Science and an African Logic

Author: Helen Verran

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226853895

Category: Philosophy

Page: 277

View: 1015

Does 2 + 2 = 4? Ask almost anyone and they will unequivocally answer yes. A basic equation such as this seems the very definition of certainty, but is it? In this captivating book, Helen Verran addresses precisely that question by looking at how science, mathematics, and logic come to life in Yoruba primary schools. Drawing on her experience as a teacher in Nigeria, Verran describes how she went from the radical conclusion that logic and math are culturally relative, to determining what Westerners find so disconcerting about Yoruba logic, to a new understanding of all generalizing logic. She reveals that in contrast to the one-to-many model found in Western number systems, Yoruba thinking operates by figuring things as wholes and their parts. Quantity is not absolute but always relational. Certainty is derived not from abstract logic, but from cultural practices and associations. A powerful story of how one woman's investigation in this everday situation led to extraordinary conclusions about the nature of numbers, generalization, and certainty, this book will be a signal contribution to philosophy, anthropology of science, and education.
Posted in Philosophy

Science and an African Logic

Author: Helen Verran

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226853918

Category: Philosophy

Page: 277

View: 4929

Does 2 + 2 = 4? Ask almost anyone and they will unequivocally answer yes. A basic equation such as this seems the very definition of certainty, but is it? In this captivating book, Helen Verran addresses precisely that question by looking at how science, mathematics, and logic come to life in Yoruba primary schools. Drawing on her experience as a teacher in Nigeria, Verran describes how she went from the radical conclusion that logic and math are culturally relative, to determining what Westerners find so disconcerting about Yoruba logic, to a new understanding of all generalizing logic. She reveals that in contrast to the one-to-many model found in Western number systems, Yoruba thinking operates by figuring things as wholes and their parts. Quantity is not absolute but always relational. Certainty is derived not from abstract logic, but from cultural practices and associations. A powerful story of how one woman's investigation in this everday situation led to extraordinary conclusions about the nature of numbers, generalization, and certainty, this book will be a signal contribution to philosophy, anthropology of science, and education.
Posted in Philosophy

Rationalist Spirituality

An exploration of the meaning of life and existence informed by logic and science

Author: Bernardo Kastrup

Publisher: John Hunt Publishing

ISBN: 1846947359

Category: Philosophy

Page: 125

View: 4323

Why does the universe exist and what are you supposed to do in it? This question has been addressed by religions since time immemorial, but popular answers often fail to account for obvious aspects of reality. Indeed, if God knows everything, why do we need to learn through pain and suffering? If God is omnipotent, why are we needed to do good? If the universe is fundamentally good, why are wars, crime, and injustice all around us? In modern society, orthodox science takes the rational high-ground and tackles these contradictions by denying the very need for, and the existence of, meaning. Indeed, many of us implicitly accept the notion that rationality somehow contradicts spirituality. That is a modern human tragedy, not only for its insidiousness, but for the fact that it is simply not true. In this book, the author constructs a coherent and logical argument for the meaning of existence, informed by science itself. A framework is laid out wherein all aspects of human existence have a logical, coh
Posted in Philosophy

Philosophical Perceptions on Logic and Order

Author: Horne, Jeremy

Publisher: IGI Global

ISBN: 1522524444

Category: Philosophy

Page: 402

View: 7170

Strong reasoning skills are an important aspect to cultivate in life, as they directly impact decision making on a daily basis. By examining the different ways the world views logic and order, new methods and techniques can be employed to help expand on this skill further in the future. Philosophical Perceptions on Logic and Order is a pivotal scholarly resource that discusses the evolution of logical reasoning and future applications for these types of processes. Highlighting relevant topics including logic patterns, deductive logic, and inductive logic, this publication is an ideal reference source for academicians, students, and researchers that would like to expand their understanding of how society currently employs the use of logical reasoning techniques.
Posted in Philosophy

Improvising Medicine

An African Oncology Ward in an Emerging Cancer Epidemic

Author: Julie Livingston

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 0822353423

Category: History

Page: 228

View: 4246

Focused on Botswana's only dedicated oncology ward, Improvising Medicine renders the experiences of patients, their relatives, and clinical staff during a cancer epidemic.
Posted in History

