Sex and the State

Abortion, Divorce, and the Family Under Latin American Dictatorships and Democracies

Author: Mala Htun

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521008792

Category: Family & Relationships

Page: 219

View: 4535

As Argentina, Brazil, and Chile made transitions from democratic to authoritarian forms of government (and back), they confronted challenges posed by the rise of the feminist movement, social changes, and the power of the Catholic Church. This study explores the patterns of gender-related policy reform in these countries and reveals their implications for the peoples of Latin America. In addition, it offers a broader understanding of the logic behind the state's role in affecting private lives and gender relations everywhere.
Posted in Family & Relationships

Torture

Power, Democracy, and the Human Body

Author: Shampa Biswas,Zahi Zalloua

Publisher: University of Washington Press

ISBN: 0295801816

Category: Social Science

Page: 288

View: 5267

The counterterrorism policies following September 11, 2001, brought the definition and legitimacy of torture to the forefront of political, military, and public debates. This timely volume explores the question of torture through multiple lenses by situating it within systems of belief, social networks of power, and ideological worldviews. Individual essays examine the boundaries of what is deemed legitimate political violence for the sake of state security, the immediate and long-term effects of torture on human and social bodies, the visual and artistic representations of torture, how certain people are dehumanized to make it acceptable to torture them, and how we understand complicity in and the ethical boundaries of torture.
Posted in Social Science

The Archive and the Repertoire

Performing Cultural Memory in the Americas

Author: Diana Taylor

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 0822385317

Category: Social Science

Page: 349

View: 5866

In The Archive and the Repertoire preeminent performance studies scholar Diana Taylor provides a new understanding of the vital role of performance in the Americas. From plays to official events to grassroots protests, performance, she argues, must be taken seriously as a means of storing and transmitting knowledge. Taylor reveals how the repertoire of embodied memory—conveyed in gestures, the spoken word, movement, dance, song, and other performances—offers alternative perspectives to those derived from the written archive and is particularly useful to a reconsideration of historical processes of transnational contact. The Archive and the Repertoire invites a remapping of the Americas based on traditions of embodied practice. Examining various genres of performance including demonstrations by the children of the disappeared in Argentina, the Peruvian theatre group Yuyachkani, and televised astrological readings by Univision personality Walter Mercado, Taylor explores how the archive and the repertoire work together to make political claims, transmit traumatic memory, and forge a new sense of cultural identity. Through her consideration of performances such as Coco Fusco and Guillermo Gómez-Peña’s show Two Undiscovered Amerindians Visit . . . , Taylor illuminates how scenarios of discovery and conquest haunt the Americas, trapping even those who attempt to dismantle them. Meditating on events like those of September 11, 2001 and media representations of them, she examines both the crucial role of performance in contemporary culture and her own role as witness to and participant in hemispheric dramas. The Archive and the Repertoire is a compelling demonstration of the many ways that the study of performance enables a deeper understanding of the past and present, of ourselves and others.
Posted in Social Science

Is Geography Destiny?

Lessons from Latin America

Author: John Luke Gallup,Alejandro Gaviria,Eduardo Lora

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 0821383671

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 186

View: 9100

For decades, the prevailing sentiment was that, since geography is unchangeable, there is no reason why public policies should take it into account. In fact, charges that geographic interpretations of development were deterministic, or even racist, made the subject a virtual taboo in academic and policymaking circles alike. 'Is Geography Destiny?' challenges that premise and joins a growing body of literature studying the links between geography and development. Focusing on Latin America, the book argues that based on a better understanding of geography, public policy can help control or channel its influence toward the goals of economic and social development.
Posted in Business & Economics

Dependent Development

The Alliance of Multinational, State, and Local Capital in Brazil

Author: Peter B. Evans

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 0691186804

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 2802

In order to analyze Brazil's recent accumulation of capital in the light of its continued dependence, Peter Evans focuses on the relationships among multinational corporations, local private entrepreneurs, and state-owned enterprises that have developed in Brazil over the last decade. He argues that while relations among the three kinds of capital continue to be contradictory, a triple alliance has been formed that provides the social structural basis for the pattern of local industrialization that has emerged. The author begins with a review of the theories of imperialism and dependency in the third world. Placing the Brazilian experience of the last twenty years in its historical context, he traces the country's evolution from the period of "classic dependence" at the turn of the century to the current stage of "dependent development." In conclusion, Professor Evans discusses the implications of the Brazilian model for other third world countries. Examining the nature of the triple alliance as it is manifested in such industries as pharmaceuticals, textiles, and petrochemicals, the author reveals the complex differentiation of the groups' roles in industrialization and lays bare the grounds for their collaboration and their conflict. He consequently shows how the differing interests, power, and capabilities of the three groups have combined to produce a system promoting industrialization that benefits the elite partnership but excludes the larger population from the rewards of growth.
Posted in Political Science

