"This book is about how modern American childhood is shaped by the bureaucratic tools including mass testing, child psychology, and the status hiearchies. This happens in a world where there is an emotional attachment to children in which no child can be left behind, even as the bureaucracies pragmatically sort through individuals of differing abilities. The result is childhoods shaped to meet competing American ideals for individualism, egalitarianism, and utililitarianism. The result is a conservative bureaucratic dance which resembles a game of rochambo, as individualism is trumped by egalitarianism, utilitarianism by individualism, and utilitarianism by egalitarianism"--
Bureaucratizing the Child
Author: Tony Waters
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
Author: David Hartley
Publisher: Continuum International Publishing Group
Category: Administration scolaire - Écosse - Cas, Études de
Popular music and digital media are constantly entwined in elementary and middle-school children's talk, interactions, and relationships, and offer powerful cultural resources to children in their everyday struggles over institutionalized language, literacy, and expression in school. In Schooling New Media, author Tyler Bickford considers how digital music technologies are incorporated into children's expressive culture, their friendships, and their negotiations with adults about the place of language, music, and media in school. Schooling New Media is a groundbreaking study of children's music and media consumption practices, examining how transformations in music technologies influence the way children, their peers, and adults relate to one another. Based on long-term ethnographic research with a community of schoolchildren in Vermont, Bickford focuses on portable digital music devices - i.e. MP3 players - to reveal their key role in mediating intimate, face-to-face relationships and structuring children's interactions both with music and with each other. Schooling New Media provides an important ethnographic and theoretical intervention into ethnomusicology, childhood studies, and music education, emphasizing the importance-and yet under-appreciation-of interpersonal interactions and institutions like schools as sites of musical activity. Bickford explores how headphones facilitate these school-centered interactions, as groups of children share their earbuds with friends and listen to music together while participating in the dense overlap of talk, touch, and gesture of their peer groups. He argues that children treat MP3 players more like toys than technology, and that these devices expand the repertoires of childhood communicative practices such as passing notes and whispering-all means of interacting with friends beyond the reach of adults. These connections afforded by digital music listening enable children to directly challenge the language and literacy goals of classroom teachers. Bickford's Schooling New Media is unique in its intensive ethnographic attention to everyday sites of musical consumption and performance, and offers a sophisticated conceptual approach for understanding the problems and possibilities of children's uses of new media in schools.
Music, Language, and Technology in Children's Culture
Author: Tyler Bickford Ph.D.
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Part of the authoritative four-volume reference that spans the entire field of child development and has set the standard against which all other scholarly references are compared. Updated and revised to reflect the new developments in the field, the Handbook of Child Psychology, Sixth Edition contains new chapters on such topics as spirituality, social understanding, and non-verbal communication. Volume 2: Cognition, Perception, and Language, edited by Deanna Kuhn, Columbia University, and Robert S. Siegler, Carnegie Mellon University, covers mechanisms of cognitive and perceptual development in language acquisition. It includes new chapters devoted to neural bases of cognition, motor development, grammar and langauge rules, information processing, and problem solving skills.
Author: William Damon,Richard M. Lerner,Deanna Kuhn,Robert S. Siegler
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Deftly blending social and business history with economic analysis, Employing Bureaucracy shows how the American workplace shifted from a market-oriented system to a bureaucratic one over the course of the 20th century. Jacoby explains how an unstable, haphazard employment relationship evolved into one that was more enduring, equitable, and career-oriented. This revised edition presents a new analysis of recent efforts to re-establish a market orientation in the workplace. This book is a definitive history of the human resource management profession in the United States, showing its diverse roots in engineering, welfare work, and vocational guidance. It explores the recurring tension between the new professional order and traditional line management. Using a variety of sources, Jacoby analyzes the complex relations between personnel managers, labor unions, and government from the late 19th century to the present. Employing Bureaucracy: *analyzes the origins of the modern employment relationship's distinctive features; *combines a variety of disciplinary perspectives, from business and labor history to economics, sociology, and management; *shows the transformation of the American workplace over the course of the 20th century, from market-oriented to bureaucratic to recent efforts to move back to a market orientation; and *provides the single-best and most sophisticated history of the origins and development of the modern "HR" profession. For historians, social scientists, and practitioners, this book is a readable and rewarding study. With the future of work currently under debate, it is critical that the historical process that produced the modern American workplace is understood. Read the Workforce Management Magazine review about Employing Bureaucracy at www.erlbaum.com.
