Russian Foreign Policy in the Twenty-first Century and the Shadow of the Past

Author: Robert Legvold

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 023114122X

Category: Political Science

Page: 534

View: 2678

Because the turbulent trajectory of Russia's foreign policy since the collapse of the Soviet Union echoes previous moments of social and political transformation, history offers a special vantage point from which to judge the current course of events. In this book, a mix of leading historians and political scientists examines the foreign policy of contemporary Russia over four centuries of history. The authors explain the impact of empire and its loss, the interweaving of domestic and foreign impulses, long-standing approaches to national security, and the effect of globalization over time. Contributors focus on the underlying patterns that have marked Russian foreign policy and that persist today. These patterns are driven by the country's political makeup, geographical circumstances, economic strivings, unsettled position in the larger international setting, and, above all, its tortured effort to resolve issues of national identity. The argument here is not that the Russia of Putin and his successors must remain trapped by these historical patterns but that history allows for an assessment of how much or how little has changed in Russia's approach to the outside world and creates a foundation for identifying what must change if Russia is to evolve. A truly unique collection, this volume utilizes history to shed crucial light on Russia's complex, occasionally inscrutable relationship with the world. In so doing, it raises the broader issue of the relationship of history to the study of contemporary foreign policy and how these two enterprises might be better joined.
Posted in Political Science

Die Europäisierung Russlands

Moskau zwischen Modernisierungspartnerschaft und Großmachtrolle

Author: Gernot Erler

Publisher: Campus Verlag

ISBN: 3593395290

Category: Political Science

Page: 282

View: 2644

Russland ist auf dem Weg, eine europäische Großmacht zu werden. Zugleich befindet sich das Land in einem umfassenden Wandel, was in einer Reihe von Modernisierungsstrategien zum Ausdruck kommt. Im Vorfeld der Präsidentschaftswahlen 2012 analysieren Gernot Erler und Peter W. Schulze den widersprüchlichen, aber unaufhaltsamen Prozess der Annäherung zwischen Europa und Russland und seine Folgen für die europäische Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik. Mit Blick auch auf die Umbrüche im internationalen Staatensystem leiten sie Prognosen sowie Empfehlungen für die europäische und deutsche Politik ab.
Posted in Political Science

American National Security

Author: Amos A. Jordan,William J. Taylor, Jr.,Michael J. Meese,Suzanne C. Nielsen

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 1421403226

Category: Political Science

Page: 688

View: 9310

national security policy making; A discussion of the Department of Homeland Security and changes in the intelligence community; A survey of intelligence and national security, with special focus on security needs post-9/11; A review of economic security, diplomacy, terrorism, conventional warfare, counterinsurgency, military intervention, and nuclear deterrence in the changed international setting; An update of security issues in East Asia, South and Southeast Asia, the Middle East, Sub-Saharan Africa, Russia and Central Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean; New material on globalization, transnational actors, and human securityPrevious editions have been widely used in undergraduate and graduate courses.
Posted in Political Science

International Cooperation

The Extents and Limits of Multilateralism

Author: I. William Zartman,Saadia Touval

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521138655

Category: Law

Page: 274

View: 4628

Considers multilateralism and other approaches to international cooperation, identifying further areas for research into the issues of international relations.
Posted in Law

For Peace and Money

French and British Finance in the Service of Tsars and Commissars

Author: Jennifer Siegel

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199387834

Category: History

Page: 304

View: 6344

From the late imperial period until 1922, the British and French made private and government loans to Russia, making it the foremost international debtor country in pre-World War I Europe. To finance the modernization of industry, the construction of public works projects, the building of railroads, and the development of the military-industrial complex, Russia's ministers of finance, municipal leaders, and nascent manufacturing class turned, time and time again, to foreign capital. From the forging of the Franco-Russian alliance onwards, Russia's needs were met, first and foremost, by France and Great Britain, its allies, and diplomatic partners in the developing Triple Entente. Russia's continued access to those ready lenders ensured that the empire of the Tsars would not be tempted away from its alliance and entente partners. This web of financial and political interdependence affected both foreign policy and domestic society in all three countries. The Russian state was so heavily indebted to its western creditors, rendering those western economies almost prisoners to this debt, that the debtor nation in many ways had the upper hand; the Russian government at times was actually able to dictate policy to its French and British counterparts. Those nations' investing classes-which, in France in particular, spanned not only the upper classes but the middle, rentier class, as well-had such a vast proportion of their savings wrapped up in Russian bonds that any default would have been catastrophic for their own economies. That default came not long after the Bolshevik Revolution brought to power a government who felt no responsibility, whatsoever, for the debts accrued by the tsars for the purpose of oppressing Russia's workers and peasants. The ensuing effect on allied morale, the Anglo-French relationship, and, ultimately, on international relations in the twentieth century, was grim and far-reaching. Jennifer Siegel narrates a classic tale of money and power in the modern era-an age of economic interconnectivity and great power interdependency-involving such figures as Lord Revelstoke, chairman of Baring Brothers, the British and French Rothschild cousins, and Sergei Witte, Russia's authoritative finance minister during much of this age of expansion. For Peace and Money highlights the importance of foreign capital in policymaking on the origins and conduct of World War I.
Posted in History