Naked Tropics

Essays on Empire and Other Rogues

Author: Kenneth Maxwell

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136728481

Category: History

Page: 320

View: 3874

First Published in 2003. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
Posted in History

Interests of State

The Politics of Language, Multiculturalism, and Feminism in Canada

Author: Leslie A. Pal

Publisher: McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP

ISBN: 9780773513273

Category: History

Page: 344

View: 9211

Leslie Pal explores a phenomenon unique to Canadian politics - the direct funding of advocacy groups by the government - and makes a significant contribution to the debate on the role of the state in shaping society. Focusing on groups concerned with the official languages, multiculturalism, and women's issues, he argues that funding was not neutral but was driven by state interests, and particularly by a national unity agenda.
Posted in History

Lactivism

How Feminists and Fundamentalists, Hippies and Yuppies, and Physicians and Politicians Made Breastfeeding Big Business and Bad Policy

Author: Courtney Jung

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 0465039693

Category: Social Science

Page: 272

View: 6408

Posted in Social Science

The Handmaid's Tale

Author: Margaret Atwood

Publisher: Emblem Editions

ISBN: 1551994968

Category: Fiction

Page: 368

View: 5721

In this multi-award-winning, bestselling novel, Margaret Atwood has created a stunning Orwellian vision of the near future. This is the story of Offred, one of the unfortunate “Handmaids” under the new social order who have only one purpose: to breed. In Gilead, where women are prohibited from holding jobs, reading, and forming friendships, Offred’s persistent memories of life in the “time before” and her will to survive are acts of rebellion. Provocative, startling, prophetic, and with Margaret Atwood’s devastating irony, wit, and acute perceptive powers in full force, The Handmaid’s Tale is at once a mordant satire and a dire warning.
Posted in Fiction

Feminist Policymaking in Chile

Author: Liesl Haas

Publisher: Penn State Press

ISBN: 0271037474

Category: Political Science

Page: 240

View: 1201

"Investigates the efforts of feminists in Chile to win policy reforms on a broad range of gender equity issues, from labor and marriage laws to educational opportunities to health and reproductive rights"--Provided by publisher.
Posted in Political Science

Sex and Consequences

Abortion, Public Policy, and the Economics of Fertility

Author: Phillip B. Levine

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691070988

Category: Political Science

Page: 215

View: 8641

How do individuals change their behavior when abortion access increases? In this innovative book, economist Phillip Levine uses economic analysis to consider this question, comparing abortion to a form of insurance. Like insurance, he contends, abortion provides protection from downside risk. A pregnant woman who would otherwise give birth to an unwanted child has the option to abort. On the other hand, the availability of this option may increase the likelihood of a pregnancy in the first place. In a very restrictive abortion environment, few women would choose to have an abortion; legalizing abortion would reduce unwanted births. But if abortion becomes readily available, it may cause individuals to increase their sexual activity and/or reduce their use of contraception, Levine contends. Women will become pregnant more frequently, but will abort those pregnancies. Therefore, these abortions will not reduce unwanted births. Levine's analysis suggests that the manner in which individuals change their behavior depends on the extent to which abortion is accessible. He supports these assertions using data from both the United States and Eastern Europe, comparing areas that have restricted access to abortion services with those that have liberalized access. Using sound economic analysis, Sex and Consequences goes beyond the ideological arguments that frequently dominate the abortion debate, lending a new perspective to this controversial subject.
Posted in Political Science

Rising Tide

Gender Equality and Cultural Change Around the World

Author: Ronald Inglehart,Pippa Norris

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521529501

Category: Political Science

Page: 226

View: 2478

The twentieth century gave rise to profound changes in traditional sex roles. However, the force of this 'rising tide' has varied among rich and poor societies around the globe, as well as among younger and older generations. Rising Tide sets out to understand how modernization has changed cultural attitudes towards gender equality and to analyze the political consequences of this process. The core argument suggests that women and men's lives have been altered in a two-stage modernization process consisting of (i) the shift from agrarian to industrialized societies and (ii) the move from industrial towards post industrial societies. This book is the first to systematically compare attitudes towards gender equality worldwide, comparing almost 70 nations that run the gamut from rich to poor, agrarian to postindustrial. Rising Tide is essential reading for those interested in understanding issues of comparative politics, public opinion, political behavior, political development, and political sociology.
Posted in Political Science

