Semantic Mechanisms of Humor

Author: V. Raskin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400964722

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 284

View: 891

GOAL This is the funniest book I have ever written - and the ambiguity here is deliberate. Much of this book is about deliberate ambiguity, described as unambiguously as possible, so the previous sentence is probably the fIrst, last, and only deliberately ambiguous sentence in the book. Deliberate ambiguity will be shown to underlie much, if not all, of verbal humor. Some of its forms are simple enough to be perceived as deliberately ambiguous on the surface; in others, the ambiguity results from a deep semantic analysis. Deep semantic analysis is the core of this approach to humor. The book is the fIrst ever application of modem linguistic theory to the study of humor and it puts forward a formal semantic theory of verbal humor. The goal of the theory is to formulate the necessary and sufficient conditions, in purely semantic terms, for a text to be funny. In other words, if a formal semantic analysis of a text yields a certain set of semantic proptrties which the text possesses, then the text is recognized as a joke. As any modem linguistic theory, this semantic theory of humor attempts to match a natural intuitive ability which the native speaker has, in this particular case, the ability to perceive a text as funny, i. e. , to distinguish a joke from a non-joke.
Posted in Language Arts & Disciplines

Walter Kempowski

Bürgerliche Repräsentanz, Erinnerungskultur, Gegenwartsbewältigung

Author: Lutz Hagestedt

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110214733

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 465

View: 4865

Main description: Walter Kempowski (1929-2007) war einer der bedeutendsten deutschen Gegenwartsautoren. Der Band zieht erstmals eine Bilanzaller wesentlichen Aspekte seines Werkes. Er versammelt Beiträge von namhaften Literaturwissenschaftlern, die auf ein internationales Walter-Kempowski-Symposium in Rostock zurückgehen, das von der Universität Rostock und dem Kempowski Archiv Rostock veranstaltet wurde.
Posted in Literary Criticism

The Language of Comic Narratives

Humor Construction in Short Stories

Author: Isabel Ermida

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110208334

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 273

View: 3004

The book offers a comprehensive account of how humor works in short stories, by presenting a model of narrative comedy that is pragmatically as well as semantically, grammatically and stylistically informed. It is the first study to combine a sequential analysis of the comic short story with a hierarchical one, merging together horizontal and vertical narratological perspectives in a systematic way. The book covers the main areas of linguistic analysis and is deliberately interdisciplinary, using input from philosophy, sociology and psychology so as to touch upon the nature, motivations and functions of humor as a cognitive phenomenon in a social context. Crucially, The Language of Comic Narratives combines a scholarly approach with a careful explanation of key terms and concepts, making it accessible to researchers and students, as well as non-specialists. Moreover, it reviews a broad range of historical critical data by examining the source texts, and it provides many humorous examples, from jokes to extracts from comic narratives. Thus, it seeks to anchor theory in specific texts, and also to show that many linguistic mechanisms of humor are common to jokes and longer, literary comic narratives. The book tests the model of humorous narratives on a set of comic short stories by British and American writers, ranging from Evelyn Waugh and Dorothy Parker, through Graham Greene and Corey Ford, to David Lodge and Woody Allen. The validity of the model is confirmed through a subsequent discussion of apparent counter-examples.
Posted in Language Arts & Disciplines

