

Intelligence in the Twentieth Century

Author: Jeffery T. Richelson

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199880581

Category: History

Page: 544

View: 5001

Here is the ultimate inside history of twentieth-century intelligence gathering and covert activity. Unrivalled in its scope and as readable as any spy novel, A Century of Spies travels from tsarist Russia and the earliest days of the British Secret Service to the crises and uncertainties of today's post-Cold War world, offering an unsurpassed overview of the role of modern intelligence in every part of the globe. From spies and secret agents to the latest high-tech wizardry in signals and imagery surveillance, it provides fascinating, in-depth coverage of important operations of United States, British, Russian, Israeli, Chinese, German, and French intelligence services, and much more. All the key elements of modern intelligence activity are here. An expert whose books have received high marks from the intelligence and military communities, Jeffrey Richelson covers the crucial role of spy technology from the days of Marconi and the Wright Brothers to today's dazzling array of Space Age satellites, aircraft, and ground stations. He provides vivid portraits of spymasters, spies, and defectors--including Sidney Reilly, Herbert Yardley, Kim Philby, James Angleton, Markus Wolf, Reinhard Gehlen, Vitaly Yurchenko, Jonathan Pollard, and many others. Richelson paints a colorful portrait of World War I's spies and sabateurs, and illuminates the secret maneuvering that helped determine the outcome of the war on land, at sea, and on the diplomatic front; he investigates the enormous importance of intelligence operations in both the European and Pacific theaters in World War II, from the work of Allied and Nazi agents to the "black magic" of U.S. and British code breakers; and he gives us a complete overview of intelligence during the length of the Cold War, from superpower espionage and spy scandals to covert action and secret wars. A final chapter probes the still-evolving role of intelligence work in the new world of disorder and ethnic conflict, from the high-tech wonders of the Gulf War to the surprising involvement of the French government in industrial espionage. Comprehensive, authoritative, and addictively readable, A Century of Spies is filled with new information on a variety of subjects--from the activities of the American Black Chamber in the 1920s to intelligence collection during the Cuban missile crisis to Soviet intelligence and covert action operations. It is an essential volume for anyone interested in military history, espionage and adventure, and world affairs.
Posted in History

Stalin and Europe

Imitation and Domination, 1928-1953

Author: Timothy Snyder,Ray Brandon

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199392595

Category: History

Page: 352

View: 3763

The Soviet Union was the largest state in the twentieth-century world, but its repressive power and terrible ambition were most clearly on display in Europe. Under the leadership of Joseph Stalin, the Soviet Union transformed itself and then all of the European countries with which it came into contact. This volume considers each aspect of the encounter of Stalin with Europe: the attempt to create a kind of European state by accelerating the European model of industrial development in the USSR; mass murder in anticipation of a war against European powers; the actual contact with Europe's greatest power, Nazi Germany, first as ally and then as enemy; four years of war fought chiefly on Soviet territory and bringing untold millions of deaths, including much of the Holocaust; and finally the reestablishment of the Soviet system, not just in prewar territory of the USSR, but in Western Ukraine, Western Belarus, the Baltic States, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria, and East Germany.
Posted in History

Stalin's guerrillas

Soviet partisans in World War II

Author: Kenneth Slepyan

Publisher: Univ Pr of Kansas

ISBN: N.A

Category: History

Page: 409

View: 637

When the Wehrmacht rolled into the Soviet Union in World War II, it got more than it bargained for. Notwithstanding the Red Army's retreat, Soviet citizens fought fiercely against German occupiers, engaging in raids, sabotage, and intelligence gathering--largely without any oversight from Stalin and his iron-fisted rule. Kenneth Slepyan provides an enlightening social and political history of the Soviet partisan movement, a people's army of irregulars fighting behind enemy lines. These insurgents included not only civilians--many of them women--but also stranded Red Army soldiers, national minorities, and even former collaborators. While others have documented the military contributions of the movement, Slepyan is the first to describe it as a social phenomenon and to reveal how its members were both challenged and transformed by the crucible of war. By tracing the movement's origins, internal squabbles, and evolution throughout the war, Slepyan shows that people who suddenly had the autonomy to act on their own came to rethink the Stalinist regime. He assesses how partisan initiative and self-reliance competed with and countered the demands of state control and how social identities influenced relations among partisans, as well as between partisans and Soviet authorities. Slepyan has trapped newly opened Soviet archives, as well as wartime radio broadcasts and Communist Party publications and memoirs, to depict the partisans as agents actively pursuing their own agendas. His book gives us a picture of their day-to-day struggle that was previously unknown to all but those few who personally survived the experience, paying special attention to questions of nationality, ethnicity, andgender to illuminate the sociopolitical relations within this diverse group. Through these varied accounts, he demonstrates that Soviet citizens reinterpreted Stalinism and the Soviet experience in the context of total war. Offering numerous fresh insights into the partisans' multifaceted relationship with the state, Slepyan's book reveals the ways in which the war simultaneously reinforced and undermined both Stalinism and the Soviet system. Ultimately, his study rescues the Soviet partisans from obscurity to depict the complexity of their lives and underscore their vital contributions to the defense of their homeland.
Posted in History

