Author: Irving Kaplansky

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821826948

Category: Mathematics

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## Set Theory and Metric Spaces

This is a book that could profitably be read by many graduate students or by seniors in strong major programs ... has a number of good features. There are many informal comments scattered between the formal development of theorems and these are done in a light and pleasant style. ... There is a complete proof of the equivalence of the axiom of choice, Zorn's Lemma, and well-ordering, as well as a discussion of the use of these concepts. There is also an interesting discussion of the continuum problem ... The presentation of metric spaces before topological spaces ... should be welcomed by most students, since metric spaces are much closer to the ideas of Euclidean spaces with which they are already familiar. --Canadian Mathematical Bulletin Kaplansky has a well-deserved reputation for his expository talents. The selection of topics is excellent. -- Lance Small, UC San Diego This book is based on notes from a course on set theory and metric spaces taught by Edwin Spanier, and also incorporates with his permission numerous exercises from those notes. The volume includes an Appendix that helps bridge the gap between metric and topological spaces, a Selected Bibliography, and an Index.
## Metric Spaces of Fuzzy Sets

The primary aim of the book is to provide a systematic development of the theory of metric spaces of normal, upper semicontinuous fuzzy convex fuzzy sets with compact support sets, mainly on the base space ?n. An additional aim is to sketch selected applications in which these metric space results and methods are essential for a thorough mathematical analysis.This book is distinctly mathematical in its orientation and style, in contrast with many of the other books now available on fuzzy sets, which, although all making use of mathematical formalism to some extent, are essentially motivated by and oriented towards more immediate applications and related practical issues. The reader is assumed to have some previous undergraduate level acquaintance with metric spaces and elementary functional analysis.
## Set theory and metric spaces

## Metric Spaces

The abstract concepts of metric spaces are often perceived as difficult. This book offers a unique approach to the subject which gives readers the advantage of a new perspective on ideas familiar from the analysis of a real line. Rather than passing quickly from the definition of a metric to the more abstract concepts of convergence and continuity, the author takes the concrete notion of distance as far as possible, illustrating the text with examples and naturally arising questions. Attention to detail at this stage is designed to prepare the reader to understand the more abstract ideas with relative ease.
## Metric Spaces

METRIC SPACES is intended for undergraduate students offering a course of metric spaces and post graduate students offering a course of nonlinear analysis or fixed point theory. The first six chapters cover basic concepts of metric spaces, separable spaces, compact spaces, connected spaces and continuity of functions defined on a metric space. Chapter seven is devoted to the metric fixed point theory. Banach contraction theorem and several of its generalizations along with their applications and Caristi's fixed point theorem are also given in this chapter. The introductory set-valued analysis with special emphysis on continuity and fixed point theory of set-valued maps is given in chapter eight. One of the most useful and important results from nonlinear analysis is Ekeland's variational principle. This principle along with several of its equivalent forms, Takahashi's minimization theorem, introduction of theory of equilibrium problems and the equilibrium version of Ekeland's variational principle and several of its equivalent forms are presented in the last chapter. This book will also be useful for researchers working in nonlinear analysis, optimization and theory of equilibrium problems.
## An Introduction to Metric Spaces and Fixed Point Theory

Presents up-to-date Banach space results. * Features an extensive bibliography for outside reading. * Provides detailed exercises that elucidate more introductorymaterial.
## Metric Spaces

An introduction to metric spaces for those interested in the applications as well as theory.
## Topics on Analysis in Metric Spaces

This book presents the main mathematical prerequisites for analysis in metric spaces. It covers abstract measure theory, Hausdorff measures, Lipschitz functions, covering theorums, lower semicontinuity of the one-dimensional Hausdorff measure, Sobolev spaces of maps between metric spaces, and Gromov-Hausdorff theory, all developed ina general metric setting. The existence of geodesics (and more generally of minimal Steiner connections) is discussed on general metric spaces and as an application of the Gromov-Hausdorff theory, even in some cases when the ambient space is not locally compact. A brief and very general description of the theory of integration with respect to non-decreasing set functions is presented following the Di Giorgi method of using the 'cavalieri' formula as the definition of the integral. Based on lecture notes from Scuola Normale, this book presents the main mathematical prerequisites for analysis in metric spaces. Supplemented with exercises of varying difficulty it is ideal for a graduate-level short course for applied mathematicians and engineers.
## Metric Spaces

Since the last century, the postulational method and an abstract point of view have played a vital role in the development of modern mathematics. The experience gained from the earlier concrete studies of analysis point to the importance of passage to the limit. The basis of this operation is the notion of distance between any two points of the line or the complex plane. The algebraic properties of underlying sets often play no role in the development of analysis; this situation naturally leads to the study of metric spaces. The abstraction not only simplifies and elucidates mathematical ideas that recur in different guises, but also helps eco- mize the intellectual effort involved in learning them. However, such an abstract approach is likely to overlook the special features of particular mathematical developments, especially those not taken into account while forming the larger picture. Hence, the study of particular mathematical developments is hard to overemphasize. The language in which a large body of ideas and results of functional analysis are expressed is that of metric spaces. The books on functional analysis seem to go over the preliminaries of this topic far too quickly. The present authors attempt to provide a leisurely approach to the theory of metric spaces. In order to ensure that the ideas take root gradually but firmly, a large number of examples and counterexamples follow each definition. Also included are several worked examples and exercises. Applications of the theory are spread out over the entire book.
## Metric Spaces

Professor Copson's book provides a more leisurely treatment of metric spaces than is found in books on functional analysis.
## Set Theory