Humor

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Wit and humor

Page: N.A

View: 1018

Posted in Wit and humor

Encyclopedia of Humor Studies

Author: Salvatore Attardo

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 1483364704

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 984

View: 7780

The Encyclopedia of Humor: A Social History explores the concept of humor in history and modern society in the United States and internationally. This work’s scope encompasses the humor of children, adults, and even nonhuman primates throughout the ages, from crude jokes and simple slapstick to sophisticated word play and ironic parody and satire. As an academic social history, it includes the perspectives of a wide range of disciplines, including sociology, child development, social psychology, life style history, communication, and entertainment media. Readers will develop an understanding of the importance of humor as it has developed globally throughout history and appreciate its effects on child and adult development, especially in the areas of health, creativity, social development, and imagination. This two-volume set is available in both print and electronic formats. Features & Benefits: The General Editor also serves as Editor-in-Chief of HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research for The International Society for Humor Studies. The book’s 335 articles are organized in A-to-Z fashion in two volumes (approximately 1,000 pages). This work is enhanced by an introduction by the General Editor, a Foreword, a list of the articles and contributors, and a Reader’s Guide that groups related entries thematically. A Chronology of Humor, a Resource Guide, and a detailed Index are included. Each entry concludes with References/Further Readings and cross references to related entries. The Index, Reader’s Guide themes, and cross references between and among related entries combine to provide robust search-and-browse features in the electronic version. This two-volume, A-to-Z set provides a general, non-technical resource for students and researchers in such diverse fields as communication and media studies, sociology and anthropology, social and cognitive psychology, history, literature and linguistics, and popular culture and folklore.
Posted in Language Arts & Disciplines

Lagersprache

zur Sprache der Opfer in den Konzentrationslagern Sachsenhausen, Dachau, Buchenwald

Author: Nicole Warmbold

Publisher: Hempen Verlag

ISBN: N.A

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 348

View: 2091

German description: Die unmenschlichen Lebensbedingungen in den nationalsozialistischen Konzentrationslagern bedrohten die Haftlinge nicht nur physisch. Der peinigende Hunger, die schwere Zwangsarbeit, die Misshandlungen durch die SS, das tagliche Sterben von Mitgefangenen und die stets prasente Angst vor einem gewaltsamen Tod zermurbten die Menschen auch psychisch. Zwischen Verzweiflung und Durchhaltewillen, Isolation und Solidaritat entstanden unter den Haftlingen Formen des Miteinanders und der Kommunikation, die nur im Kontext der konkreten Lebensumstande zu verstehen sind. Ein entscheidender Schlussel dazu ist ihre Sprache. Die vorliegende Arbeit untersucht den Sprachgebrauch von KZ-Haftlingen systematisch auf seine Merkmale und Funktionen hin. Fur die Lager Sachsenhausen, Dachau und Buchenwald weist sie die Herausbildung einer spezifischen Lagersprache nach, die vor allem eins zum Ziel hatte: das Unsagbare in Worte zu fassen.
Posted in Language Arts & Disciplines

The Semantics of Media

Author: J. Ross

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401156506

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 141

View: 694

Media are objects with content and character that we describe using in- phrases: in the story, in the picture, in the movie, in the dream... Like the propositional attitudes, these objects present a variety of hard problems for semantic and philosophical analysis. The Semantics of Media is an organized exploration of fundamental questions in the semantics of media. The first three chapters set out a straightforward model within the possible-worlds framework, and consider how it might account for a range of notions applying to media generally: implicit vs. explicit content, propositional vs. individual content, causal vs. intentional content and the idea of a single World of the Medium. The final three chapters examine ways of elaborating the model to cover a range of phenomena keyed to the functionality of particular forms of media. Chapter Four is a discussion of fiction and our apparent reference to fictional characters. Chapter Five deals with the phenomenon of viewpoint in pictorial media. Chapter Six is a study of interactions between users and characters of media centering on the puzzling case of seeing in films. The Semantics of Media will be of interest to specialists in the fields of linguistics, philosophy and communications.
Posted in Language Arts & Disciplines