Stalin’s Constitution: Soviet Participatory Politics and the Discussion of the 1936 Draft Constitution

Author: Samantha Lomb

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351759833

Category: History

Page: 178

View: 7242

Upon its adoption in December 1936, Soviet leaders hailed the new so-called Stalin Constitution as the most democratic in the world. Scholars have long scoffed at this claim, noting that the mass repression of 1937–1938 that followed rendered it a hollow document. This study does not address these competing claims, but rather focuses on the six-month long popular discussion of the draft Constitution, which preceded its formal adoption in December 1936. Drawing on rich archival sources, this book uses the discussion of the draft 1936 Constitution to examine discourse between the central state leadership and citizens about the new Soviet social contract, which delineated the roles the state and citizens should play in developing socialism. For the central leadership, mobilizing its citizenry in a variety of state building campaigns was the main goal of the discussion of the draft Constitution. However, the goals of the central leadership at times stood in stark contrast with the people’s expressed interpretation of that social contract. Citizens of the USSR focused on securing rights and privileges, often related to improving their daily lives, from the central government.
Posted in History

Stalin's Holy War

Religion, Nationalism, and Alliance Politics, 1941-1945

Author: Steven Merritt Miner

Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press

ISBN: 0807862126

Category: History

Page: 432

View: 5377

Histories of the USSR during World War II generally portray the Kremlin's restoration of the Russian Orthodox Church as an attempt by an ideologically bankrupt regime to appeal to Russian nationalism in order to counter the mortal threat of Nazism. Here, Steven Merritt Miner argues that this version of events, while not wholly untrue, is incomplete. Using newly opened Soviet-era archives as well as neglected British and American sources, he examines the complex and profound role of religion, especially Russian Orthodoxy, in the policies of Stalin's government during World War II. Miner demonstrates that Stalin decided to restore the Church to prominence not primarily as a means to stoke the fires of Russian nationalism but as a tool for restoring Soviet power to areas that the Red Army recovered from German occupation. The Kremlin also harnessed the Church for propaganda campaigns aimed at convincing the Western Allies that the USSR, far from being a source of religious repression, was a bastion of religious freedom. In his conclusion, Miner explores how Stalin's religious policy helped shape the postwar history of the USSR.
Posted in History

Räume des Schreckens

Gewalt und Gruppenmilitanz in der Ukraine 1905-1933

Author: Felix Schnell

Publisher: Hamburger Edition HIS

ISBN: 3868545581

Category: History

Page: 500

View: 8523

Wie verhalten sich Menschen, wenn der Staat sein Gewaltmonopol nicht durchsetzen kann, wenn gewohnte Ordnungen zusammenbrechen und die Möglichkeit, sich etwas mit Gewalt zu nehmen, eine Option, wenn nicht für jedermann, so doch für viele wird? Wenn also Gewalträume entstehen, in denen nur das Recht des Stärkeren gilt? Felix Schnell untersucht diese Kultur der Gewalt am Beispiel der Ukraine zwischen 1905, dem Jahr der ersten Russischen Revolution, und 1933, als die sowjetische Herrschaft gefestigt und die Kollektivierung der Landwirtschaft abgeschlossen war. Seine Analyse des Gewalthandelns der militanten Banden und ihrer Anführer offenbart, dass für dessen Entstehung weniger politische Ideologien als vielmehr Möglichkeiten und Anforderungen im Ausnahmezustand ausschlaggebend sind. Gewalt, so Schnell, ist viel mehr als ein Instrument, mit dem man tötet, verletzt oder sich fremdes Gut aneignet. Sie folgt eigenen Logiken, ist ein Mittel der Machtdemonstration und Kommunikation innerhalb der militanten Gruppe; sie stiftet Gemeinschaft und Identität und gibt Orientierung im Ungewissen.
Posted in History

Illness and Inhumanity in Stalin's Gulag

Author: Golfo Alexopoulos

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 0300179413

Category:

Page: 328

View: 7173

A new and chilling study of lethal human exploitation in the Soviet forced labor camps, one of the pillars of Stalinist terror In a shocking new study of life and death in Stalin's Gulag, historian Golfo Alexopoulos suggests that Soviet forced labor camps were driven by brutal exploitation and often administered as death camps. The first study to examine the Gulag penal system through the lens of health, medicine, and human exploitation, this extraordinary work draws from previously inaccessible archives to offer a chilling new view of one of the pillars of Stalinist terror.
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Der Gulag