Recipes for Science

An Introduction to Scientific Methods and Reasoning

Author: Angela Potochnik,Matteo Colombo,Cory Wright

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317416449

Category: Philosophy

Page: 336

View: 6146

Today, scientific literacy is an essential aspect of any undergraduate education. Recipes for Science responds to this need by providing an accessible introduction to the nature of science and scientific methods, reasoning, and concepts that is appropriate for any beginning college student. It is designed to be adaptable to a wide variety of different kinds of courses, such as introductions to scientific reasoning or critical thinking, philosophy of science, and science education. In any of these different uses, the book helps students better navigate our scientific, 21st-century world. Key Features Contemporary and historical examples of science from many fields of physical, life, and social sciences. Visual aids to clarify and illustrate ideas. Text boxes to explore related topics. Plenty of exercises to ensure full student engagement and mastery of the information. Annotated 'Further Reading' sections at the end of each chapter. Final glossary with helpful definitions of key terms. A companion website with author-developed and crowdsourced materials, including syllabi for courses using this textbook, bibliography of additional resources and online materials, sharable PowerPoint presentations and lecture notes, and additional exercises and extended projects.
Posted in Philosophy

Ethnic Politics and State Power in Africa

Author: Philip Roessler

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107176077

Category: Political Science

Page: 420

View: 4945

This book models the trade-off that rulers of weak, ethnically-divided states face between coups and civil war. Drawing evidence from extensive field research in Sudan and the Democratic Republic of the Congo combined with statistical analysis of most African countries, it develops a framework to understand the causes of state failure.
Posted in Political Science

Objectivity and Diversity

Another Logic of Scientific Research

Author: Sandra Harding

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022624153X

Category: Philosophy

Page: 232

View: 4859

Worries about scientific objectivity seem never-ending. Social critics and philosophers of science have argued that invocations of objectivity are often little more than attempts to boost the status of a claim, while calls for value neutrality may be used to suppress otherwise valid dissenting positions. Objectivity is used sometimes to advance democratic agendas, at other times to block them; sometimes for increasing the growth of knowledge, at others to resist it. Sandra Harding is not ready to throw out objectivity quite yet. For all of its problems, she contends that objectivity is too powerful a concept simply to abandon. In Objectivity and Diversity, Harding calls for a science that is both more epistemically adequate and socially just, a science that would ask: How are the lives of the most economically and politically vulnerable groups affected by a particular piece of research? Do they have a say in whether and how the research is done? Should empirically reliable systems of indigenous knowledge count as "real science"? Ultimately, Harding argues for a shift from the ideal of a neutral, disinterested science to one that prizes fairness and responsibility.
Posted in Philosophy

Listening for Africa

Freedom, Modernity, and the Logic of Black Music's African Origins

Author: David F. García

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 0822373114

Category: Music

Page: 376

View: 8395

In Listening for Africa David F. Garcia explores how a diverse group of musicians, dancers, academics, and activists engaged with the idea of black music and dance’s African origins between the 1930s and 1950s. Garcia examines the work of figures ranging from Melville J. Herskovits, Katherine Dunham, and Asadata Dafora to Duke Ellington, Dámaso Pérez Prado, and others who believed that linking black music and dance with Africa and nature would help realize modernity’s promises of freedom in the face of fascism and racism in Europe and the Americas, colonialism in Africa, and the nuclear threat at the start of the Cold War. In analyzing their work, Garcia traces how such attempts to link black music and dance to Africa unintentionally reinforced the binary relationships between the West and Africa, white and black, the modern and the primitive, science and magic, and rural and urban. It was, Garcia demonstrates, modernity’s determinations of unraced, heteronormative, and productive bodies, and of scientific truth that helped defer the realization of individual and political freedom in the world.
Posted in Music

The art and science of logic

Author: Roger Bacon,Thomas S. Maloney,Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies

Publisher: Pontifical Inst of Medieval studies

ISBN: N.A

Category: Philosophy

Page: 256

View: 7887

Posted in Philosophy

The Logic of Ethnic and Religious Conflict in Africa

Author: John F. McCauley

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107175011

Category: Political Science

Page: 255

View: 7614

The book is aimed at students and scholars of conflict, Africa, ethnic politics, and religion. It may also appeal to religious and political leaders. It proposes a new perspective on how ethnicity and religion shape political outcomes and violence in Africa, adding psychological elements to standard political science arguments.
Posted in Political Science

