The Value of Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences to National Priorities

A Report for the National Science Foundation

Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on the Value of Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences to National Priorities

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309459958

Category: Social Science

Page: 52

View: 9336

Nearly every major challenge the United States facesâ€"from alleviating unemployment to protecting itself from terrorismâ€"requires understanding the causes and consequences of people’s behavior. Even societal challenges that at first glance appear to be issues only of medicine or engineering or computer science have social and behavioral components. Having a fundamental understanding of how people and societies behave, why they respond the way they do, what they find important, what they believe or value, and what and how they think about others is critical for the country’s well-being in today’s shrinking global world. The diverse disciplines of the social, behavioral, and economic (SBE) sciences ―anthropology, archaeology, demography, economics, geography, linguistics, neuroscience, political science, psychology, sociology, and statistics―all produce fundamental knowledge, methods, and tools that provide a greater understanding of people and how they live. The Value of Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences to National Priorities evaluates whether the federal government should fund SBE research at the National Science Foundation (NSF), and, specifically, whether SBE research furthers the mission of the NSF to advance national priorities in the areas of health, prosperity and welfare, national defense, and progress in science; advances the missions of other federal agencies; and advances business and industry, and to provide examples of such research. This report identifies priorities for NSF investment in the SBE sciences and important considerations for the NSF for strategic planning.
Posted in Social Science

Preparing Teachers:

Building Evidence for Sound Policy

Author: Committee on the Study of Teacher Preparation Programs in the United States,Board on Testing and Assessment,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309128056

Category: Education

Page: 234

View: 8503

Teachers make a difference. The success of any plan for improving educational outcomes depends on the teachers who carry it out and thus on the abilities of those attracted to the field and their preparation. Yet there are many questions about how teachers are being prepared and how they ought to be prepared. Yet, teacher preparation is often treated as an afterthought in discussions of improving the public education system. Preparing Teachers addresses the issue of teacher preparation with specific attention to reading, mathematics, and science. The book evaluates the characteristics of the candidates who enter teacher preparation programs, the sorts of instruction and experiences teacher candidates receive in preparation programs, and the extent that the required instruction and experiences are consistent with converging scientific evidence. Preparing Teachers also identifies a need for a data collection model to provide valid and reliable information about the content knowledge, pedagogical competence, and effectiveness of graduates from the various kinds of teacher preparation programs. Federal and state policy makers need reliable, outcomes-based information to make sound decisions, and teacher educators need to know how best to contribute to the development of effective teachers. Clearer understanding of the content and character of effective teacher preparation is critical to improving it and to ensuring that the same critiques and questions are not being repeated 10 years from now.
Posted in Education

Report of the National Academy of Sciences

Author: National Academy of Sciences (U.S.)

Publisher: National Academies

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 9620

Posted in Science

Annual Report - National Academy of Sciences

Author: National Academy of Sciences (U.S.)

Publisher: National Academies

ISBN: N.A

Category:

Page: N.A

View: 4271

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International Collaborations in Behavioral and Social Sciences

Report of a Workshop

Author: National Research Council,Policy and Global Affairs,Board on International Scientific Organizations,U.S. National Committee for the International Union of Psychological Science,Committee on International Collaborations in Social and Behavioral Sciences Research

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309178419

Category: Social Science

Page: 102

View: 7280

Based on the outcomes of a workshop convened by the U.S. National Committee for Psychological Science and informed by a survey of social scientists who have led cross-national projects, this National Science Foundation-funded report addresses the multiple benefits of research extending across national boundaries and describes factors common among successful collaborations. Workshop participants identified the obstacles frequently encountered and suggested ways of dealing with these challenges to enhance international collaborative research in the behavioral and social sciences. Several dimensions of collaborative processes, such as research planning, methodological issues, organizational concerns, varied training approaches, and funding needs receive critical attention in this book.
Posted in Social Science

Reauthorization of the National Science Foundation, 1985

Hearing Before the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-eighth Congress, Second Session ... April 4, 1984

Author: United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Labor and Human Resources

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category:

Page: 103

View: 992

Posted in

Handbook of Cognitive Aging

Interdisciplinary Perspectives

Author: Scott M. Hofer,Duane F Alwin

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 145227892X

Category: Psychology

Page: 744

View: 1508

"Provides a unique perspective. I am particularly impressed with the sections on innovative design and methods to investigate cognitive aging and the integrative perspectives. None of the existing texts covers this material to the same level." —Donna J. La Voie, Saint Louis University "The emphasis on integrating the literature with theoretical and methodological innovations could have a far-reaching impact on the field." —Deb McGinnis, Oakland University The Handbook of Cognitive Aging: Interdisciplinary Perspectives clarifies the differences in patterns and processes of cognitive aging. Along with a comprehensive review of current research, editors Scott M. Hofer and Duane F. Alwin provide a solid foundation for building a multidisciplinary agenda that will stimulate further rigorous research into these complex factors. Key Features Gathers the widest possible range of perspectives by including cognitive aging experts in various disciplines while maintaining a degree of unity across chapters Examines the limitations of the extant literature, particularly in research design and measurement, and offers new suggestions to guide future research Highlights the broad scope of the field with topics ranging from demography to development to neuroscience, offering the most complete coverage available on cognitive aging
Posted in Psychology

Bridging Disciplines in the Brain, Behavioral, and Clinical Sciences

Author: Committee on Building Bridges in the Brain, Behavioral, and Clinical Sciences,Institute of Medicine,Division of Neuroscience and Behavioral Health

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309070783

Category: Medical

Page: 144

View: 7145

Interdisciplinary research is a cooperative effort by a team of investigators, each an expert in the use of different methods and concepts, who have joined in an organized program to attack a challenging problem. Each investigator is responsible for the research in their area of discipline that applies to the problem, but together the investigators are responsible for the final product. The need for interdisciplinary training activities has been detailed over the last 25 years in both public and private reports. The history of science and technology has even shown the important advances that arose from interdisciplinary research, including plate tectonics which brought together geologists, oceanographers, paleomagnetists, seismologists, and geophysicists to advance the ability to forecast earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. In recognition of this, the need to train scientists who can address the highly complex problems that challenge us today and fully use new knowledge and technology, and the fact that cooperative efforts have proved difficult, the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research (OBSSR), the National Institute on Nursing Research (NINR), and the National Institute on Aging (NIA) requested that an Institute of Medicine (IOM) Committee be created to complete several tasks including: examining the needs and strategies for interdisciplinary training in the brain, behavioral, social, and clinical sciences, defining necessary components of true interdisciplinary training in these areas, and reviewing current educational and training programs to identify elements of model programs that best facilitate interdisciplinary training. Bridging Disciplines in the Brain, Behavioral, and Clinical Sciences provides the conclusions and recommendations of this committee. Due to evaluations of the success of interdisciplinary training programs are scarce, the committee could not specify the "necessary components" or identify the elements that "best facilitate" interdisciplinary training. However, after reviewing existing programs and consulting with experts, the committee identified approaches likely to be successful in providing direction for interdisciplinary endeavors at various career stages. This report also includes interviews, training programs, and workshop agendas used.
Posted in Medical

Improving Medical Education:

Enhancing the Behavioral and Social Science Content of Medical School Curricula

Author: Committee on Behavioral and Social Sciences in Medical School Curricula,Board on Neuroscience and Behavioral Health,Institute of Medicine

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 030909142X

Category: Medical

Page: 168

View: 2750

Roughly half of all deaths in the United States are linked to behavioral and social factors. The leading causes of preventable death and disease in the United States are smoking, sedentary lifestyle, along with poor dietary habits, and alcohol consumption. To make measurable improvements in the health of Americans, physicians must be equipped with the knowledge and skills from the behavioral and social sciences needed to recognize, understand, and effectively respond to patients as individuals, not just to their symptoms. What are medical schools teaching students about the behavioral and social sciences? In the report, the committee concluded that there is inadequate information available to sufficiently describe behavioral and social science curriculum content, teaching techniques, and assessment methodologies in U.S. medical schools and recommends development of a new national behavioral and social science database. The committee also recommended that the National Board of Medical Examiners ensure that the U.S. Medical Licensing Examination adequately cover the behavioral and social science subject matter recommended in this report.
Posted in Medical