Generalized Quantifiers

Linguistic and Logical Approaches

Author: Peter Gärdenfors

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400933819

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 309

View: 6154

Some fifteen years ago, research on generalized quantifiers was con sidered to be a branch of mathematical logic, mainly carried out by mathematicians. Since then an increasing number of linguists and philosophers have become interested in exploring the relevance of general quantifiers for natural language as shown by the bibliography compiled for this volume. To a large extent, the new research has been inspired by Jon Barwise and Robin Cooper's path-breaking article "Generalized Quantifiers and Natural Language" from 1981. A concrete sign of this development was the workshop on this topic at Lund University, May 9-11, 1985, which was organized by Robin Cooper, Elisabet Engdahl, and the present editor. All except two of the papers in this volume derive from that workshop. Jon Barwise's paper in the volume is different from the one he presented in connection with the workshop. Mats Rooth's contribution has been added because of its close relationship with the rest of the papers. The articles have been revised for publication here and the authors have commented on each other's contributions in order to integrate the collection. The organizers of the workshop gratefully acknowledge support from the Department of Linguistics, the Department of Philosophy and the Faculty of Humanities at Lund University, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences (through the Wallenberg Foundation), the Swedish Institute, and the Letterstedt Foundation.
Posted in Language Arts & Disciplines

Plurality, Conjunction and Events

Author: P. Lasersohn

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401585814

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 308

View: 3073

Plurality, Conjunction and Events presents a novel theory of plural and conjoined phrases, in an event-based semantic framework. It begins by reviewing options for treating the alternation between `collective' and `distributive' readings of sentences containing plural or conjoined noun phrases, including analyses from both the modern and the premodern literature. It is argued that plural and conjoined noun phrases are unambiguously group-denoting, and that the collective/distributive distinction therefore must be located in the predicates with which these noun phrases combine. More specifically, predicates must have a hidden argument place for events; the collective/distributive distinction may then be represented in the part/whole structure of these events. This allows a natural treatment of `collectivizing' adverbial expressions, and of `pluractional' affixes; it also allows a unified semantics for conjunction, in which conjoined sentences and predicates denote groups of events, much like conjoined noun phrases denote groups of individuals.
Posted in Language Arts & Disciplines

Logic and Lexicon

The Semantics of the Indefinite

Author: Manfred Pinkal

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401584451

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 382

View: 5504

Semantic underspecification is an essential and pervasive property of natural language. This monograph provides a comprehensive survey of the various phenomena in the field of ambiguity and vagueness. The book discusses the major theories of semantic indefiniteness, which have been proposed in linguistics, philosophy and computer science. It argues for a view of indefiniteness as the potential for further contextual specification, and proposes a unified logical treatment of indefiniteness on this basis. The inherent inconsistency of natural language induced by irreducible imprecision is investigated, and treated in terms of a dynamic extension of the proposed logic. The book is an extended edition of a German monograph and is addressed to advanced students and researchers in theoretical and computational linguistics, logic, philosophy of language, and NL- oriented AI. Although it makes extensive use of logical formalisms, it requires only some basic familiarity with standard predicate logic concepts since all technical terms are carefully explained.
Posted in Language Arts & Disciplines

Temporal Logic

From Ancient Ideas to Artificial Intelligence

Author: Peter Øhrstrøm,Per Hasle

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0585374635

Category: Philosophy

Page: 416

View: 3563

Temporal Logic: From Ancient Ideas to Artificial Intelligence deals with the history of temporal logic as well as the crucial systematic questions within the field. The book studies the rich contributions from ancient and medieval philosophy up to the downfall of temporal logic in the Renaissance. The modern rediscovery of the subject, which is especially due to the work of A. N. Prior, is described, leading into a thorough discussion of the use of temporal logic in computer science and the understanding of natural language. Temporal Logic: From Ancient Ideas to Artificial Intelligence thus interweaves linguistic, philosophical and computational aspects into an informative and inspiring whole.
Posted in Philosophy