Philosophy of Logic

Author: N.A

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080466637

Category: Mathematics

Page: 1218

View: 8810

The papers presented in this volume examine topics of central interest in contemporary philosophy of logic. They include reflections on the nature of logic and its relevance for philosophy today, and explore in depth developments in informal logic and the relation of informal to symbolic logic, mathematical metatheory and the limiting metatheorems, modal logic, many-valued logic, relevance and paraconsistent logic, free logics, extensional v. intensional logics, the logic of fiction, epistemic logic, formal logical and semantic paradoxes, the concept of truth, the formal theory of entailment, objectual and substitutional interpretation of the quantifiers, infinity and domain constraints, the Löwenheim-Skolem theorem and Skolem paradox, vagueness, modal realism v. actualism, counterfactuals and the logic of causation, applications of logic and mathematics to the physical sciences, logically possible worlds and counterpart semantics, and the legacy of Hilbert’s program and logicism. The handbook is meant to be both a compendium of new work in symbolic logic and an authoritative resource for students and researchers, a book to be consulted for specific information about recent developments in logic and to be read with pleasure for its technical acumen and philosophical insights. - Written by leading logicians and philosophers - Comprehensive authoritative coverage of all major areas of contemporary research in symbolic logic - Clear, in-depth expositions of technical detail - Progressive organization from general considerations to informal to symbolic logic to nonclassical logics - Presents current work in symbolic logic within a unified framework - Accessible to students, engaging for experts and professionals - Insightful philosophical discussions of all aspects of logic - Useful bibliographies in every chapter
Posted in Mathematics

Experiments in Holism

Theory and Practice in Contemporary Anthropology

Author: Ton Otto,Nils Bubandt

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1444351850

Category: Social Science

Page: 336

View: 9831

Experiments in Holism: Theory and Practice in Contemporary Anthropologypresents a series of essays from leading anthropologists that critically reexamine the relevance of holism as a foundational tenet of anthropology, and its theoretical and methodological potential in today's world. Represents the first volume to consider the modern role of holism as a central anthropological concern across a wide range of anthropological traditions Critically examines the past and present predicament of holism and its potential for the renewal of future practice Features contributions from leading anthropologists which discuss how anthropology should be re-designed in the context of a changing world Challenges many of contemporary anthropology's central methods, theory, and functions
Posted in Social Science

Caveman Logic

The Persistence of Primitive Thinking in a Modern World

Author: Hank Davis

Publisher: Prometheus Books

ISBN: 1615928820

Category: Philosophy

Page: N.A

View: 1564

We see the face of the Virgin Mary staring up at us from a grilled cheese sandwich and sell the uneaten portion of our meal for $37,000 on eBay. While science offers a wealth of rational explanations for natural phenomena, we often prefer to embrace the fantasies that reassured our distant ancestors. And we'll even go to war to protect our delusions against those who do not share them.These are examples of what evolutionary psychologist Hank Davis calls Caveman Logic. Although some examples are funny, the condition itself is no laughing matter. In this engagingly written book, Davis encourages us to transcend the mental default settings and tribal loyalties that worked well for our ancestors back in the Pleistocene age. Davis laments a modern world in which more people believe in ESP, ghosts, and angels than in evolution. Superstition and religion get particularly critical treatment, although Davis argues that religion, itself, is not the problem but an inevitable by-product of how our minds misperform.Davis argues, It's time to move beyond the one-size-fits-all, safety and comfort-oriented settings that got our ancestors through the terrifying Pleistocene night. In contrast, Davis advocates a world in which spirituality is viewed as a dangerous rather than an admirable quality, and suggests ways in which we can overcome our innate predisposition toward irrationality. He concludes by pointing out that biology is not destiny. Just as some of us succeed in watching our diets, resisting violent impulses, and engaging in unselfish behavior, we can learn to use critical thinking and the insights of science to guide individual effort and social action in the service of our whole species.Hank Davis (Guelph, Ontario, Canada) is an award-winning professor of psychology who teaches at the University of Guelph. He is the author of several books and more than one hundred scientific papers.
Posted in Philosophy

An Introduction to Critical Thinking and Creativity

Think More, Think Better

Author: J. Y. F. Lau

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781118033432

Category: Mathematics

Page: 272

View: 3164

A valuable guide on creativity and critical thinking to improve reasoning and decision-making skills Critical thinking skills are essential in virtually any field of study or practice where individuals need to communicate ideas, make decisions, and analyze and solve problems. An Introduction to Critical Thinking and Creativity: Think More, Think Better outlines the necessary tools for readers to become critical as well as creative thinkers. By gaining a practical and solid foundation in the basic principles that underlie critical thinking and creativity, readers will become equipped to think in a more systematic, logical, and imaginative manner. Creativity is needed to generate new ideas to solve problems, and critical thinking evaluates and improves an idea. These concepts are uniquely introduced as a unified whole due to their dependence on each other. Each chapter introduces relevant theories in conjunction with real-life examples and findings from cognitive science and psychology to illustrate how the theories can be applied in numerous fields and careers. An emphasis on how theoretical principles of reasoning can be practical and useful in everyday life is featured, and special sections on presentation techniques, the analysis of meaning, decision-making, and reasoning about personal and moral values are also highlighted. All chapters conclude with a set of exercises, and detailed solutions are provided at the end of the book. A companion website features online tutorials that further explore topics including meaning analysis, argument analysis, logic, statistics, and strategic thinking, along with additional exercises and multimedia resources for continued study. An Introduction to Critical Thinking and Creativity is an excellent book for courses on critical thinking and logic at the undergraduate and graduate levels. The book also serves as a self-contained study guide for readers interested in the topics of critical thinking and creativity as a unified whole.
Posted in Mathematics