The Invisible Wall of China

Author: Mohit Nayal

Publisher: Vij Books India Pvt Ltd

ISBN: 9381411417

Category: Political Science

Page: 287

View: 5499

The disintegration of Soviet Union in 1991, led to five new countries gaining independence in Central Asia. The Muslims, a predominant majority in the region, had faced religious suppression under the rule of the communist. Thus, began an era where Islam was practiced with larger freedom. However, the governance of most of these states was with the autocratic leaders who had grown under the influence of communism. Therefore, it was but natural for them to soon impose religious restrictions. This close tussle in almost all these newly raised states, led to emergence of some radical groups. Over the years, the influence of such groups has spread to the extent of posing a threat to the stability of country like China. A foothold for radical groups in China is a possibility as its western province of Xinjiang has historical links with Central Asia and was part of Turkistan. Today Xinjiang due to its ethnic violence between the Uyghur Muslims and the Han Chinese is acknowledged to be quite volatile. The link of Uyghur's with Central Asia has further compounded China problem. Apart from the extremists, China is also concerned regarding the growing American presence within the region of Central Asia. To negate the American influence and restrain any turbulence on its western province supported by the extremist of Central Asia, there is a need for China to review its external and internal policies which will steer it towards a more politically and economically stable nation. Failing to addresses such simmering issues the nation will be trapped within the folds of 'THE INVISIBLE WALL OF CHINA'.
Posted in Political Science

Russian Foreign Policy in the 21st Century

Author: Roger E. Kanet

Publisher: Palgrave MacMillan

ISBN: N.A

Category: Political Science

Page: 295

View: 7926

After the collapse of the Soviet Union expectations were high in both Russia and the West that a 'new world order' was emerging in which Russia and the other former Soviet republics would join the Western community of nations. That has not occurred. In Russian Foreign Policy in the 21st Century a distinguished group of analysts from Russia, Europe and North America explains the reasons for this failure and assesses likely future developments in that relationship. The authors explore the importance of Western policies in the 1990s in 'nationalizing' Russian views of their interests; the commitment of President Putin to rebuilding Russia as a great power (beginning in former Soviet space); and the deterioration of Russian relations with the European Union and the United States during the first decade of the 21st century.
Posted in Political Science

Crashed

Wie zehn Jahre Finanzkrise die Welt verändert haben

Author: Adam Tooze

Publisher: Siedler Verlag

ISBN: 3641192773

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 800

View: 4199

Zehn Jahre danach: Der Finanzcrash und seine dramatischen Folgen Als die US-Großbank Lehman Brothers im September 2008 zusammenbrach, war dies der Tiefpunkt der Banken- und Finanzkrise. Und obwohl der totale Kollaps der Weltwirtschaft damals verhindert wurde, ist die Finanzkrise noch lange nicht Geschichte, wie der britische Historiker Adam Tooze zeigt. Er schildert, wie es zu dieser Krise der Finanzmärkte kam und welche dramatischen Folgen sie bis heute hat. Denn nicht nur ist durch die Finanzkrise die Stabilität Europas ins Wanken geraten, sie hat auch das Vertrauen in die Kraft der globalen Wirtschaftsordnung erschüttert – und so zum Aufstieg der Populisten beigetragen.
Posted in Business & Economics