Spaß Verstehen

Zur Pragmatik Von Konversationellem Humor

Author: Helga Kotthoff

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 311091901X

Category: Foreign Language Study

Page: 415

View: 3329

Wir würzen unsere tagtäglichen Interaktionen mit verschiedensten Arten von Witz und Humor und bedienen uns unterschiedlicher (pointentechnischer und gestaltungsorientierter) Verfahren zur Indikation einer Scherzmodalität. Das vorliegende Buch beschäftigt sich in der Tradition der interaktionalen Soziolinguistik mit nichternsten Sequenzen in informellen Gesprächen unter guten Bekannten. Die Analysen tragen der Dialogizität von Spaß Machen und Spaß Verstehen und der kooperativen Prozessualität der dabei ablaufenden Inferenzen Rechnung. Es wird eine stetige Kopplung von empirischer Datenanalyse und pragmatischer Theorieentwicklung betrieben. Traditionelle linguistische Inkongruenz- und Höflichkeitsmodelle werden kritisiert, weil sie der Multidimensionalität von Scherzkommunikation nicht gerecht werden. Die anspielungshafte Scherzkommunikation funktioniert vor dem Hintergrund geteilter Normen und Wissensbestände. Phantasie, Spielmodalitäten und Kreativität spielen eine wichtige Rolle. Ambiguität, Bisoziation von inkongruenten Rahmen und interpretative Vielfalt sind Bestandteile humoristischer Aktivitäten. Scherzaktivitäten erlauben Rückschlüsse auf die Sozial-, Gefühls- und Wertestruktur der Beteiligten.
Posted in Foreign Language Study

Between Texts, Languages, and Cultures

A Festschrift for Michael Henry Heim: Edited by Craig Cravens, Masako U. Fidler, Susan C. Kresin

Author: Michael Henry Heim,Craig Stephen Cravens,Masako Ueda Fidler,Susan Kresin

Publisher: Slavica Pub

ISBN: 9780893573607

Category: Foreign Language Study

Page: 332

View: 7356

Posted in Foreign Language Study

Depression

eine vergleichende Untersuchung normaler, neurotischer und psychotisch-depressiver Zustände

Author: Edith Jacobson

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783518280584

Category:

Page: 446

View: 3972

Posted in

Erlösendes Lachen

Das Komische in der menschlichen Erfahrung

Author: Peter L. Berger

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 3110359049

Category: Social Science

Page: 240

View: 2026

Humor, both ubiquitous and contextual, is a very specific and thus fragile element of the expression of human thought. In this volume, Peter L. Berger examines the nature of the comical and its relationship to other human experiences. Initially published in 1997, the second edition includes a new preface, including observations by Berger about the relationship between modernity and humor.
Posted in Social Science

BLL

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Language and languages

Page: N.A

View: 3829

Posted in Language and languages

The Narrative Construction of Identities in Critical Education

Author: A. Archakis,V. Tsakona

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137264993

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 211

View: 8776

Based on approaches from discourse analysis and sociolinguistics, this study proposes an analytical model focusing on the linguistic and discursive means narrators use to construct a variety of identities in everyday stories. This model is further exploited in language teaching to cultivate students' cultural sensitivity and critical literacy.
Posted in Language Arts & Disciplines

National styles of humor

Author: Avner Ziv

Publisher: Greenwood Pub Group

ISBN: N.A

Category: Humor

Page: 243

View: 6154

This volume represents a first in its analysis of historical trends in the humor of eight Western countries: Australia, Belgium, France, Great Britain, Israel, Italy, the United States, and Yugoslavia. In each country, the authors surveyed and assessed the national humor in a way designed to facilitate comparative study. Each essay details the historical development of national humor with an emphasis on the twentieth century and contemporary trends. The survey includes traditional and popular forms of humor as well as humor in literature, the performing and visual arts, and the mass media. A bibliography suggesting materials for further study completes each chapter. Not only do the contributors present a vivid picture of traditional forms of humor such as carnivals, popular performances, and special festivities, they also examine historical changes in humor. Each author discusses the functions of humor; and as a whole, the contributors demonstrate that sexual, aggressive, social, intellectual, and defensive humor have developed differently and are appreciated differently.
Posted in Humor