Codified in the 1899 and 1907 Hague Peace Conferences and later modified by the 1949 Fourth Geneva Convention, the traditional international law of occupation has been challenged by advocates of human rights and self- determination and tested by the numerous occupations of the last two decades--among them Israeli occupation of the West Bank and Gaza, Turkish occupation of Northern Cyprus, the Vietnamese occupation of Cambodia, U.S. operations in Grenada and Panama, and occupations during the Persian Gulf crisis. To address the new issues that have emerged, Eyal Benvenisti formulates a contemporary theory of the law of occupation and establishes guidelines for the lawful management of occupation. In his new preface the author addresses issues arising from the U.S. occupation of Iraq. Benvenisti delineates the international responsibilities and obligations of governments that gain control over foreign territories through the use of force and examines the conduct of various occupying powers of the twentieth century, beginning with the German occupation of Belgium during World War I. He analyzes the actions of these occupants by contrasting them with the reactions of ousted governments, of peoples under occupation, and of other states and of supranational organizations. Additionally, he evaluates the legality of various measures taken by occupants, with the result that the nature of occupation can now for the first time be systematically assessed.
Author: Eyal Benvenisti
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Since the mid-1990s, political, legal, and historical debates about Nazi theft and confiscation of property, the use of slave labor during World War II, and restitution and compensation have reemerged. Revisiting the National Socialist Legacy presents completely new historical research on these issues conducted worldwide. This volume responds to concern about Holocaust era assets in Europe, the United States, and Latin America. It focuses on both reexamination of the history of National Socialist property theft and employment of forced labor in the wartime economy, and the compensation and restitution solutions advanced in various European and Latin American countries since 1945. While the question of Nazis in exile and the memories of survivors are explored, attention is focused on the role of numerous historical commissions and the tension between judicial processes, media coverage, historical scholarship, and politics. The book is divided into five parts: "At the Nexus of Justice, Media Coverage, Historical Scholarship and Politics"; "Commissioned History"; "Research on Slave and Forced Labor"; "National Socialist Theft: Banking, Industry, Insurance and Works of Art"; and "History as Catharsis." "[A]n excellent volume. It shows the wisdom of creating the national historical commission such as CEANA in Argentina, established in part as a national response to the two major bombings of Jewish institutions in the country. Clearly these commissions have led to the examination of archives that otherwise might have continued to lie dormant. This volume is not the end of the story[b]ut it has highlighted some promising new areas of research."--John T. Pawlikowski, professor of social ethics and director, Catholic-Jewish Studies Program, Catholic Theological Union "[C]ompletely new findings from research on Nazi looting of property and exploitation of slave and forced labor during World War 2..."--Austrian Information Oliver Rathkolb is co-director of the Ludwig Boltzmann Institut fr Geschichte und Gesellschaft, Vienna, research director of the Democracy Center, Vienna, research coordinator of the Bruno Kreisky Forum for International Dialogue, and assistant professor at the Institute for Contemporary History of the University of Vienna.
Coming to Terms With Forced Labor, Expropriation, Compensation, and Restitution
Author: Oliver Rathkolb
Publisher: Transaction Publishers
This collection of scholarly and critical essays about the legal aspects of the Vietnam War explores various crimes committed by the United States against North Vietnam: war of aggression; war crimes in bombing civilian targets such as schools and hospitals, and using napalm, cluster bombs, and Agent Orange; crimes against humanity in moving large parts of the population to so-called strategic hamlets; and alleged genocide and ecocide. International lawyer Richard Falk, who observed these acts personally in North Vietnam in 1968, uses international law to show how they came about. This book brings together essays that he has written on the Vietnam War and on its relationship to international law, American foreign policy, and the global world order. Falk argues that only a stronger adherence to international law can save the world from such future tragedies and create a sustainable world order.