Political Power and Women's Representation in Latin America

Author: Leslie A. Schwindt-Bayer

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199780389

Category: Social Science

Page: 272

View: 7214

The number of women elected to Latin American legislatures has grown significantly over the past thirty years. This increase in the number of women elected to national office is due, in large part, to gender-friendly electoral rules such as gender quotas and proportional electoral systems, and it has, in turn, fostered constituent support for representative democracy. Still, this book argues that women are gaining political voice and bringing women's issues to state agendas, but they are not gaining political power. Women are marginalized by the male majority in office and relegated to the least powerful committees and leadership posts, hindering progress toward real political equality. In Political Power and Women's Representation in Latin America, Leslie Schwindt-Bayer examines the causes and consequences of women's representation in Latin America. She does so by asking a series of politically relevant and theoretically challenging questions, including why the numbers of women in office have increased in some countries but vary across others; what the presence of women in office means for the way representatives legislate; and what consequences the election of women bears for representative democracy more generally. Schwindt-Bayer articulates a comprehensive theory of women's representation that analyzes and connects trends in relation to four facets of political representation: formal, descriptive, substantive and symbolic. She then tests this theory empirically using aggregate data from all eighteen Latin American democracies and original fieldwork in Argentina, Colombia and Costa Rica. Ultimately, this book communicates the complex and often incomplete nature of women's political representation in Latin America.
Posted in Social Science

Empowering Women

Land and Property Rights in Latin America

Author: Carmen Diana Deere,Magdalena León de Leal

Publisher: University of Pittsburgh Pre

ISBN: 9780822972327

Category: History

Page: 486

View: 8459

The expansion of married women's property rights was a main achievement of the first wave of feminism in Latin America. As Carmen Diana Deeere and Magdalena Leon reveal, however, the disjuncture between rights and actual ownership remains vast. This is particularly true in rural areas, where the distribution of land between men and women is highly unequal. In their pioneering, twelve-country comparative study, the authors argue that property ownership is directly related to women's bargaining power within the household and community, point out changes resulting from recent gender-progressive legislation, and identify additional areas for future reform, including inheritance rights of wives.
Posted in History

Out of the Shadows

Author: Jo Fisher

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 0853458731

Category: Political Science

Page: 234

View: 5756

Since the early 1970s women across South America have been uniting to confont the brutality and repression of military rule. In Out of the Shadows, author Jo Fisher interviews women in Argentina, Chile, Uruguay and Paraguay to show how they have moved into the vacuum left by the military's destruction of the male-dominated left. Chapters describe how women have organised - in communal kitchens in Chile's shantytowns, as trade unionists in Uruguay, peace activists in Paraguay, mothers of the disappeared and self-help groups in Argentina, as grassroots feminists in Chile - ending the isolation of home life. While built around the traditional female concerns such as providing food and care for their families, the new women's movements have developed a grassroots feminism that is strikingly different from the middle class feminism of the city centres and have had a seismic impact on gender consciousness throughout the region.
Posted in Political Science

Development and Social Change

A Global Perspective

Author: Philip McMichael

Publisher: Pine Forge Press

ISBN: 1412992079

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 383

View: 8864

In his Fifth Edition of Development and Social Change: A Global Perspective, author Philip McMichael examines the project of globalization and its instabilities (climate, energy, food, financial crises) through the lens of development and its origins in the colonial project. The book continues to help students make sense of a complex world in transition and explains how globalization became part of public discourse. Filled with case studies, this text makes the intricacies of globalization concrete, meaningful, and clear for students and moves them away from simple social evolutionary views, encouraging them to connect social change, development policies, global inequalities and social movements. The book challenges students to see themselves as global citizens whose consumption decisions have real social and ecological implications.
Posted in Business & Economics

The Third Wave of Democratization in Latin America

Advances and Setbacks

Author: Frances Hagopian,Scott P. Mainwaring

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781139445603

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 815

The late twentieth century witnessed the birth of an impressive number of new democracies in Latin America. This wave of democratization since 1978 has been by far the broadest and most durable in the history of Latin America, but many of the resulting democratic regimes also suffer from profound deficiencies. What caused democratic regimes to emerge and survive? What are their main achievements and shortcomings? This volume offers an ambitious and comprehensive overview of the unprecedented advances as well as the setbacks in the post-1978 wave of democratization. It seeks to explain the sea change from a region dominated by authoritarian regimes to one in which openly authoritarian regimes are the rare exception, and it analyzes why some countries have achieved striking gains in democratization while others have experienced erosions. The book presents general theoretical arguments about what causes and sustains democracy and analyses of nine compelling country cases.
Posted in Political Science