Managers, Unions, and the Transformation of Work in the 20th Century, Revised Edition
Author: Professor of History and Management Sanford M Jacoby,Sanford M. Jacoby
Publisher: Psychology Press
Category: Business & Economics
In contemporary western societies, there are increasing emphases on children being the responsibility of their parents, contained within the home, and on their compartmentalisation into separate and protected organised educational settings. Thus 'home' and 'school' form a crucial part of children's lives and experiences. This book explores the key institutional settings of home and school, and other educationally linked organised spaces, in children's lives, and the relationships between these. It presents in-depth discussions concerning new research findings from a range of national contexts and focuses on various aspects of children's, and sometimes adult's, own understandings and activities in home and school, and after school settings, and the relationship between these. The contributors assess children from a variety of backgrounds and circumstances and consider how these children see and position themselves as autonomous within, connected to or regulated by home and school. Discussion of the impact of policy and practice developments on the everyday lives of these children is also included.
Regulation, Autonomy or Connection?
Author: Ros Edwards
Who holds ultimate authority for the education of America's children—teachers or parents? Although the relationship between home and school has changed dramatically over the decades, William Cutler's fascinating history argues that it has always been a political one, and his book uncovers for the first time how and why the balance of power has shifted over time. Starting with parental dominance in the mid-nineteenth century, Cutler chronicles how schools' growing bureaucratization and professionalization allowed educators to gain increasing control over the schooling and lives of the children they taught. Central to his story is the role of parent-teacher associations, which helped transform an adversarial relationship into a collaborative one. Yet parents have also been controlled by educators through PTAs, leading to the perception that they are "company unions." Cutler shows how in the 1920s and 1930s schools expanded their responsibility for children's well-being outside the classroom. These efforts sowed the seeds for later conflict as schools came to be held accountable for solving society's problems. Finally, he brings the reader into recent decades, in which a breakdown of trust, racial tension, and "parents' rights" have taken the story full circle, with parents and schools once again at odds. Cutler's book is an invaluable guide to understanding how parent-teacher cooperation, which is essential for our children's educational success, might be achieved.
The 150-Year Struggle for Control in American Education
Author: William W. Cutler
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Weber's Rationalism and Modern Society rediscovers Max Weber for the twenty-first century. Tony and Dagmar Waters' translation of Weber's works highlights his contributions to the social sciences and politics, credited with highlighting concepts such as "iron cage," "bureaucracy," "bureaucratization," "rationalization," "charisma," and the role of the "work ethic" in ordering modern labor markets. Outlining the relationship between community (Gemeinschaft), and market society (Gesellschaft), the issues of social stratification, power, politics, and modernity resonate just as loudly today as they did for Weber during the early twentieth century.
New Translations on Politics, Bureaucracy, and Social Stratification
Category: Social Science
India has the largest number of non-schoolgoing working children in the world. Why has the government not removed them from the labor force and required that they attend school, as have the governments of all developed and many developing countries? To answer this question, this major comparative study first looks at why and when other states have intervened to protect children against parents and employers. By examining Europe of the nineteenth century, the United States, Japan, and a number of developing countries, Myron Weiner rejects the argument that children were removed from the labor force only when the incomes of the poor rose and employers needed a more skilled labor force. Turning to India, the author shows that its policies arise from fundamental beliefs, embedded in the culture, rather than from economic conditions. Identifying the specific values that elsewhere led educators, social activists, religious leaders, trade unionists, military officers, and government bureaucrats to make education compulsory and to end child labor, he explains why similar groups in India do not play the same role.
Child Labor and Education Policy in Comparative Perspective
Author: Myron Weiner
Publisher: Princeton University Press
The Illusion of Educational Change in America
Author: Michael B. Katz
Publisher: Praeger Publishers
In Schools and Societies the author demonstrates that more than any other major institution, schooling and schools are political, and virtually everyone has opinions to voice and interests to promote. Steven Brint musters a wealth of comparative material to show how schooling around the world is shaped by social forces even as it tries to shape the societies of the future.
Author: Steven Brint
Publisher: Pine Forge Press
This book explores California’s prison system in the context of vocational education reform. For prisons in the early twenty-first century, ideologies of evidence-based management meant that reform efforts to change the purpose of prisons from punishment to rehabilitation through vocational education required “evidence” to justify policy prescriptions. Yet who determines what constitutes evidence? In political environments, solutions are typically pre-conceived, which means that the nature of the evidence collected is also preconceived. As a result, key assumptions about outcomes are often wished away to show improvement and be accountable. Through a detailed analysis interspersed with stories from the authors’ experiences “behind the wall” among California’s prison population, the authors challenge the nature of evidence-based research as used in the prison environment. In the process they describe the thorny problems facing reformers.
A Critical Perspective on Evidence-Based Reform
Author: Andrew J Dick,William Rich,Tony Waters
Nineteenth-century educational reformers were fond of an agricultural metaphor when it came to the provision of more and better schooling: even good land, they argued, had to be cultiated; othersie noxious weeds sprang up. In this study of education in Ontario from the establishment of Upper Canada to the end of Egerton Ryerson's career as chief superintendent of schools in 1876, Susan Houston and Alison Prentice explore the roots of the provincial public school system, set up to instill a work ethic and moral discipline appropriate to the new society, as well as the beginnings of separate schools. today the Ontario school system is once again the subject of intense and often bitter deabte. Many of the most contentious issues have deep and complex roots that go back to this era. Houston and Prentice tell the story of how Ontario came to have a universal school system of exceptional quality and shed valuable light on an area of current concern.