Views and Interpretations of Richard Falk
Author: Stefan Andersson
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Since the "surge" in Iraq in 2006, counterinsurgency effectively became America's dominant approach for fighting wars. Yet many of the major controversies and debates surrounding counterinsurgency have turned not on military questions but on legal ones: Who can the military attack with drones? Is the occupation of Iraq legitimate? What tradeoffs should the military make between self-protection and civilian casualties? What is the right framework for negotiating with the Taliban? How can we build the rule of law in Afghanistan? The Counterinsurgent's Constitution tackles this wide range of legal issues from the vantage point of counterinsurgency strategy. Ganesh Sitaraman explains why law matters in counterinsurgency: how it operates on the ground and how law and counterinsurgency strategy can be better integrated. Counterinsurgency, Sitaraman notes, focuses on winning over the population, providing essential services, building political and legal institutions, and fostering economic development. So, unlike in conventional war, where law places humanitarian restraints on combat, law and counterinsurgency are well aligned and reinforce one another. Indeed, following the law and building the rule of law is not just the right thing to do, it is strategically beneficial. Moreover, reconciliation with enemies can both help to end the conflict and preserve the possibility of justice for war crimes. Following the rule of law is an important element of success. The first book on law and counterinsurgency strategy, The Counterinsurgent's Constitution seamlessly integrates law and military strategy to illuminate some of the most pressing issues in warfare and the transition from war to peace. Its lessons also apply to conflicts in Libya and other hot-spots in the Middle East.
Law in the Age of Small Wars
Author: Ganesh Sitaraman
Publisher: Oxford University Press
This book addresses gaps in thinking and practice on how the private sector can both help and hinder the process of building peace after armed conflict. It argues that weak governance in fragile and conflict-affected societies creates a need for international authorities to regulate the social impact of business activity in these places as a special interim duty. Policymaking should seek appropriate opportunities to engage with business while harnessing its positive contributions to sustainable peace. However, scholars have not offered frameworks for what is considered 'appropriate' engagement or properly theorised techniques for how best to influence responsible business conduct. United Nations peace operations are peak symbols of international regulatory responsibilities in conflict settings, and debate continues to grow around the private sector's role in development generally. This book is the first to study how peace operations have engaged with business to influence its peace-building impact.
The United Nations, the Private Sector, and Post-Conflict Recovery
Author: Jolyon Ford
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
The fall of dictatorial regimes and the eruption of destructive civil conflicts around the world have led to calls for holding individuals accountable for human rights atrocities. International law had little to say on this subject from the time of the Nuremberg and Tokyo trials fifty years ago until very recently. In this well-researched book, Steven Ratner and Jason Abrams offer a comprehensive study of the promise and limitations of international criminal law as a means of enforcing international human rights and humanitarian law. They provide a searching analysis of the principal crimes under the law of nations, such as genocide and crimes against humanity. They go on to appraise the most important prosecutorial and other mechanisms developed to bring individuals to justice. After applying their conclusions in a detailed case study, the authors offer a series of compelling conclusions on the prospects for accountability. In this new edition the authors also cover recent developments such as the jurisprudence of the UN's Yugoslavia and Rwanda tribunals, new domestic attempts at accountability, and the International Criminal Court. This new edition has been revised and updated to include developments since 1997, including domestic prosecutions and truth commission, the work of the UN's Yugoslavia and Rwand Tribunals, and the International Criminal Court.