Author: Anne Applebaum

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783442153503

Category:

Page: 732

View: 9339

Posted in

The Oxford Handbook of the History of Communism

Author: S. A. Smith

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191667528

Category: History

Page: 672

View: 5070

The impact of Communism on the twentieth century was massive, equal to that of the two world wars. Until the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, historians knew relatively little about the secretive world of communist states and parties. Since then, the opening of state, party, and diplomatic archives of the former Eastern Bloc has released a flood of new documentation. The thirty-five essays in this Handbook, written by an international team of scholars, draw on this new material to offer a global history of communism in the twentieth century. In contrast to many histories that concentrate on the Soviet Union, The Oxford Handbook of the History of Communism is genuinely global in its coverage, paying particular attention to the Chinese Revolution. It is 'global', too, in the sense that the essays seek to integrate history 'from above' and 'from below', to trace the complex mediations between state and society, and to explore the social and cultural as well as the political and economic realities that shaped the lives of citizens fated to live under communist rule. The essays reflect on the similarities and differences between communist states in order to situate them in their socio-political and cultural contexts and to capture their changing nature over time. Where appropriate, they also reflect on how the fortunes of international communism were shaped by the wider economic, political, and cultural forces of the capitalist world. The Handbook provides an informative introduction for those new to the field and a comprehensive overview of the current state of scholarship for those seeking to deepen their understanding.
Posted in History

Popular Opinion in Stalin's Russia

Terror, Propaganda and Dissent, 1934-1941

Author: N.A

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521566766

Category: History

Page: 236

View: 988

This book is a study of how ordinary Russians experienced life during the 'Great Terror' between 1934 and 1941.
Posted in History

Faschismus

Eine Warnung

Author: Madeleine Albright

Publisher: Dumont Buchverlag

ISBN: 3832184104

Category: Political Science

Page: 320

View: 6044

»Manche mögen dieses Buch und besonders seinen Titel alarmierend finden. Gut!« MADELEINE ALBRIGHT Weltweit kommt es zu einem Wiedererstarken anti-demokratischer, repressiver und zerstörerischer Kräfte. Die ehemalige amerikanische Außenministerin Madeleine Albright zeigt, welche großen Ähnlichkeiten diese mit dem Faschismus des 20. Jahrhunderts haben. Die faschistischen Tendenzen treten wieder in Erscheinung und greifen in Europa, Teilen Asiens und den Vereinigten Staaten um sich. Albrights Familie stammt aus Prag und floh zweimal: zuerst vor den Nationalsozialisten, später vor dem kommunistischen Regime. Auf Grundlage dieser Erlebnisse und der Erfahrungen, die sie im Laufe ihrer diplomatischen Karriere sammelte, zeichnet sie die Gründe für die Rückkehr des Faschismus nach. Sie identifiziert die Faktoren, die zu seinem Aufstieg beitragen und warnt eindringlich vor den Folgen. Doch Madeleine Albright bietet auch klare Lösungsansätze an, etwa die Veränderung der Arbeitsbedingungen und das Verständnis für die Bedürfnisse der Menschen nach Kontinuität und moralischer Beständigkeit. Sie zeigt, dass allein die Demokratie politische und gesellschaftliche Konflikte mit Rationalität und offenen Diskussionen lösen kann.
Posted in Political Science

The Voices of the Dead

Stalin's Great Terror in the 1930s

Author: Hiroaki Kuromiya

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 9780300123890

Category: History

Page: 295

View: 7788

Swept up in the maelstrom of Stalin’s Great Terror of 1937-1938, nearly a million people died. Most were ordinary citizens who left no records and as a result have been completely forgotten. This book is the first to attempt to retrieve their stories and reconstruct their lives, drawing upon recently declassified archives of the former Soviet Secret Police in Kiev. Hiroaki Kuromiya uncovers in the archives the hushed voices of the condemned, and he chronicles the lives of dozens of individuals who shared the same dehumanizing fate: all were falsely arrested, executed, and dumped in mass graves. Kuromiya investigates the truth behind the fabricated records, filling in at least some of the details of the lives and deaths of ballerinas, priests, beggars, teachers, peasants, workers, soldiers, pensioners, homemakers, fugitives, peddlers, ethnic Russians, Ukrainians, Poles, Germans, Koreans, Jews, and others. In recounting the extraordinary stories gleaned from the secret files, Kuromiya not only commemorates the dead and forgotten but also proposes a new interpretation of Soviet society that provides useful insights into the enigma of Stalinist terror.
Posted in History