Protecting Participants and Facilitating Social and Behavioral Sciences Research

Author: Panel on Institutional Review Boards, Surveys, and Social Science Research,Committee on National Statistics,Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309511364

Category: Social Science

Page: 251

View: 4195

Institutional review boards (IRBs) are the linchpins of the protection systems that govern human participation in research. In recent years, high-profile cases have focused attention on the weaknesses of the procedures for protecting participants in medical research. The issues surrounding participants protection in the social, behavioral, and economic sciences may be less visible to the public eye, but they are no less important in ensuring ethical and responsible research. This report examines three key issues related to human participation in social, behavioral, and economic sciences research: (1) obtaining informed, voluntary consent from prospective participants: (2) guaranteeing the confidentiality of information collected from participants, which is a particularly challenging problem in social sciences research; and (3) using appropriate review procedures for “minimal-risk” research. Protecting Participants and Facilitating Social and Behavioral Sciences Research will be important to policy makers, research administrators, research sponsors, IRB members, and investigators. More generally, it contains important information for all who want to unsure the best protection—for participants and researchers alike—in the social, behavioral, and economic sciences.
Posted in Social Science

Communicating Uncertainty

Media Coverage of New and Controversial Science

Author: Sharon M. Friedman,Sharon Dunwoody,Carol L. Rogers

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 0805827277

Category: Education

Page: 277

View: 3615

This work explores scientific uncertainty and media coverage of science in such major public issues as AIDS, biotechnology, dioxin, global warming, and nature vs nurture.
Posted in Education

An Assessment of Research-Doctorate Programs in the United States:

Social and Behavioral Sciences

Author: Committee on an Assessment of Quality-Related Characteristics of Research-Doctorate Programs in the United States

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 030903342X

Category: Education

Page: 261

View: 4946

U.S. research-doctorate programs in the social and behavioral sciences were assessed by a committee of the Conference Board of Associated Research Councils. Attention was focused on 639 research-doctorate programs in seven disciplines in the social and behavioral sciences: anthropology, economics, geography, history, political sciences, psychology, and sociology. The effectiveness of these programs in preparing students for research careers was assessed. Indices that might be relevant to program quality were examined, and information was provided to evaluators on the names of faculty members involved with each program to be rated and the number of research doctorates awarded in the last 5 years. After describing the background to the study and the research methodology, survey findings are presented for each discipline. In addition to extensive statistical findings and analyses, the following appendices are presented: the Survey of Earned Doctorates, the instrument used in the reputational survey, the ARL Library Index, data on faculty research support and research and development expenditures, data on publication records, and lists of planning committee members and participants of the Conference on the Assessment of Quality of Graduate Education Programs. (SW)
Posted in Education

The Behavioral and Social Sciences

Achievements and Opportunities

Author: Committee on Basic Research in the Behavioral and Social Sciences,Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309542782

Category: Science

Page: 279

View: 9450

This volume explores the scientific frontiers and leading edges of research across the fields of anthropology, economics, political science, psychology, sociology, history, business, education, geography, law, and psychiatry, as well as the newer, more specialized areas of artificial intelligence, child development, cognitive science, communications, demography, linguistics, and management and decision science. It includes recommendations concerning new resources, facilities, and programs that may be needed over the next several years to ensure rapid progress and provide a high level of returns to basic research.
Posted in Science

Taking Science to School

Learning and Teaching Science in Grades K-8

Author: National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Center for Education,Board on Science Education,Committee on Science Learning, Kindergarten Through Eighth Grade

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309133838

Category: Education

Page: 404

View: 9441

What is science for a child? How do children learn about science and how to do science? Drawing on a vast array of work from neuroscience to classroom observation, Taking Science to School provides a comprehensive picture of what we know about teaching and learning science from kindergarten through eighth grade. By looking at a broad range of questions, this book provides a basic foundation for guiding science teaching and supporting students in their learning. Taking Science to School answers such questions as: When do children begin to learn about science? Are there critical stages in a child's development of such scientific concepts as mass or animate objects? What role does nonschool learning play in children's knowledge of science? How can science education capitalize on children's natural curiosity? What are the best tasks for books, lectures, and hands-on learning? How can teachers be taught to teach science? The book also provides a detailed examination of how we know what we know about children's learning of science--about the role of research and evidence. This book will be an essential resource for everyone involved in K-8 science education--teachers, principals, boards of education, teacher education providers and accreditors, education researchers, federal education agencies, and state and federal policy makers. It will also be a useful guide for parents and others interested in how children learn.
Posted in Education