Beyond the Nuremberg Legacy
Author: Steven R. Ratner,Jason S. Abrams
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
Web & Mobile Usability: Das intuitive Web
Author: Steve Krug
Publisher: MITP-Verlags GmbH & Co. KG
In this sweeping narrative history from the Great Depression of the 1930s to the Great Recession of today, Caring for America rethinks both the history of the American welfare state from the perspective of care work and chronicles how home care workers eventually became one of the most vibrant forces in the American labor movement. Eileen Boris and Jennifer Klein demonstrate the ways in which law and social policy made home care a low-waged job that was stigmatized as welfare and relegated to the bottom of the medical hierarchy. For decades, these front-line caregivers labored in the shadows of a welfare state that shaped the conditions of the occupation. Disparate, often chaotic programs for home care, which allowed needy, elderly, and disabled people to avoid institutionalization, historically paid poverty wages to the African American and immigrant women who constituted the majority of the labor force. Yet policymakers and welfare administrators linked discourses of dependence and independence-claiming that such jobs would end clients' and workers' "dependence" on the state and provide a ticket to economic independence. The history of home care illuminates the fractured evolution of the modern American welfare state since the New Deal and its race, gender, and class fissures. It reveals why there is no adequate long-term care in America. Caring for America is much more than a history of social policy, however; it is also about a powerful contemporary social movement. At the front and center of the narrative are the workers-poor women of color-who have challenged the racial, social, and economic stigmas embedded in the system. Caring for America traces the intertwined, sometimes conflicting search of care providers and receivers for dignity, self-determination, and security. It highlights the senior citizen and independent living movements; the civil rights organizing of women on welfare and domestic workers; the battles of public sector unions; and the unionization of health and service workers. It rethinks the strategies of the U.S. labor movement in terms of a growing care work economy. Finally, it makes a powerful argument that care is a basic right for all and that care work merits a living wage.
Home Health Workers in the Shadow of the Welfare State
Author: Eileen Boris,Jennifer Klein
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Category: Social Science
Historical surveys of postwar Japan are usually established on the grounds that the era is already over, interpreting "postwar" to be the years directly proceeding World War II. However, the contributors to this book take a unique approach to the concept of the postwar epoch and treat it as a network of historical time frames from the modern period, and connect these time capsules to the war to which they are inextricably linked. The books strength is in its very interdisciplinary approach to examining postwar Japan and as such it includes chapters centred on subjects as diverse as politics, poetry, philosophy, economics and art which serve to fill the blanks in the collective cultural memory that historical narratives leave behind. Originally published in French, this new translation offers the English speaking world important access to a major work on Japan which has been greatly enriched by the translator’s great accuracy and knowledge of English, French and Japanese language, history and culture. Japan's Postwar will appeal to students and scholars of Japanese Studies and Modern Japanese History as well as historians studying the world after 1945.
Author: Michael Lucken,Anne Bayard-Sakai,Emmanuel Lozerand
Author: Chayan Vaddhanaphuti,Chūsak Witthayāphak
Category: ASEAN community
Von den Bergen Idahos nach Cambridge – der unwahrscheinliche »Bildungsweg« der Tara Westover. Tara Westover ist 17 Jahre alt, als sie zum ersten Mal eine Schulklasse betritt. Zehn Jahre später kann sie eine beeindruckende akademische Laufbahn vorweisen. Aufgewachsen im ländlichen Amerika, befreit sie sich aus einer ärmlichen, archaischen und von Paranoia und Gewalt geprägten Welt durch – Bildung, durch die Aneignung von Wissen, das ihr so lange vorenthalten worden war. Die Berge Idahos sind Taras Heimat, sie lebt als Kind im Einklang mit der grandiosen Natur, mit dem Wechsel der Jahreszeiten – und mit den Gesetzen, die ihr Vater aufstellt. Er ist ein fundamentalistischer Mormone, vom baldigen Ende der Welt überzeugt und voller Misstrauen gegenüber dem Staat, von dem er sich verfolgt sieht. Tara und ihre Geschwister gehen nicht zur Schule, sie haben keine Geburtsurkunden, und ein Arzt wird selbst bei fürchterlichsten Verletzungen nicht gerufen. Und die kommen häufig vor, denn die Kinder müssen bei der schweren Arbeit auf Vaters Schrottplatz helfen, um über die Runden zu kommen. Taras Mutter, die einzige Hebamme in der Gegend, heilt die Wunden mit ihren Kräutern. Nichts ist dieser Welt ferner als Bildung. Und doch findet Tara die Kraft, sich auf die Aufnahmeprüfung fürs College vorzubereiten, auch wenn sie quasi bei null anfangen muss ... Wie Tara Westover sich aus dieser Welt befreit, überhaupt erst einmal ein Bewusstsein von sich selbst entwickelt, um den schmerzhaften Abnabelungsprozess von ihrer Familie bewältigen zu können, das beschreibt sie in diesem ergreifenden und wunderbar poetischen Buch. » Befreit wirft ein Licht auf einen Teil unseres Landes, den wir zu oft übersehen. Tara Westovers eindringliche Erzählung — davon, einen Platz für sich selbst in der Welt zu finden, ohne die Verbindung zu ihrer Familie und ihrer geliebten Heimat zu verlieren — verdient es, weithin gelesen zu werden.« J.D. Vance Autor der »Hillbilly-Elegie«