Sapiens

A Brief History of Humankind

Author: Yuval Noah Harari

Publisher: Harper Collins

ISBN: 0062316109

Category: Science

Page: 464

View: 7221

New York Times Bestseller A Summer Reading Pick for President Barack Obama, Bill Gates, and Mark Zuckerberg From a renowned historian comes a groundbreaking narrative of humanity’s creation and evolution—a #1 international bestseller—that explores the ways in which biology and history have defined us and enhanced our understanding of what it means to be “human.” One hundred thousand years ago, at least six different species of humans inhabited Earth. Yet today there is only one—homo sapiens. What happened to the others? And what may happen to us? Most books about the history of humanity pursue either a historical or a biological approach, but Dr. Yuval Noah Harari breaks the mold with this highly original book that begins about 70,000 years ago with the appearance of modern cognition. From examining the role evolving humans have played in the global ecosystem to charting the rise of empires, Sapiens integrates history and science to reconsider accepted narratives, connect past developments with contemporary concerns, and examine specific events within the context of larger ideas. Dr. Harari also compels us to look ahead, because over the last few decades humans have begun to bend laws of natural selection that have governed life for the past four billion years. We are acquiring the ability to design not only the world around us, but also ourselves. Where is this leading us, and what do we want to become? Featuring 27 photographs, 6 maps, and 25 illustrations/diagrams, this provocative and insightful work is sure to spark debate and is essential reading for aficionados of Jared Diamond, James Gleick, Matt Ridley, Robert Wright, and Sharon Moalem.
Posted in Science

Gender and Representation in Latin America

Author: Leslie A. Schwindt-Bayer

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190851228

Category: Political Science

Page: 328

View: 447

Just as Latin American countries began to transition to democracy in the late 1970s and early 1980s, the region also saw gains in social, cultural and economic gender equality. In accordance with modernization theories, women in the region have also made significant inroads into elected office. However, these gains vary a great deal between countries in Latin America. They also vary significantly at different levels of government even within the same country. Inside government arenas, representation is highly gendered with rules and norms that advantage men and disadvantage women, limiting women's access to full political power. While one might expect these variations to map onto socioeconomic and cultural conditions within each country, they don't correlate. This book makes, for the first time, a comprehensive comparison of gender and representation across the region -- in seven countries -- and at five different levels: the presidency, cabinets, national legislatures, political parties, and subnational governments. Overall, it argues that gender inequality in political representation in Latin America is rooted in democratic institutions and the democratic challenges and political crises facing the region. Institutions and political context not only influence the number of women and men elected to office, but also what they do once in office, the degree of power to which they gain access, and how their presence and actions influence democracy and society, more broadly. Drawing on the expertise of scholars of women, gender, and political institutions, this book is the most comprehensive analysis of women's representation in Latin America to date, and an important resource for research on women's representation worldwide. The causes, consequences, and challenges to women's representation in Latin America are not unique to that region, and the book uses Latin American patterns to draw broad conclusions about gendered representation in other areas of the world.
Posted in Political Science

Religious Pluralism, Democracy, and the Catholic Church in Latin America

Author: Frances Hagopian

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780268030872

Category: Political Science

Page: 498

View: 2568

The Roman Catholic Church in Latin America faces significant and unprecedented challenges. Most prominent among them are secularization, globalizing cultural trends, intensifying religious competition, and pluralism of many kinds within what were once hegemonic Catholic societies. The substantial and original essays in this volume assess the ways in which the Catholic Church in Latin America is dealing with these political, religious, and social changes. Most importantly, they explore how democracy has changed the Catholic Church and, in turn, how religious changes have influenced democratic politics in Latin America. Drawing on the experiences of several countries to illustrate broad themes and explain divergent religious responses to common challenges, the contributors advance the notion that the Catholic Church's effectiveness in the public sphere and even its long-term viability as a religious institution depend on the nature and extent of the relationship between the hierarchy and the faithful. The essays address the context of pluralist challenges, the ideational, institutional, and policy responses of the Catholic hierarchy, and the nature of both religious beliefs and democratic values at the individual level in Latin America today. "Religious Pluralism, Democracy, and the Catholic Church in Latin America is a much needed volume. The book is highly original, relevant, and will stimulate new research on religion in Latin America." --Kenneth Serbin, University of San Diego "Religion and politics, two of the great topics of all time, stir intense passions and often deep conflicts--they have done so in Latin America's history. Hagopian's book thoughtfully examines religious pluralism in Latin America and its impact on politics and society, with special attention to cultural change, gender, the family, education, and beliefs about justice and morality as they bear on democracy. Hagopian's own three chapters frame the book and make it a cohesive and thought-provoking intellectual project." --Jorge I. Domínguez, Harvard University "This book makes an original contribution to our understanding of the challenges facing the Catholic Church in Latin America in the wake of democratic transitions and increasing religious pluralism. It also provides important insights into how church leaders are responding to these challenges in a number of key countries." --Philip Williams, University of Florida
Posted in Political Science