Putin and Putinism

Author: Ronald J. Hill,Ottorino Cappelli

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317967453

Category: Political Science

Page: 216

View: 7476

After two terms as president of the Russian Federation, Vladimir Putin handed over to his hand-picked successor Dmitri Medvedev on 7 May 2008, and became prime minister. As president, Putin moved swiftly and effectively to overcome the chaotic legacy of his predecessor, post-Soviet Russia’s first president Boris Yeltsin. Focusing on rebuilding the authority of the Russian state, and taking advantage of the rise in world prices of the country’s main asset – oil and natural gas – Putin won unassailable popularity at home and caused apprehension around the world, particularly in Russia’s immediate neighbourhood. His methods of rule caused anxiety among liberals and democrats inside Russia and abroad. The legacy of Putin’s presidency poses challenges that demand interpretation. He has not departed from the Russian or the world political scene, and the need to understand and come to terms with Putin’s Russia has not diminished. These essays by an international team of authors are based on presentations to a working conference held in Naples, Italy, in May 2008, supplemented by contributions from authors who were not present at the conference, in order to present a wider selection of views and interpretations of the Putin phenomenon. This book was published as a special issue of Communist Studies and Transition Politics.
Posted in Political Science

Great Games, Local Rules

The New Great Power Contest in Central Asia

Author: Alexander Cooley

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199978581

Category: Political Science

Page: 272

View: 7622

The struggle between Russia and Great Britain over Central Asia in the nineteenth century was the original "great game." But in the past quarter century, a new "great game" has emerged, pitting America against a newly aggressive Russia and a resource-hungry China, all struggling for influence over the same region, now one of the most volatile areas in the world: the long border region stretching from Iran through Pakistan to Kashmir. In Great Games, Local Rules, Alexander Cooley, one of America's most respected international relations scholars, explores the dynamics of the new competition for control of the region since 9/11. All three great powers have crafted strategies to increase their power in the area, which includes Afghanistan and the former Soviet republics of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Kazakhstan. Each nation is pursuing important goals: basing rights for the US, access to natural resources for the Chinese, and increased political influence for the Russians. However, overlooked in all of the talk about this new great game is fact that the Central Asian governments have proven themselves critical agents in their own right, establishing local rules for external power involvement that serve to fend off foreign interest. As a result, despite a decade of intense interest from the United States, Russia, and China, Central Asia remains a collection of segmented states, and the external competition has merely reinforced the sovereign authority of the individual Central Asian governments. A careful and surprising analysis of how small states interact with great powers in a vital region, Great Games, Local Rules greatly advances our understanding of how global politics actually works in the contemporary era.
Posted in Political Science

Twenty-First Century Seapower

Cooperation and Conflict at Sea

Author: Peter Dutton,Robert Ross,Øystein Tunsjø

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136316957

Category: History

Page: 344

View: 949

This book offers an assessment of the naval policies of emerging naval powers, and the implications for maritime security relations and the global maritime order. Since the end of the Cold War, China, Japan, India and Russia have begun to challenge the status quo with the acquisition of advanced naval capabilities. The emergence of rising naval powers is a cause for concern, as the potential for great power instability is exacerbated by the multiple maritime territorial disputes among new and established naval powers. This work explores the underlying sources of maritime ambition through an analysis of various historical cases of naval expansionism. It analyses both the sources and dynamics of international naval competition, and looks at the ways in which maritime stability and the widespread benefits of international commerce and maritime resource extraction can be sustained through the twenty-first century. This book will be of much interest to students of naval power, Asian security and politics, strategic studies, security studies and IR in general.
Posted in History

Das Kapital im 21. Jahrhundert

Author: Thomas Piketty

Publisher: C.H.Beck

ISBN: 3406671322

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 816

View: 3754

Wie entstehen die Akkumulation und die Distribution von Kapital? Welche Dynamiken sind dafür maßgeblich? Fragen der langfristigen Evolution von Ungleichheit, der Konzentration von Wohlstand in wenigen Händen und nach den Chancen für ökonomisches Wachstum bilden den Kern der Politischen Ökonomie. Aber befriedigende Antworten darauf gab es bislang kaum, weil aussagekräftige Daten und eine überzeugende Theorie fehlten. In Das Kapital im 21. Jahrhundert analysiert Thomas Piketty ein beeindruckendes Datenmaterial aus 20 Ländern, zurückgehend bis ins 18. Jahrhundert, um auf dieser Basis die entscheidenden ökonomischen und sozialen Abläufe freizulegen. Seine Ergebnisse stellen die Debatte auf eine neue Grundlage und definieren zugleich die Agenda für das künftige Nachdenken über Wohlstand und Ungleichheit. Piketty zeigt uns, dass das ökonomische Wachstum in der Moderne und die Verbreitung des Wissens es uns ermöglicht haben, den Ungleichheiten in jenem apokalyptischen Ausmaß zu entgehen, das Karl Marx prophezeit hatte. Aber wir haben die Strukturen von Kapital und Ungleichheit andererseits nicht so tiefgreifend modifiziert, wie es in den prosperierenden Jahrzehnten nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg den Anschein hatte. Der wichtigste Treiber der Ungleichheit – nämlich die Tendenz von Kapitalgewinnen, die Wachstumsrate zu übertreffen – droht heute extreme Ungleichheiten hervorzubringen, die am Ende auch den sozialen Frieden gefährden und unsere demokratischen Werte in Frage stellen. Doch ökonomische Trends sind keine Gottesurteile. Politisches Handeln hat gefährliche Ungleichheiten in der Vergangenheit korrigiert, so Piketty, und kann das auch wieder tun.
Posted in Business & Economics