Author: Susan E. Houston,Alison L. Prentice
Publisher: University of Toronto Press
Focusing on change and reform in secondary and elementary schools, this book explores the possibilities for better schooling for early adolescents.
Reinventing Education for Early Adolescents
Author: Lorna Earl,Andy Hargreaves,Jim Ryan
Sue Palmer's ground-breaking book TOXIC CHILDHOOD generated national debate. Now, in this important follow-up book, she provides an essential guide on how to bring up children in a way that avoids the problems of a toxic world. Includes practical, easy-to-follow advice on: Food Play Sleep Language Childcare and education Family life Using TV, computers and mobile phones to your advantage With so many pressures across so many parts of our lives today, this book is the one-stop solution to all our concerns about raising healthy, happy children in the modern world.
What Parents Need to Know to Raise Happy, Successful Children
Author: Sue Palmer
Publisher: Hachette UK
Category: Family & Relationships
This book is part of a quest for a general theory of organizations valid in all cultures. Central to Frank Salter's investigation is the question of social power: why people obey their superiors. His approach is to locate the nature of organizational power in the behavioral details of hierarchical interactions in the institutional settings in which they occur. Salter begins by noting the extensive research that points to hierarchy as being a necessary component of organization and proceeds to an analysis rendered in universals of primary emotions and behaviors of dominance and affiliation. The first five chapters are theoretical, the last seven empirical. He reviews the social science literature showing the place of ethological methods and concepts, then aspects of the evolution and physiology of dominance and affiliation. Salter then introduces the emotional underpinnings of dominance and affiliation, and applies these concepts in a summary of the literature on interpersonal signaling. He describes the methods used, drawing parallels with classical ethology, anthropology, and sociology. The empirical section begins with a short chapter examining the simple commands given in a military parade. Chapter 7 analyses nightclub doormen's use of dominance in dealing with troublesome patrons. Chapter 8 describes the giving and receiving of commands in artistic rehearsals, and finds generally soft, appeased commands. Chapters 9 and 10 analyze courts and meetings respectively, finding both blunt and softened commands. Chapter 11 reports preliminary observations of command in general government bureaucracy, a setting which combines many organizational techniques in a highly articulated infrastructure. The concluding chapter summarizes the data and adopts a comparative method in searching for relationships between structural variables of institutional dominance and behavioral variables of command aggression, subordinate submission and resistance, and task characteristics. Provocative and well written, Emotions in Command will appeal to students and researchers in sociology, anthropology, and social and organizational-industrial psychology. Frank Kemp Salter is an Australian political scientist who has been a researcher with the Max Planck Society, Andechs, Germany since 1991 and is author of On Genetic Interests which is published by Transaction.
Biology, Bureaucracy, and Cultural Evolution
Publisher: Transaction Publishers
Category: Social Science
Offering a philosophical perspective to the educational improvement agenda, this engaging text provides a new language for research into educational improvement, bringing leading-edge philosophy to current practice. Drawing on philosophical work, including that of Derrida, Foucault and Heidegger, the authors deconstruct the ethic of improvement before exploring key dimensions of education, its institutions and technologies. Each chapter draws on international case studies, provides engaging questions and makes suggestions for further reading to support the reader. Topics covered include: Â •Â The Ethic of Improvement •Â Teacher Education •Â Leadership and Management •Â Lifelong Learning •Â The Rhetoric of Numbers • The Governance of Childhood • The State of Education Research An essential text for all looking at how we think and talk about education and improvement.
A Critical Philosophical Approach
Author: Kevin J. Flint,Nick Peim
Publisher: A&C Black
Schooling the New South deftly combines social and political history, gender studies, and African American history into a story of educational reform. James Leloudis recreates North Carolina's classrooms as they existed at the turn of the century and explores the wide-ranging social and psychological implications of the transition from old-fashioned common schools to modern graded schools. He argues that this critical change in methods of instruction both reflected and guided the transformation of the American South. According to Leloudis, architects of the New South embraced the public school as an institution capable of remodeling their world according to the principles of free labor and market exchange. By altering habits of learning, they hoped to instill in students a vision of life that valued individual ambition and enterprise above the familiar relations of family, church, and community. Their efforts eventually created both a social and a pedagogical revolution, says Leloudis. Public schools became what they are today--the primary institution responsible for the socialization of children and therefore the principal battleground for society's conflicts over race, class, and gender. Southern History/Education/North Carolina
Pedagogy, Self, and Society in North Carolina, 1880-1920
Author: James L. Leloudis
Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press