Religion Versus Empire?

British Protestant Missionaries and Overseas Expansion, 1700-1914

Author: Andrew Porter

Publisher: Manchester University Press

ISBN: 9780719028236

Category: History

Page: 373

View: 8693

This is the only book that addresses the relations between religion, Protestant missions, and empire building, linking together all three fields of study by taking as its starting point the early eighteenth century Anglican initiatives in colonial North America and the Caribbean. It considers how the early societies of the 1790s built on this inheritance, and extended their own interests to the Pacific, India, the Far East, and Africa. Fluctuations in the vigor and commitment of the missions, changing missionary theologies, and the emergence of alternative missionary strategies, are all examined for their impact on imperial expansion. Other themes include the international character of the missionary movement, Christianity's encounter with Islam, and major figures such as David Livingstone, the state and politics, and humanitarianism, all of which are viewed in a fresh light.
Posted in History

Religion and International Relations Theory

Author: Jack Snyder

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231526911

Category: Political Science

Page: 232

View: 8991

Religious concerns stand at the center of international politics, yet key paradigms in international relations, namely realism, liberalism, and constructivism, barely consider religion in their analysis of political subjects. The essays in this collection rectify this. Authored by leading scholars, they introduce models that integrate religion into the study of international politics and connect religion to a rising form of populist politics in the developing world. Contributors identify religion as pervasive and distinctive, forcing a reframing of international relations theory that reinterprets traditional paradigms. One essay draws on both realism and constructivism in the examination of religious discourse and transnational networks. Another positions secularism not as the opposite of religion but as a comparable type of worldview drawing on and competing with religious ideas. With the secular state's perceived failure to address popular needs, religion has become a banner for movements that demand a more responsive government. The contributors to this volume recognize this trend and propose structural and theoretical innovations for future advances in the discipline.
Posted in Political Science

Sprachpolitik im Britischen Empire

Herrschaftssprache und Integration in Ceylon und den Föderierten Malaiischen Staaten

Author: Almut Steinbach

Publisher: Oldenbourg Verlag

ISBN: 3486707647

Category: History

Page: 320

View: 5657

Kulturelle Aspekte des Imperialismus wirken oft prägender und langfristiger als andere Dimensionen der europäischen Expansion. Während die formale Herrschaft der Briten über große Teile der Welt heute der Vergangenheit angehört, spielt die englische Sprache weiterhin eine weltbeherrschende Rolle. Als einer der wichtigsten Gründe für den Erfolg und die Durchsetzungskraft des Englischen gilt die Ausbreitung des Britischen Empire im 19. Jahrhundert. Almut Steinbach widmet sich der britischen Sprachpolitik im Zusammenhang mit Fragen nach der imperialen Integration in Süd- und Südostasien. Der Blick auf mehrere Kolonien erlaubt Vergleiche und eine Beschreibung von Transfers. Beziehungen zwischen Metropole und Peripherie ebenso wie zwischen den Kolonien werden analysiert und geben Aufschluss über Entscheidungsprozesse im Britischen Empire.
Posted in History