Der Weg in die Unfreiheit

Russland - Europa - Amerika

Author: Timothy Snyder

Publisher: C.H.Beck

ISBN: 3406725023

Category: Political Science

Page: 376

View: 2153

Gleichheit oder Oligarchie, Individualismus oder Unfreiheit, Wahrheit oder Fake News – die Welt, wie wir sie kannten, steht am Scheideweg. Viel hat der Westen selbst dazu beigetragen. Aber er hat auch mächtige Feinde, die seine Institutionen mit allen Mitteln – von der Finanzierung des Rechtspopulismus in Europa bis zum Cyberwar – untergraben wollen. Wer diese Gegner sind, wie sie vorgehen und wie bedrohlich die Lage ist, das beschreibt das aufsehenerregende neue Buch von Tim Snyder. Mit dem Ende des Kalten Krieges hatten die liberalen Demokratien des Westens gesiegt. Von nun an würde die Menschheit eine friedvolle, globalisierte Zukunft erwarten. Doch das war ein Irrtum. Seit Putin seine Macht in Russland etabliert hat, rollt eine Welle des Autoritarismus von Osten nach Westen, die Europ... a erfasst hat und mit Donald Trump auch im Weißen Haus angekommen ist. Tim Snyder, Autor des Weltbestsellers «Über Tyrannei», beschreibt in seinem Buch den Aufstieg dieser neuen «rechten Internationalen», schildert ihre bedrohlichen Ziele und zeigt, wie sehr die Grundlagen unserer Demokratie in Gefahr sind.
Posted in Political Science

New Challenges of North Korean Foreign Policy

Author: Kyung-Ae Park

Publisher: Palgrave MacMillan

ISBN: N.A

Category: Political Science

Page: 231

View: 4774

North Korea’s foreign policy behavior has long intrigued scholars, puzzled laymen, frustrated negotiators, and aggravated policy-makers. This book brings together the work of ten of the world’s foremost scholars and leading experts on North Korea to critically analyze the key factors and issues that are shaping North Korea’s foreign policy behavior and its future direction. Witnessing the rapid changes in North Korea’s foreign policy environment, the contributors to this volume examine the implications for Pyongyang’s foreign policy of the domestic challenges posed by the changing national identity and ideology, people’s exiting of the country, economic stagnation, and the military-first politics. They also offer insight into the impact of various external challenges on North Korea’s foreign policy, such as China ‘rising,’ multilateralism, and leadership changes in the United States and South Korea, and asses Pyongyang’s strategies for coping with these challenges.
Posted in Political Science

Wer beherrscht die Welt?

Die globalen Verwerfungen der amerikanischen Politik

Author: Noam Chomsky

Publisher: Ullstein eBooks

ISBN: 3843714436

Category: Political Science

Page: 416

View: 2283

„Die Frage, wer die Welt regiert, kann nicht eindeutig beantwortet werden. Aber die einflussreichsten Akteure sind klar auszumachen.“ Auch nach der Ära Obama gilt: Die USA betrachten sich grundsätzlich als die Guten – selbst dann, wenn sie das Gleiche tun wie jene, denen sie Böses unterstellen: Zivilflugzeuge abschießen, willkürlich Leute inhaftieren und mit Drohnen umbringen oder in fremde Länder einmarschieren. Das Primat der militärischen Intervention und der unerbittliche Drang, alleinige Weltmacht zu bleiben, bilden die Konstanten der amerikanischen Politik – auch wenn dadurch Staaten ins Chaos und Menschen ins Verderben getrieben werden. Im Land dagegen haben die Reichen und Mächtigen fast freie Hand, jenseits demokratischer Kontrollen und unbeachtet von einer zunehmend gleichgültigen Bevölkerung. Wohin führt uns das? Welche Folgen hat das für den Rest der Welt? In seiner so brillanten wie präzisen Analyse zeigt Noam Chomsky die fatalen Folgen der imperialen Politik der USA für das ohnehin immer chaotischere Zusammenleben auf unserem Planeten.
Posted in Political Science