In the early twentieth century, Hausdorff developed an axiomatic approach to topology, which continues to be the foundation of modern topology. The present book, the English translation of the third edition of Hausdorff's Mengenlehre, is a thorough introduction to his theory of point-set topology. The treatment begins with topics in the foundations of mathematics, including the basics of abstract set theory, sums and products of sets, cardinal and ordinal numbers, and Hausdorff's well-ordering theorem. The exposition then specializes to point sets, where major topics such as Borel systems, first and second category, and connectedness are considered in detail. Next, mappings between spaces are introduced. This leads naturally to a discussion of topological spaces and continuous mappings between them. Finally, the theory is applied to the study of real functions and their properties. The book does not presuppose any mathematical knowledge beyond calculus, but it does require a certain maturity in abstract reasoning; qualified college seniors and first-year graduate students should have no difficulty in making the material their own.
## Introduction to Set Theory and Topology

Introduction to Set Theory and Topology describes the fundamental concepts of set theory and topology as well as its applicability to analysis, geometry, and other branches of mathematics, including algebra and probability theory. Concepts such as inverse limit, lattice, ideal, filter, commutative diagram, quotient-spaces, completely regular spaces, quasicomponents, and cartesian products of topological spaces are considered. This volume consists of 21 chapters organized into two sections and begins with an introduction to set theory, with emphasis on the propositional calculus and its application to propositions each having one of two logical values, 0 and 1. Operations on sets which are analogous to arithmetic operations are also discussed. The chapters that follow focus on the mapping concept, the power of a set, operations on cardinal numbers, order relations, and well ordering. The section on topology explores metric and topological spaces, continuous mappings, cartesian products, and other spaces such as spaces with a countable base, complete spaces, compact spaces, and connected spaces. The concept of dimension, simplexes and their properties, and cuttings of the plane are also analyzed. This book is intended for students and teachers of mathematics.
## Introduction to set theory and topology. Translated from the rev. Polish ed. by Leo F. Boron

## Topologische Räume

## Metric Spaces

If you have a question about Metric Spaces this is the book with the answers. Metric Spaces: Questions and Answers takes some of the best questions and answers asked on the math.stackexchange.com website. You can use this book to look up commonly asked questions, browse questions on a particular topic, compare answers to common topics, check out the original source and much more. This book has been designed to be very easy to use, with many internal references set up that makes browsing in many different ways possible. Topics covered include: Real Analysis, Metric Spaces, Compactness, Functional Analysis, Analysis, Examples Counterexamples, Normed Spaces, Continuity, Geometry, Vector Spaces, Sequences And Series, Convergence, Descriptive Set Theory and many more."
## Satan, Cantor und die Unendlichkeit

## Real Analysis

Designed for use in a two-semester course on abstract analysis, REAL ANALYSIS: An Introduction to the Theory of Real Functions and Integration illuminates the principle topics that constitute real analysis. Self-contained, with coverage of topology, measure theory, and integration, it offers a thorough elaboration of major theorems, notions, and constructions needed not only by mathematics students but also by students of statistics and probability, operations research, physics, and engineering. Structured logically and flexibly through the author's many years of teaching experience, the material is presented in three main sections: Part 1, chapters 1through 3, covers the preliminaries of set theory and the fundamentals of metric spaces and topology. This section can also serves as a text for first courses in topology. Part II, chapter 4 through 7, details the basics of measure and integration and stands independently for use in a separate measure theory course. Part III addresses more advanced topics, including elaborated and abstract versions of measure and integration along with their applications to functional analysis, probability theory, and conventional analysis on the real line. Analysis lies at the core of all mathematical disciplines, and as such, students need and deserve a careful, rigorous presentation of the material. REAL ANALYSIS: An Introduction to the Theory of Real Functions and Integration offers the perfect vehicle for building the foundation students need for more advanced studies.
## Generalized Metric Spaces and Mappings

The idea of mutual classification of spaces and mappings is one of the main research directions of point set topology. In a systematical way, this book discusses the basic theory of generalized metric spaces by using the mapping method, and summarizes the most important research achievements, particularly those from Chinese scholars, in the theory of spaces and mappings since the 1960s. This book has three chapters, two appendices and a list of more than 400 references. The chapters are "The origin of generalized metric spaces", "Mappings on metric spaces" and "Classes of generalized metric spaces". Graduates or senior undergraduates in mathematics major can use this book as their text to study the theory of generalized metric spaces. Researchers in this field can also use this book as a valuable reference.
## Nonlinear Potential Theory on Metric Spaces

## Applications of Point Set Theory in Real Analysis

This book is devoted to some results from the classical Point Set Theory and their applications to certain problems in mathematical analysis of the real line. Notice that various topics from this theory are presented in several books and surveys. From among the most important works devoted to Point Set Theory, let us first of all mention the excellent book by Oxtoby [83] in which a deep analogy between measure and category is discussed in detail. Further, an interesting general approach to problems concerning measure and category is developed in the well-known monograph by Morgan [79] where a fundamental concept of a category base is introduced and investigated. We also wish to mention that the monograph by Cichon, W«;glorz and the author [19] has recently been published. In that book, certain classes of subsets of the real line are studied and various cardinal valued functions (characteristics) closely connected with those classes are investigated. Obviously, the IT-ideal of all Lebesgue measure zero subsets of the real line and the IT-ideal of all first category subsets of the same line are extensively studied in [19], and several relatively new results concerning this topic are presented. Finally, it is reasonable to notice here that some special sets of points, the so-called singular spaces, are considered in the classi

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Author: Irving Kaplansky

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