Learning Science in Informal Environments

People, Places, and Pursuits

Author: National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Center for Education,Board on Science Education,Committee on Learning Science in Informal Environments

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309141133

Category: Education

Page: 348

View: 445

Informal science is a burgeoning field that operates across a broad range of venues and envisages learning outcomes for individuals, schools, families, and society. The evidence base that describes informal science, its promise, and effects is informed by a range of disciplines and perspectives, including field-based research, visitor studies, and psychological and anthropological studies of learning. Learning Science in Informal Environments draws together disparate literatures, synthesizes the state of knowledge, and articulates a common framework for the next generation of research on learning science in informal environments across a life span. Contributors include recognized experts in a range of disciplines--research and evaluation, exhibit designers, program developers, and educators. They also have experience in a range of settings--museums, after-school programs, science and technology centers, media enterprises, aquariums, zoos, state parks, and botanical gardens. Learning Science in Informal Environments is an invaluable guide for program and exhibit designers, evaluators, staff of science-rich informal learning institutions and community-based organizations, scientists interested in educational outreach, federal science agency education staff, and K-12 science educators.
Posted in Education

Social and Behavioral Sciences for National Security

Proceedings of a Summit

Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309456525

Category: Social Science

Page: 92

View: 5903

In the coming years, complex domestic and international environments and challenges to national security will continue. Intelligence analysts and the intelligence community will need access to the appropriate tools and developing knowledge about threats to national security in order to provide the best information to policy makers. Research and knowledge from the social and behavioral sciences (SBS) can help inform the work of intelligence analysis; however, in the past, bringing important findings from research to bear on the day-to-day work of intelligence analysis has been difficult. In order to understand how knowledge from science can be directed and applied to help the intelligence community fulfill its critical responsibilities, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine will undertake a 2-year survey of the social and behavioral sciences. To launch this discussion, a summit designed to highlight cutting-edge research and identify future directions for research in a few areas of the social and behavioral sciences was held in October 2016. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the summit.
Posted in Social Science

Investing in Research Infrastructure in the Behavioral and Social Sciences

Author: Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309062489

Category: Social Science

Page: 36

View: 6306

Posted in Social Science

Milestones and Millstones

Social Science at the National Science Foundation, 1945-1991

Author: Otto N. Larsen

Publisher: Transaction Publishers

ISBN: 9781412828628

Category: Education

Page: 285

View: 1839

From the 1960s onwards, the clothing industry in the Netherlands and elsewhere in the European Union, experienced a deep crisis. Numerous went bankrupt and, even more so, workers lost their jobs. Imports from low wage countries started providing the bulk of retailers' collections. In the high wage economy of the Netherlands there seemed to be no more room for labour intensive industry such as clothing. However, in the 1980s a surprising development took place. In Amsterdam, a substantial number of new small clothing firms were established, focusing on short-cycle fashion production. Most of these firms were run by Turkish immigrants. During the 1990s, most of these firms disappeared again. At the same time the pattern of imports changed as well, with nearby countries in the Mediterranean region and Eastern Europe increasing their share of the fashionable clothing market. Migration and fashion played an important role in these processes. In this study, Stephan Raes analyses these developments and tries to explain why they occurred. He offers an elaborate multilevel theoretical framework to deal with the changes in the spatial organization of clothing supply. His analysis shows how large retailers have become the most powerful players in the Dutch clothing sector, and how the changes in the spatial pattern of clothing supply have to be understood against the changing logistics of their sourcing. The study takes us from the history of the Dutch clothing industry in the 19th century, to the detailed description of migrants entrepreneurs in the sector, and the changes in trade patterns. It focuses on the interaction of retailers with other actors in the sector, such as suppliers, consumers and governments. Finally, it takes places these developments against the background of transformations in the political economy of the Netherlands and Turkey.
Posted in Education