Man in the Shadows

Inside the Middle East Crisis with a Man Who Led the Mossad

Author: Efraim Halevy

Publisher: St. Martin's Press

ISBN: 1429904984

Category: Political Science

Page: 304

View: 9439

Israel's Mossad is thought by many to be one of the most powerful intelligence agencies in the world. In Man in the Shadows, Efraim Halevy—a Mossad officer since 1961 and its chief between 1998 and 2002—provides an unprecedented portrait of the Middle East crisis. Having served as the secret envoy of prime ministers Rabin, Shamir, Netanyahu, Barak, and Sharon, Halevy was privy to many of the top-level negotiations that determined the progress of the region's struggle for peace during the years when the threat of Islamic terror became increasingly powerful. Informed by his extraordinary access, he writes candidly about the workings of the Mossad, the prime ministers he served under, and the other major players on the international stage: Yasir Arafat, Saddam Hussein, Hafiz al-Assad, Mu'amar Gadhafi, Bill Clinton, George H. W. Bush, and George W. Bush. From the vantage point of a chief in charge of a large organization, he frankly describes the difficulty of running an intelligence agency in a time when heads of state are immersed, as never before, in using intelligence to protect their nations while, at the same time, acting to protect themselves politically. Most important, he writes fiercely and without hesitation about how the world might achieve peace in the face of the growing threat from Islamic terrorist organizations. In this gripping inside look, Halevy opens his private dossier on events past and present: the assassination attempt by the Mossad on the life of Khaled Mashal, now the leader of Khammas; the negotiations surrounding the Israeli-Jordan Peace Accord and its importance for the stability of the region; figures in the CIA, like Jim Angleton and George Tenet, with whom he worked (Halevy even shares his feelings about Tenet's abrupt resignation). He tells the truth about what the Mossad really knew before 9/11. He writes candidly about assessing the threat of the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction in the region and beyond, and what this spells for the future of international stability and survival. He touches on the increasing visibility of the CIA in the Middle East and openly shares his misgivings about both the report of the 9/11 Commission and the Middle East road map to peace that was pressed on all sides of the conflict by the U.S. government. He looks at the terrorist attacks in Madrid and London and their far-reaching effects, and states the unthinkable: We have yet to see the worst of what the radical Islamic terrorists are capable of. Sure to be one of the year's most talked-about books, this fierce and intelligent account of will be a must-read for those looking to hear from a man who wielded his influence, in the shadows, to save the Middle East and the world from a never-ending cycle of violence and destruction.
Posted in Political Science

Tajikistan in the New Central Asia

Geopolitics, Great Power Rivalry and Radical Islam

Author: Lena Jonson

Publisher: I.B.Tauris

ISBN: 9781845112936

Category: History

Page: 252

View: 4683

Embedded in the oil-rich Central Asian region, and bordering Afghanistan, Tajikisitan occupies a geo-strategically pivotal position. This book examines Tajkistan's search for a foreign policy in the post 9/11 environment. It shows the internal contradictions of a country at the crossroads, reconciling its bloody past with an uncertain future.
Posted in History

Eine kurze Geschichte der Menschheit

Author: Yuval Noah Harari

Publisher: DVA

ISBN: 364110498X

Category: History

Page: 528

View: 5395

Krone der Schöpfung? Vor 100 000 Jahren war der Homo sapiens noch ein unbedeutendes Tier, das unauffällig in einem abgelegenen Winkel des afrikanischen Kontinents lebte. Unsere Vorfahren teilten sich den Planeten mit mindestens fünf weiteren menschlichen Spezies, und die Rolle, die sie im Ökosystem spielten, war nicht größer als die von Gorillas, Libellen oder Quallen. Vor 70 000 Jahren dann vollzog sich ein mysteriöser und rascher Wandel mit dem Homo sapiens, und es war vor allem die Beschaffenheit seines Gehirns, die ihn zum Herren des Planeten und zum Schrecken des Ökosystems werden ließ. Bis heute hat sich diese Vorherrschaft stetig zugespitzt: Der Mensch hat die Fähigkeit zu schöpferischem und zu zerstörerischem Handeln wie kein anderes Lebewesen. Anschaulich, unterhaltsam und stellenweise hochkomisch zeichnet Yuval Harari die Geschichte des Menschen nach und zeigt alle großen, aber auch alle ambivalenten Momente unserer Menschwerdung.
Posted in History