Empire of Humanity

A History of Humanitarianism

Author: Michael Barnett

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 9780801461095

Category: Political Science

Page: 312

View: 7719

Empire of Humanity explores humanitarianism's remarkable growth from its humble origins in the early nineteenth century to its current prominence in global life. In contrast to most contemporary accounts of humanitarianism that concentrate on the last two decades, Michael Barnett ties the past to the present, connecting the antislavery and missionary movements of the nineteenth century to today's peacebuilding missions, the Cold War interventions in places like Biafra and Cambodia to post-Cold War humanitarian operations in regions such as the Great Lakes of Africa and the Balkans; and the creation of the International Committee of the Red Cross in 1863 to the emergence of the major international humanitarian organizations of the twentieth century. Based on extensive archival work, close encounters with many of today's leading international agencies, and interviews with dozens of aid workers in the field and at headquarters, Empire of Humanity provides a history that is both global and intimate. Avoiding both romanticism and cynicism, Empire of Humanity explores humanitarianism's enduring themes, trends, and, most strikingly, ethical ambiguities. Humanitarianism hopes to change the world, but the world has left its mark on humanitarianism. Humanitarianism has undergone three distinct global ages-imperial, postcolonial, and liberal-each of which has shaped what humanitarianism can do and what it is. The world has produced not one humanitarianism, but instead varieties of humanitarianism. Furthermore, Barnett observes that the world of humanitarianism is divided between an emergency camp that wants to save lives and nothing else and an alchemist camp that wants to remove the causes of suffering. These camps offer different visions of what are the purpose and principles of humanitarianism, and, accordingly respond differently to the same global challenges and humanitarianism emergencies. Humanitarianism has developed a metropolis of global institutions of care, amounting to a global governance of humanity. This humanitarian governance, Barnett observes, is an empire of humanity: it exercises power over the very individuals it hopes to emancipate. Although many use humanitarianism as a symbol of moral progress, Barnett provocatively argues that humanitarianism has undergone its most impressive gains after moments of radical inhumanity, when the "international community" believes that it must atone for its sins and reduce the breach between what we do and who we think we are. Humanitarianism is not only about the needs of its beneficiaries; it also is about the needs of the compassionate.
Posted in Political Science

God's Empire

Religion and Colonialism in the British World, c.1801–1908

Author: Hilary M. Carey

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139494090

Category: History

Page: N.A

View: 3837

In God's Empire, Hilary M. Carey charts Britain's nineteenth-century transformation from Protestant nation to free Christian empire through the history of the colonial missionary movement. This wide-ranging reassessment of the religious character of the second British empire provides a clear account of the promotional strategies of the major churches and church parties which worked to plant settler Christianity in British domains. Based on extensive use of original archival and rare published sources, the author explores major debates such as the relationship between religion and colonization, church-state relations, Irish Catholics in the empire, the impact of the Scottish Disruption on colonial Presbyterianism, competition between Evangelicals and other Anglicans in the colonies, and between British and American strands of Methodism in British North America.
Posted in History

Konversion zur Moderne?

die britische Indianermission in der atlantischen Welt des 18. Jahrhunderts

Author: Ulrike Kirchberger

Publisher: Otto Harrassowitz Verlag

ISBN: 9783447057219

Category: Religion

Page: 327

View: 3825

Die zweite Halfte des 18. Jahrhunderts wird gemeinhin als Phase des Ubergangs von der Fruhen Neuzeit in die Moderne betrachtet. In dieser Zeit waren drei britische Missionsgesellschaften bei den nordamerikanischen Indianern tatig: die nonkonformistische "New England Company," die anglikanische "Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts" und die presbyterianische "Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge." Es werden die atlantischen Organisationsstrukturen dieser drei Gesellschaften untersucht, um darauf aufbauend zu analysieren, was zwischen den Zentren im Mutterland und den kolonialen Filialinstanzen an missionsstrategischem Gedankengut und an Wahrnehmungsmustern uber die Indianer ausgetauscht wurde. Es zeigt sich, dass diejenigen Faktoren, die man mit dem vermeintlichen Epochenwandel in das Zeitalter der Moderne in Verbindung bringt, wie zum Beispiel die Formation ethnischer und nationaler Identitaten, die europaische Beurteilung uberseeischer Volker nach den Kriterien des biologischen Rassismus, die Verdichtung wissenschaftlicher Kenntnis uber die aussereuropaische Welt oder auch ein Umbruch in der Missionstheologie am Ende des 18. Jahrhunderts, kaum in die atlantische Kommunikation der drei Gesellschaften Eingang fanden. Es wurde weitgehend an den althergebrachten Denkschemata festgehalten. Auch in organisatorischer Hinsicht war die Entwicklung von Kontinuitaten gepragt, die weit ins 19. Jahrhundert reichten. Die Geschichte dieser von der Forschung bislang kaum beachteten Missionsgesellschaften relativiert das Paradigma vom Epochenbruch am Ende des 18. Jahrhunderts.
Posted in Religion