Wie Bildung mir die Welt erschloss
Author: Tara Westover
Publisher: Kiepenheuer & Witsch
Category: Biography & Autobiography
Author: Mabel Moraña,Carlos A. Jáuregui
Most contributions to this volume originated as papers given at an inter national conference on Integrative Perspectives on Youth Development held in Berlin (West) in May, 1983. This conference was part of a 6-year longi tudinal research program on the causes of substance use among adolescents in Berlin, which is now in its fourth year. The conference title deliberately did not refer to substance use. However, its relevance to an explanation of drug-related problem behavior was made evident to everyone invited to the conference. The search for integrative perspectives in youth development originated in a dilemma that became obvious during the planning of intensive research on concomitants of substance use. In the methodology for research on youth development, there were two lines of thought that seemed completely unre lated to each other: One line of thought was oriented toward the person, leaving situational aspects aside, while the other concentrated on ecological or situational determinants and thus neglected the aspects of development and internal processes. The integration of both these directions seemed to be an unusually promising approach for any project that aimed to understand changes in the individual within a rapidly changing urban setting. The best way to come closer to a resolution of that dilemma seemed to be an intensive exchange between the American and European scientific communities on this issue.
Problem Behavior and Normal Youth Development
Author: Rainer Silbereisen,Klaus Eyferth,Georg Rudinger
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This edited volume represents a re-examination of the most central issues in the history of the Iraqi nation state until the American occupation (1920-2003) and, in the light of that history, a re-evaluation of developments under the occupation (2003-2008).
Perspectives from 1920 to the Present
Author: R. Zeidel,A. Baram,Achim Rohde
Category: Political Science
This book reflects on the way in which war and police/policing intersect in contemporary Western-led interventions in the global South. The volume combines empirically oriented work with ground-breaking theoretical insights and aims to collect, for the first time, thoughts on how war and policing converge, amalgamate, diffuse and dissolve in the context both of actual international intervention and in understandings thereof. The book uses the caption WAR:POLICE to highlight the distinctiveness of this volume in presenting a variety of approaches that share a concern for the assemblage of war-police as a whole. The volume thus serves to bring together critical perspectives on liberal interventionism where the logics of war and police/policing blur and bleed into a complex assemblage of WAR:POLICE. Contributions to this volume offer an understanding of police as a technique of ordering and collectively take issue with accounts of the character of contemporary war that argue that war is simply reduced to policing. In contrast, the contributions show how – both historically and conceptually – the two are ‘always already’ connected. Contributions to this volume come from a variety of disciplines including international relations, war studies, geography, anthropology, and law but share a critical/poststructuralist approach to the study of international intervention, war and policing. This volume will be useful to students and scholars who have an interest in social theories on intervention, war, security, and the making of international order.?
Author: Jan Bachmann,Colleen Bell,Caroline Holmqvist
Category: Political Science
The situation of technical and vocational education varies widely across sub-Saharan countries. Delivery systems are diverse, combining school-based provision with various non-formal training arrangements. Unfortunately, this diversity is also associated with glaring disparities. Nevertheless, emerging common trends can be identified. This book examines these policy trends and the reconstruction of training systems.
An Update on Trends, Innovations and Challenges
Author: David Atchoarena,André Delluc,Adrienne Bird,International Institute for Educational Planning
Publisher: Unesco, International Institute for Educational Planning
Category: Business & Economics
Author: Michael J. Glennon
Publisher: Anderson Publishing Company (OH)