Introduction to Logic and Critical Thinking

Author: Merrilee H. Salmon

Publisher: Cengage Learning

ISBN: 1133711642

Category: Education

Page: 528

View: 5943

Designed for students with no prior training in logic, INTRODUCTION TO LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING offers an accessible treatment of logic that enhances understanding of reasoning in everyday life. The text begins with an introduction to arguments. After some linguistic preliminaries, the text presents a detailed analysis of inductive reasoning and associated fallacies. This order of presentation helps to motivate the use of formal methods in the subsequent sections on deductive logic and fallacies. Lively and straightforward prose assists students in gaining facility with the sometimes challenging concepts of logic. By combining a sensitive treatment of ordinary language arguments with a simple but rigorous exposition of basic principles of logic, the text develops students' understanding of the relationships between logic and language, and strengthens their skills in critical thinking. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.
Posted in Education

Peirce on Perception and Reasoning

From Icons to Logic

Author: Kathleen A. Hull,Richard Kenneth Atkins

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1315444631

Category: Philosophy

Page: 232

View: 6234

The founder of both American pragmatism and semiotics, Charles Sanders Peirce (1839–1914) is widely regarded as an enormously important and pioneering theorist. In this book, scholars from around the world examine the nature and significance of Peirce’s work on perception, iconicity, and diagrammatic thinking. Abjuring any strict dichotomy between presentational and representational mental activity, Peirce’s theories transform the Aristotelian, Humean, and Kantian paradigms that continue to hold sway today and, in so doing, forge a new path for understanding the centrality of visual thinking in science, education, art, and communication. The essays in this collection cover a wide range of issues related to Peirce’s theories, including the perception of generality; the legacy of ideas being copies of impressions; imagination and its contribution to knowledge; logical graphs, diagrams, and the question of whether their iconicity distinguishes them from other sorts of symbolic notation; how images and diagrams contribute to scientific discovery and make it possible to perceive formal relations; and the importance and danger of using diagrams to convey scientific ideas. This book is a key resource for scholars interested in Perice’s philosophy and its relation to contemporary issues in mathematics, philosophy of mind, philosophy of perception, semiotics, logic, visual thinking, and cognitive science.
Posted in Philosophy

Assembling Culture

Author: Tony Bennett,Chris Healy

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317982371

Category: Social Science

Page: 216

View: 1975

If the social does not exist as a special domain but, in Bruno Latour’s words, as ‘a peculiar movement of re-association and reassembling’, what implications does this have for how ‘the cultural’ might best be conceived? What new ways of thinking the relations between culture, the economy and the social might be developed by pursuing such lines of inquiry? And what are the implications for the relations between culture and politics? Contributors draw on a range of theoretical perspectives, including those associated with Deleuze and Guattari, Foucault, Law and Haraway, in order to focus on the roles of different forms of expertise and knowledge in producing cultural assemblages. What expertise is necessary to produce indigenous citizens? How does craniometry assemble the head? What kinds of knowledge were required to create markets for life insurance? These and other questions are pursued in this collection through a challenging array of papers concerned with cultural assemblages as diverse as brands and populations, bottled water and mobile television.
Posted in Social Science

The Principles of Science

A Treatise on Logic and Scientific Method

Author: William Stanley Jevons

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Logic

Page: 480

View: 5155

Posted in Logic

Art and Science

Author: Eliane Strosberg

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Art

Page: 245

View: 1656

The dialogue between art and science has powerfully shaped both endeavors since antiquity. Artists have been pioneering figures in disciplines from engineering to medicine, while scientists have decisively influenced our visual culture with their discoveries. In an authoritative and accessible text with over 200 diagrams and illustrations, Art and Science explores the fascinating history of this interaction for the first time. Throughout history, science and art have reflected similar values and used parallel tools and methods. Artists and scientists today are intrigued by the advancements in each other's fields. Artists are fascinated by atomic structure, the Big Bang, and DNA, while scientists try to explain theories with images that will embody "the beauty of their logic." Art and Science focuses on the most illuminating intersections of art and science: how science has shaped architecture, from Stonehenge to contemporary buildings that reflect research on DNA; how mathematical principles have impacted decorative design; how perceptual discoveries have influenced the development of painting; and how discoveries in the physical disciplines have transformed the performing arts, from music to movies. In a wide-ranging discussion across these and many other disciplines, this clearly written, well-illustrated volume provides an accessible introduction to an enduring dialogue.
Posted in Art