Islam and the European Empires

Author: David Motadel

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 019164529X

Category: History

Page: 256

View: 728

At the height of the imperial age, European powers ruled over most parts of the Islamic world. The British, French, Russian, and Dutch empires each governed more Muslims than any independent Muslim state. European officials believed Islam to be of great political significance, and were quite cautious when it came to matters of the religious life of their Muslim subjects. In the colonies, they regularly employed Islamic religious leaders and institutions to bolster imperial rule. At the same time, the European presence in Muslim lands was confronted by religious resistance movements and Islamic insurgency. Across the globe, from the West African savanna to the shores of Southeast Asia, Muslim rebels called for holy war against non-Muslim intruders. Islam and the European Empires presents the first comparative account of the engagement of all major European empires with Islam. Bringing together fifteen of the world's leading scholars in the field, the volume explores a wide array of themes, ranging from the accommodation of Islam under imperial rule to Islamic anti-colonial resistance. A truly global history of empire, the volume makes a major contribution not only to our knowledge of the intersection of Islam and imperialism, but also more generally to our understanding of religion and power in the modern world.
Posted in History

Irish Imperial Networks

Migration, Social Communication and Exchange in Nineteenth-Century India

Author: Barry Crosbie

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 113950181X

Category: History

Page: N.A

View: 1337

This is an innovative study of the role of Ireland and the Irish in the British Empire which examines the intellectual, cultural and political interconnections between nineteenth-century British imperial, Irish and Indian history. Barry Crosbie argues that Ireland was a crucial sub-imperial centre for the British Empire in South Asia that provided a significant amount of the manpower, intellectual and financial capital that fuelled Britain's drive into Asia from the 1750s onwards. He shows the important role that Ireland played as a centre for recruitment for the armed forces, the medical and civil services and the many missionary and scientific bodies established in South Asia during the colonial period. In doing so, the book also reveals the important part that the Empire played in shaping Ireland's domestic institutions, family life and identity in equally significant ways.
Posted in History

Religious Internationals in the Modern World

Globalization and Faith Communities since 1750

Author: A. Green,V. Viaene

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137031719

Category: Religion

Page: 383

View: 2718

Tracing the emergence of 'Religious Internationals' as a distinctive new phenomenon in world history, this book transforms our understanding of the role of religion in our modern world. Through in-depth studies comparing the experiences of Buddhists, Christians, Hindus, Jews and Muslims, leading experts shed new light on 'global civil society'.
Posted in Religion

Conflict, Conquest, and Conversion

Two Thousand Years of Christian Missions in the Middle East

Author: Eleanor H. Tejirian,Reeva Spector Simon

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231511094

Category: History

Page: 320

View: 6478

Conflict, Conquest, and Conversion surveys two thousand years of the Christian missionary enterprise in the Middle East within the context of the region's political evolution. Its broad, rich narrative follows Christian missions as they interacted with imperial powers and as the momentum of religious change shifted from Christianity to Islam and back, adding new dimensions to the history of the region and the nature of the relationship between the Middle East and the West. Historians and political scientists increasingly recognize the importance of integrating religion into political analysis, and this volume, using long-neglected sources, uniquely advances this effort. It surveys Christian missions from the earliest days of Christianity to the present, paying particular attention to the role of Christian missions, both Protestant and Catholic, in shaping the political and economic imperialism of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Eleanor H. Tejirian and Reeva Spector Simon delineate the ongoing tensions between conversion and the focus on witness and "good works" within the missionary movement, which contributed to the development and spread of nongovernmental organizations. Through its conscientious, systematic study, this volume offers an unparalleled encounter with the social, political, and economic consequences of such trends.
Posted in History

Missions and Empire

Author: Norman Etherington

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780191531064

Category: History

Page: 352

View: 9689

The explosive expansion of Christianity in Africa and Asia during the last two centuries constitutes one of the most remarkable cultural transformations in the history of mankind. Because it coincided with the spread of European economic and political hegemony, it tends to be taken for granted that Christian missions went hand in hand with imperialism and colonial conquest. In this book historians survey the relationship between Christian missions and the British Empire from the seventeenth century to the 1960s and treat the subject thematically, rather than regionally or chronologically. Many of these themes are treated at length for the first time, relating the work of missions to language, medicine, anthropology, and decolonization. Other important chapters focus on the difficult relationship between missionaries and white settlers, women and mission, and the neglected role of the indigenous evangelists who did far more than European or North American missionaries to spread the Christian religion - belying the image of Christianity as the 'white man's religion'.
Posted in History

Evangelists of Empire?

Missionaries in Colonial History

Author: Amanda Barry,Joanna Cruickshank,Andrew Brown-May

Publisher: UoM Custom Book Centre

ISBN: 0980759404

Category: Imperialism

Page: 262

View: 5662

Utilising a range of source material and a variety of theoretical and methodological approaches, this ground-breaking collection offers the reader new ways of assessing the uneven paths of mission endeavours, and examines the ways in which Indigenous peoples responded to -- and took ownership of -- aspects of Christian and Western culture and spirituality.
Posted in Imperialism

Tibet in the Western Imagination

Author: T. Neuhaus

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137264837

Category: History

Page: 264

View: 4076

Neuhaus explores the roots of the long-standing European fascination with Tibet, from the Dalai Lama to the Abominable Snowman. Surveying a wide range of travel accounts, official documents, correspondence and fiction, he examines how different people thought about both Tibet and their home cultures.
Posted in History

Assimilation and Empire

Uniformity in French and British Colonies, 1541-1954

Author: Saliha Belmessous

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191651028

Category: History

Page: 248

View: 1029

Assimilation was an ideology central to European expansion and colonisation, an ideology which legitimised colonisation for centuries. Assimilation and Empire shows that the aspiration for assimilation was not only driven by materialistic reasons, but was also motivated by ideas. The engine of assimilation was found in the combination of two powerful ideas: the European philosophical conception of human perfectibility and the idea of the modern state. Europeans wanted to create, in their empires, political and cultural forms they valued and wanted to realise in their own societies, but which did not yet exist. Saliha Belmessous examines three imperial experiments - seventeenth- and eighteenth-century New France, nineteenth-century British Australia, and nineteenth and twentieth-century French Algeria - and reveals the complex inter-relationship between policies of assimilation, which were driven by a desire for perfection and universality, and the greatest challenge to those policies, discourses of race, which were based upon perceptions of difference. Neither colonised nor European peoples themselves were able to conform to the ideals given as the object of assimilation. Yet, the deep links between assimilation and empire remained because at no point since the sixteenth century has the utopian project of perfection - articulated through the progressive theory of history - been placed seriously in question. The failure of assimilation pursued through empire, for both colonised and coloniser, reveals the futility of the historical pursuit of perfection.
Posted in History

Abolition and Empire in Sierra Leone and Liberia

Author: B. Everill

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137291818

Category: History

Page: 232

View: 4845

Bronwen Everill offers a new perspective on African global history, applying a comparative approach to freed slave settlers in Sierra Leone and Liberia to understand their role in the anti-slavery colonization movements of Britain and America.
Posted in History

The Oxford Handbook of Modern African History

Author: John Parker,Richard Reid

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191667552

Category: History

Page: 560

View: 7044

The Oxford Handbook of Modern African History represents an invaluable tool for historians and others in the field of African studies. This collection of essays, produced by some of the finest scholars currently working in the field, provides the latest insights into, and interpretations of, the history of Africa - a continent with a rich and complex past. An understanding of this past is essential to gain perspective on Africa's current challenges, and this accessible and comprehensive volume will allow readers to explore various aspects - political, economic, social, and cultural - of the continent's history over the last two hundred years. Since African history first emerged as a serious academic endeavour in the 1950s and 1960s, it has undergone numerous shifts in terms of emphasis and approach, changes brought about by political and economic exigencies and by ideological debates. This multi-faceted Handbook is essential reading for anyone with an interest in those debates, and in Africa and its peoples. While the focus is determinedly historical, anthropology, geography, literary criticism, political science and sociology are all employed in this ground-breaking study of Africa's past.
Posted in History

Missionary Discourses of Difference

Negotiating Otherness in the British Empire, 1840-1900

Author: E. Cleall

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137032391

Category: History

Page: 243

View: 8901

Missionary Discourse examines missionary writings from India and southern Africa to explore colonial discourses about race, religion, gender and culture. The book is organised around three themes: family, sickness and violence, which were key areas of missionary concern, and important axes around which colonial difference was forged.
Posted in History

German Moravian Missionaries in the British Colony of Victoria, Australia, 1848-1908

Influential Strangers

Author: Felicity Jensz

Publisher: BRILL

ISBN: 9004179216

Category: Religion

Page: 274

View: 5955

Focusing on the six decades that German Moravian missionaries worked in the British colony of Victoria, Australia, this book enriches understanding of colonial politics and the role of the non-British other in manipulating practice and policy in foreign realms. Central to the transnational nature of the book are questions of identity and of how individuals, and the organisations they worked for, can be seen as both colluders and opposers within nation-state borders and politics. It analyses the ways in which the Moravian missionaries navigated competing agendas within the colonial setting, especially those that impacted on their sense of personal vocation, their practices of conversion, and their understandings of the indigenous non-Christian peoples in the settler society of Victoria.
Posted in Religion

Labor Versus Empire

Race, Gender, and Migration

Author: Gilbert G. Gonzalez

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 0415948142

Category: History

Page: 272

View: 8979

The essays in this collection address issues significant to labor within regional, national and international contexts. Themes of the chapters will focus on managed labor migration; organizing in multi-ethnic and multi-national contexts; global economics and labor; global economics and inequality; gender and labor; racism and globalization; regional trade agreements and labor.
Posted in History

"Come Out My People!"

God's Call Out of Empire in the Bible and Beyond

Author: Wes Howard-Brook

Publisher: Orbis Books

ISBN: 1608331547

Category: Religion

Page: 525

View: 2044

A compelling view of two competing religious visions---one of "creation" and the other of "empire"---that run throughout the Bible. "A remarkable offering for those who care about the interface of power and faith with all the threats and seductions that go with it. . . As I read, I felt overwhelmed, both by the mass of data and by the cunning of interpretation. I could not put it down, and expect to continue to be instructed by it.---Walter Brueggemann "Howard-Brook undertakes what few dare anymore: an introductory primer for the whole Bible...This book invites disciples to `connect the dots', in order to recover our ancient, anti-imperial identity, and to embrace a radical faith and practice that are personal and politica."---Ched Myers "Howard-Brook illuminates how ancient empires exercised control and manipulation of people not simply by political and military means, but also through the religion of empire. Throughout he makes clear that the core message of the God of creation is to call people out of empire, to refuse to cooperate with the forces of destruction and domination today."---Richard Horsley "Will become a classic for communities that seek first to receive the gracious gift of God's alternative future to Empire."---Jarrod McKenna "If we who sojourn in America are to be a community that can both name and resist the lure of Empire, we need a story more powerful than the story called America. Wes Howard-Brook knows than the Bible tells such a story. May its story be ours as we're set free from our imperial imaginations to dream with our Creator of a new world here and now."---Jonathan Wilson-Hartgrove
Posted in Religion